2,040 results for 1900, The University of Auckland Library

  • Suffrage and beyond: international feminist perspectives

    (1994)

    Book
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Guns and gold : as a result of reforms, New Zealand's Chief of Defence Force has a range of powers enjoyed by no other military chief in the West

    Smith, A (1999)

    Book
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • The Gendered Kiwi

    (1999)

    Book
    The University of Auckland Library

    The Gendered Kiwi, a collection of essays, analyses the ways Pākehā masculinity and femininity – gender relations – have changed over time. It brings together previously unpublished essays on topics as diverse as 1930s fashion and feminist men in the 1970s. Scholars such as Charlotte Macdonald re-open the debate about whether colonial New Zealand was really a man’s country, while Jock Philips asks new questions about late-twentieth-century leisure. Other writers canvass the stresses of depression-era masculinity, men’s and women’s different use of public space, office politics and power dressing. Gender relations and the family are a theme in several essays, including those about the colonial family, nineteenth-century criminal trials and World War II. The Gendered Kiwi builds on existing work in men’s and women’s history and points to new ways to analyse New Zealand’s past.

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  • Planning for life : Public Trust, once the conservative guardian of wills and estates, is now giving lawyers and financial planners a run for their money

    Smith, A (1999)

    Book
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Discrete Fourier Transforms of Fractional Processes August

    Phillips, Peter (1999)

    Working or discussion paper
    The University of Auckland Library

    Discrete Fourier transforms (dft's) of fractional processes are studied and a exact representation of the dft is given in terms of the component data. The new representation gives the frequency domain form of the model for a fractional process, and is particularly useful in analyzing the asymptotic behavior of the dft and periodogram in the nonstationary case when the memory parameter d > 1/2. Various asymptotic approximations are suggested. It is shown that smoothed periodogram spectral estimates remain consistent for frequencies away from the origin in the nonstationary case provided the memory parameter d < 1. When d = 1, the spectral estimates are inconsistent and converge weakly to random variates. Applications of the theory to log periodogram regression and local Whittle estimation of the memory parameter are discussed and some modified versions of these procedures are suggested.

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  • Industry Premium: What we Know and What The New Zealand Data Say

    Bandyopadhyay, Debasis (1999)

    Working or discussion paper
    The University of Auckland Library

    This paper critically reviews conventional explanations of why the individual income reflects an industry premium. It presents four facts about industry premiums in New Zealand to highlight the limitation of those explanations. In particular, it suggests that competitive theories that refer to unobservable characteristics or compensating wage differentials are too broad and non-competitive theories that rely on the efficiency wage hypothesis are too narrow to successfully explain what the New Zealand data reveal. Employees receive industry premium, but so do the self-employed, and do so more than the employees if uneducated; but the premium difference falls as the education level rises.

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  • Public Disclosure of Patent Applications, R&D, and Welfare

    Aoki, Reiko; Spiegel, Yossi (1998)

    Working or discussion paper
    The University of Auckland Library

    In Europe and in Japan, patent applications are publicly disclosed after 18 month from the filing date regardless of whether a patent has been or will be registered. In the U.S. in contrast, patent applications are publicly disclosed only when a patent is granted. In this paper we examine the consequences of this difference for (i) firm's R&D and patenting behavior, (ii) consumers' surplus and social welfare, and (iii) the incentives of firms to innovate, in a setting where patent protection is imperfect in the sense that patent applications may be rejected and patents are not always upheld in court. The main conclusions are that public disclosure leads to fewer patent applications and fewer innovations, but for a given number of innovations, it raises the probability that new technologies will reach the product market and thereby enhances consumers' surplus and possibly total welfare as well .

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  • Distribution of Human Capital and Economic Growth

    Bandyopadhyay, Debasis (1997)

    Working or discussion paper
    The University of Auckland Library

    This paper provides an empirically tractable model of economic growth where the distribution of human capital is central to understanding the key issues. Long run growth is possible only if the distribution of human capital belongs to a known class such that investment in education, the model's engine of growth, exceeds inter-generational depreciation of human capital. The model contributes to understanding of the puzzle of growth disparities among countries by exhibiting multiple steady states under alternative paradigms of growth. It provides a purely neoclassical model to explain why a lower income inequality may correspond to a higher rate of growth.

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  • The Kopon: life and death on the fringes of the New Guinea Highlands

    Jackson, Graham (1975)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    This thesis describes the Kopon of the lower Kaironk Valley, between the Bismarck and Schrader Ranges in Papua New Guinea. I compare the lower Kopon in certain respects with the upper Kopon, living further up the Kaironk Valley, and with the Kalam, living further up still. There are predominantly ethnographic chapters on the economy; groups; kinship; marriage, vital statistics, and migration; social control; supernaturalism; ritual; and taboo. The penultimate chapter discusses ritual, supernaturalism, and taboo, concentrating heavily on the latter, and the final chapter interrelates important aspects of material covered in the body of the thesis. The Kopon garden for the bulk of their food, but hunting and gathering contribute essential protein to the diet. The pig and the dog are domesticated. Settlement is dispersed, with houses handy to garden sites. Households are the largest moderately stable groups, but show some overlapping, and a degree of flux greater than would result from the demands of life cycle changes alone. Gardening groups, which range in size up to the equivalent of three or four households, show a high degree of overlapping and flux. The lower Kopon have a lower population density and a lower incidence of homicide than the upper Kopon or the Kalam, and there is a considerable down valley migration from upper to lower Kopon. Social control is on the basis of equivalence, self interest, and self help, and the only specialist role is that of curer. A higher mortality rate and richer natural resources in the lower than the upper Kaironk Valley plausibly explain much of the above. The high mortality keeps the population density relatively low, and encourages flux and overlapping of groups, both to guard against isolation should death occur, and to adjust to death when it does occur. This militates against the relatively clear-cut boundaries and undivided allegiance which would be to some extent necessary conditions for the existence of larger corporate groups. Superimposed on local flux in the lower Kopon is the down valley migration from the upper Kopon. This is a movement to an area of lower population density, richer resources, and attributable to these, lower rates of killing. Moving down valley to die may be a feature of populations on the fringes of the Highlands. Riebe (1974) has independently related the frequency of Kalam killings to population growth, these having increased in parallel from the mid-19th to the mid-20th century. In the relative absence of other indices of discrimination, the use of taboo as a marker has been developed to a high degree. Beliefs in the supernatural account for the processes of life, growth, healing, illness, and death, and the choice of a supernatural to which to attribute a natural death justifies either repaying the death with a killing, or letting it pass.

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  • A dendrometer band study of the seasonal pattern of radial increment in kauri (Agathis australis) ( New Zealand).

    Palmer, J.; Ogden, J. (1983)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Simple dendrometer bands were used to measure the radial increment of kauri (Agathis australis Salisb.) at 3 sites to the south and east of Auckland during the 1980-81 growing season. Diameter increment cores taken from some of the trees at the beginning and end of the study showed that the radial expansion measured by the bands correlated significantly (P<0.001) with the width of the annual ring formed over the same period. A reduction in tree growth rate during summer drought was recorded at 2 mid-altitude sites, but not near the altitudinal limit of kauri. These growth patterns were attributed to the different soil moisture conditions at the different sites.

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  • An introduction to plant demography with special reference to New Zealand trees.

    Ogden, J. (1985)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    An outline of the scope and origins of plant demography emphasises the link between numerical and evolutionary approaches. The rules governing thinning in monocultures and some general features of plant competition in mixtures are described. Plant demography can be applied at several levels ó that of the genetic individuals or that of the modular components of which plants are usually composed. This dual population structure puts a new emphasis on the morphological changes occurring in competing mixtures. Various approaches to the definition of strategies are discussed. Plants with short life cycles and abundant production of small seeds are contrasted with long-lived species producing fewer larger seeds. This 'r-K' continuum is used as a broad frame- work, although Grime's (1979) two dimensional strategy model may be more realistic. The concept of the 'regeneration gap' has been a persistent theme in forest ecology in New Zealand, and its explanation has generally been presumed to lie in past climatic change. However, population age and size frequency distributions reflect demographic processes, which must be properly explored before extrinsic causes can be ascribed to particular structures. The steady state climax theory is an inappropriate concept on which to build an understanding of the demography of canopy trees in New Zealand. A kinetic model, in which disturbance is accepted as a selective force to which different tree species have become differentially adapted, accepts regeneration gaps localised in space and time as demographic phenomena. A model of cohort structure in kauri is used to illustrate the dangers inherent in drawing conclusions about population 'status' from a small sample of diameters and approximate ages. The difficulties of applying transition matrix models emphasises our lack of basic demographic information for most New Zealand trees. The errors inherent in determining tree population age structures are addressed. The regeneration strategies of the beeches {Nothofagus spp.) and the podocarps (Podocarpaceae) are outlined primarily in relation to seed size and seed production periodicity. The beeches conform well to the predator satiation theory of mast seeding, but the podocarps (and other bird-dispersed trees) present additional problems. More information on the interactions between tree fruiting behaviour and the avifauna is needed for satisfactory evolutionary accounts. The existence of'advance growth' seedling populations in New Zealand forests is well known, but there is little information on dormant buried seed banks. Some information about the sizes of seed banks in New Zealand forests is provided, and it is concluded that they are probably of similar magnitude to those in other temperate forests, and warrant more rigorous study.

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  • The soil seed bank of a kauri (Agathis australis) forest remnant near Auckland, New Zealand

    Enright, N.J.; Cameron, E.K. (1988)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    The "transient' and "persistent' components of the soil seed bank beneath a kauri forest remnant are described, recent seed rain (collected in trays over a two year period being distinguished from dormant viable seed with longevity >2 years (soil beneath trays). A total of 46 vascular plant species was recorded. Trays are dominated by 4 woody, native species, Kunzea ericoides, Coprosma arborea, Myrsine australis and Carpodetus serratus. Sub-tray samples show an accumulation of seeds from light-demanding weedy species, including many adventives, eg Solanum mauritianum, Phytolacca octandra and Cirsium vulgare. In addition, seeds of 2 woody, native species, Cordyline australis and Geniostoma rupestre, are abundant. Detrended correspondence analysis shows clear differences between floristic composition of trays and sub-trays, and between on-site vegetation and components of the soil seed bank. differences explained in terms of seed longevity, seed accumulation rates, suitability of site conditions for growth of individual species, and the role of seed dispersal agents, especially birds.

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  • Reproductive biology of Phormium tenax: a honeyeater-pollinated species

    Craig, J.L.; Stewart, A.M. (1988)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Phormium tenax, studied on Tiritiri Matangi Island and in Auckland, reproduces asexually by offsets and sexually by large inflorescences. Flowers are protandrous hermaphrodites that exhibit partial dichogamy and herkogamy. The pollen or the stigma are presented sequentially for initial contact with floral visitors. Nectar rewards are greatest during the male phase of flowering. Shape and configuration of flowers ensures that large birds are the most likely pollinators. Two honeyeaters (Meliphagidae), tui Prosthemadera novaeseelandiae and bellbird Anthornis melanura were the most frequent visitors and pollinators although some introduced bird species also commonly visited, especially in Auckland City. Many flowers appear to function solely as pollen donors.

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  • A differential response to self pollination: seed size in Phormium

    Craig, J.L. (1989)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    An open access copy of this article is available from the publishers website. Phormium tenax self pollination from the same inflorescence produced many small seeds and the fewest large seeds. These had the least endosperm. Self-pollination between inflorescences of the same plant produced more large seeds with intermediate amounts of endosperm. Naturally outcrossed flowers produced mainly large seeds and these had the most endosperm.

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  • Architecture of a clonal population of Muehlenbeckia astonii Petrie (Polygonaceae), a divaricating shrub endemic to New Zealand

    Lovell, P.H.; Uka, D.; White, J.B. (1991)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Muehlenbeckia astonii produces both orthotropic and plagiotropic shoots but after a while the orthotropic shoots revert to a plagiotropic form.

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  • Chromosome numbers in the rare endemic Pennantia baylisiana (W.R.B. Oliv.) G.T.S. Baylis (Icacinaceae) and related species

    Murray, B.G.; De, Lange, P.J. (1995)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    An open access copy of this article is available from the publishers website. Chromosome numbers of 2n = 50 have been determined from clones of the single wild plant of Pennantia baylisiana as well as of a seedling from this plant. In addition the same number was determined for P. corymbosa and the hybrids P. baylisiana x P. endlicheri and P. baylisiana x P. corymbosa.

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  • The relationship between seed rain and the soil seed bank in a temperate rainforest stand near Auckland, New Zealand

    Sem, G.; Enright, N.J. (1996)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    An open access copy of this article is available from the publishers website. Composition of the germinable seed rain and the soil seed bank is documented for five sites in temperate rainforest near Auckland, New Zealand, in an effort to understand the dynamics of the soil seed bank. The seed rain added a mean of 202 +/- 93 germinable seeds per 0.1 m2 over 15 months to the forest floor in 1988 and a total of 40 species (range 15-25 per site). The source of seeds included both native forest species growing on-site, and adventive species of which most were growing off-site. Species richness of the seed rain was highest in summer (32 species) and lowest in winter (6 species). However, density of the recorded seed rain was highest in late autumn-early winter from high seed rain and massive germination in May and June of seeds from the native tree, Kunzea ericoides, at two sites in the early stages of forest regrowth. Seed germination from soil samples which had been denied seed inputs for 15 mo identified the density (52 +/- 41/0.1m2) and composition (18 species, range 2-9) of the `persistent' component of the seed bank (i.e., seed longevity >1 y). Native woody species were poorly represented in the persistent seed bank relative to native herbs and adventives. An estimated 10% of the annual seed rain enters the persistent soil seed bank. The presence, and dynamics of turnover for most species in the persistent seed bank can be explained as a balance between additions of new individuals and loss of old individuals over one to a few years. At the same time, the combination of high persistent seed bank densities and low seed rain inputs for a few adventive species (e.g., Phytolacca octandra, Juncus bufonius) indicates that seed of these species may derive from individuals which grew at or near the site at some time in the past.

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  • New records of Ramalina (lichenised Ascomycotina, Ramalinaceae) from Niue Island, south-west Pacific

    Blanchon, D.J.; Easton, L.M.; Braggins, J.E. (1996)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    An open access copy of this article is available from the publishers website. Ramalina nervulosa var. luciae and R. celastri subsp. celastri are reported for the first time from Niue.

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  • New reports of chromosome numbers in Actinidia (Actinidiaceae)

    Yan, G.; Yao, J.; Ferguson, A.R.; Mcneilage, M.A.; Seal, A.G.; Murray, B.G. (1997)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    An open access copy of this article is available from the publishers website. Chromosome numbers are reported for the first time for seven taxa of Actinidia: A. arguta var. purpurea, 2n = 8x = c. 232; A. deliciosa var. chlorocarpa, 2n = 6x = 174; A. deliciosa var. coloris, 2n = 6x = 174; A. glaucophylla, 2n = 2x = 58; A. guilinensis, 2n = 2x = 58; A. indochinensis, 2n = 2x = 58 and A. setosa 2n = 2x = 58. Ploidy variation has also been observed in A. melanandra and confirmed in A. chinensis var. chinensis: 2n = 2x = 58 and 2n = 4x = 116. Chromosome numbers for another 11 Actinidia taxa were found to be in agreement with those previously reported. Chromosome numbers were the same for male and female plants of the same taxon. Detailed studies of chromosome morphology was not possible under the light micro scope because of the small size of Actinidia chromosomes.

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  • Chromosome number of New Zealand specimens of Atriplex billardierei, Chenopodiaceae

    De, Lange, P.J.; Murray, B.G.; Crowcroft, G.M. (1997)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    An open access copy of this article is available from the publishers website. Meiotic chromosome counts of n = 9 (2n = 9) I have been determined from wild plants of Atriplelx (subgenus Teleophyton) billardierei gathered in New Zealand and on Chatham Island. Atriplex billardierei is an endangered species within New Zealand but remains abundant on Chatham Island.

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