1,348 results for 1900, Thesis

  • Stratigraphy, structure and geological history of mid-Cretaceous sedimentary rocks across the Torlesse-like/non Torlesse boundary in the Sawtooth Range-Coverham area, Marlborough.

    Ritchie, D. D. (1986)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This thesis describes the geology of an approximately 100km2 area lying between the Clarence River and Kekerengu. The objectives were to determine the relationship of the "Torlesse-like" sawtooth Group to the late Early Cretaceous Coverham Group; to determine the relationship between the coeval Split Rock and Burnt Creek Formations within the Coverham Group; and to investigate the nature of Cretaceous events which led to the traditional differentiation into older Torlesse type "basement" and younger Cretaceous "cover". Geological mapping indicates the presence of three packets (Glencoe, Pikes and Coverham Blocks) of sedimentary rocks separated by the major Ouse and Pikes Faults. These packets comprise probable submarine fan flysch, massivE? sandstone, massive siltstone, acid tuffs and conglomerate of Sawtooth Group (Torlesse-like Urutawan - Motuan) unconformably overlain by probable slope basin flysch, massive siltstone, Inoceramus shellbed, and conglomerate of Coverham Group (non-Torlesse). The unconformity is most commonly angular but in a few places is a more subtle paraconformity. A further minor unconformity occurs at the base of the Ouse Member within the Split Rock Formation of the Coverham Group and is thought to reflect the presence of the growing Ouse Anticline. The Coverham Group rocks have similar Motuan - Teratan ages on each side of the Ouse Fault. The Split Rock Formation, previously used only for rocks in the middle Clarence Valley, has been extended to the Coverham area and used for rocks west of the Ouse Fault. The partly coeval Burnt Creek Formation east of the Ouse Fault was probably deposited some distance from the Split Rock Formation in a different basin separated by a structural high. They were juxtaposed by low angle reverse movement on the Fault in the Late Cretaceous. structural/deformation characteristics cannot be used as criteria for separating the Torlesse-like rocks from non-Torlesse rocks in the study area. It is dangerous to assume that 'Torlesseness' is a certain and particular state of deformation. Both the Torlesse (Sawtooth) and Coverham Group rocks exhibit a whole spectrum of deformation from 'broken formation' to more or less undisturbed beds. The pattern of deposition and deformation suggests an accretionary prism setting for these rocks. Sawtooth Group rocks are likely to represent 'younger' Pahau Terrane rocks which were deformed by a single intra-Motuan event either tectonic or perhaps a huge submarine slide, creating widespread unconformity between them and the Coverham Group slope deposits. Continuing instability is likely to have led to growing folds and further minor unconformities. The termination of the Rangitata Orogeny occurred in a progressive and evolutionary way representing a mid-Late Cretaceous change from a compressional subduction regime to a tensional rifting regime. Andesitic-rhyolitic volcanism was common in the late Early Cretaceous.

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  • The spectra of transition-metal ions in solids

    Johnstone, I.W. (1975)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The results of an investigation of the Raman and infrared spectra of cobaltous ions in cadmium-chloride, cadmium-bromide, and manganese-chloride, and of cobalt-chloride are presented. The cobalt ions substitute for the cation in these crystals and experience a trigonal crystal-field which splits the lowest ⁴T₁g (⁴F) cubic-field term into six Kramers doublets with energies in the range 0-1200 cm⁻¹. The Raman spectra, measured as a function of temperature and of cobalt concentration show all five single ion electronic transitions together with several lines due to cobalt ion pairs. The infrared spectra comprise both magnetic-dipole allowed electronic transitions and electric-dipole allowed vibronic lines and bands. They confirm the identity of the electronic transitions seen by Raman scattering and also yield information concerning the lattice modes of the host and the possible interactions within cobalt ion pairs. The strong field matrices of the trigonal crystal-field and Zeeman interactions are calculated for the d³ (d⁷) configuration and quantitatively explain the experimental data. The crystal-field analysis provides single ion wavefunctions for further calculations which successfully explain the spectra of antiferromagnetic CoCl₂ and exchange coupled colbalt pairs in CdCl₂ (Co²⁺) and CdBr₂ (Co²⁺). A preliminary investigation of the infrared absorption of an oxygen-induced impurity site in CdCl₂-type crystals is also presented.

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  • Interpretation of some Paleocene fluvial sediments from the Upper Pakawau and Kapuni groups, Pakawau Sub-basin, North-West Nelson

    Stark, C.J. (1996)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Fifteen key measured sections form the basis for detailed facies analysis of Paleocene upper North Cape Formation (Pakawau Group) and Farewell Formation (Kapuni Group) sediments, northwest Nelson. Based on structural, textural and compositional variations, the sediments were divided into eight lithofacies associations (LAA3, LAA4, LAA5, LAA6, LAA7, LAB1, LAB2 and LAB3). Associations A3 to A7, North Cape Formation, represent a progradational sequence of floodplain (LAA3), lacustrine (LAA4), low energy meander (LAA5 and LAA6), and braided river deposits (LAA7). LAB1, LAB2 and LAB3 are interpreted as meander, gravel dominated and sand dominated braided systems. The conformable boundary between LAA3 and LAA5 on the northwestern side (Moki Point) of the Whanganui Inlet means the transition from an axial system to system flowing perpendicular to the axis of the Pakawau Sub-basin does not represent the contact between the Kapuni Group and Pakawau Group. Progradation of a fluvial system passing through the space between en echelon faults in the west would explain the paleocurrent change from parallel to perpendicular to the main axis of the Pakawau Sub-basin. A higher rate of subsidence toward the north along the Wakamarama Fault is inferred from a lateral northerly-coarsening trend between LAA6 and LAA7. Erosional contact between LAA6 and LAB2 on the northern side of the Whanganui Inlet is interpreted as the upper contact of the North Cape Formation. The absence of fluvial association LAA5-LAA7 on the southern side of the Whanganui Inlet Entrance suggests a period of uplift and subsequent erosion of prior to the deposition of associations LAB1-LAB3 deposits. The preferred explanation for the localized uplift and erosion of fluvial association A deposits is by activation of intrabasin antithetic and synthetic faults. LAB1 is inferred to represent a 'feeder' system associated with LAB2 and LAB3. The basal contact of LAB1 on the southern side of the Whanganui Inlet is thus inferred to represent the boundary between the North Cape and Farewell Formations. The downstream coarsening of LAB2 and LAB3 is best interpreted by coarse grained sediment being fed from active (penecontemporaneous) intrabasin antithetic and synthetic faults and/or the Kahurangi fault in the west. The interpretation of the Wakamarama Fault as a growth fault during the deposition of LAB1, LAB2 and LAB3 is supported by the lack of change in grain size of LAB1 up-section and the fine grained texture of LAB3 at Abel Head. The change in position of the North Cape Formation upper contact results in the recognition of a new lithostratigraphic unit, the Wharariki member, for the fluvial deposits upon LAA3. Also LAB1 is deemed sufficiently structurally, texturally and compositionally distinct to suggest it be called the Whanganui Member of the Farewell Formation. The boundary between association A and association B sediments is interpreted as a type 1 sequence stratigraphic boundary.

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  • Upper atmospheric studies using radio meteors

    Wilkinson, Philip James (1973)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The atmospheric motions in the 80-110 km height region, and methods of measuring them are discussed. Wind measurements using radio meteor trails are then considered in greater detail and an account is given of the equipment at the field station of the Physics Department of Canterbury at Rolleston near Christchurch, as well as details of the data reduction methods used. An analysis of the errors associated with the collection of data indicates that approximately half the variance in an average of wind velocities observed in a thirty minute period is due to atmospheric variability. Results from the first year's observations suggest that the solar diurnal and semidiurnal tides are of roughly the same magnitude, this magnitude being in agreement with the latitudinal variations observed at other stations.

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  • The group theory of the harmonic oscillator with applications in physics.

    Haskell, T. G. (1972)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The possibility of the group SU₃ being used in the description of the (d+s)N and (d+s)npm many-electron complexes is examined by symmetrization of the Coulomb Hamiltonian. By dividing the Coulomb interaction into symmetry conserving and symmetry violating terms it is found that while the SU₃ scheme tends to give a better description in the (d+s)N case it shows no improvement over the configurational scheme in the (d+s)npm complex. The scheme is, however, very useful for the calculation of matrix elements of operators normally found in atomic spectroscopy and a complete set of symmetrized , scalar, Hermitian spin-independent two particle operators acting within (d+s)npm configurations is constructed. The radial wavefunctions of the harmonic oscillator are found to form a basis for the representations of the group 0(2,1) in the group scheme Sp(6,R) ⊃ S0(3) x 0(2,1). The operators Tkp = r2k are shown to transform simply under the action of the group generators. The matrix elements of Tkq and a selection rule similar to that of Pasternack and Sternheimer are derived. Finally the rich group structure of the harmonic oscillator is investigated and a dynamical group proposed which contains, as subgroups, the groups Sp(6,R), SU(3), H₄ and the direct product 0(2,1) x S0(3). Some remarks are made about contractions of groups, semidirect and direct products, and the generalization of the method to n-dimensions.

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  • Orbital characteristics of meteoroids

    Steel, Duncan (1984)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The bulk of meteoroidal particles follow pseudo-random orbits and are termed sporadic meteoroids. These are thought to be derived from the correlated streams of particles released by comets, although the mechanisms by which their orbits are dispersed have been the subject of some confusion. By developing techniques to compute the frequency of close encounters with each of the planets, and also the gross outcome of such events, it is shown that most sporadic orbits are a result of gravitational scattering by the giant planets. Jupiter plays the major role. Although catastrophic impacts with smaller particles limit the lifetimes of meteoroids, this mechanism is not responsible for the bulk of the stream disruption. With a simple model of the zodiacal cloud, the method is also used to find the collisional lifetime of meteoroids including for the first time the dependence upon inclination. The rate of meteoroid depletion by planetary collisions and hyperbolic ejections resulting from close approaches is calculated. It is found that for Jupiter-crossing meteoroids these losses are as rapid as those due to the PoyntingRobertson effect. This theory is also applied to six peculiar asteroids, including Hidalgo and Chiron. These prove to have extremely short-lived orbits: large orbital variations occur on a timescale of only ~10³ years. It is also shown that Pluto exists in its Neptune-crossing orbit solely because of the stable resonance which prohibits approaches between the two in the present epoch. The collision rate between the Apollo-Amor-Aten asteroids and each of the terrestrial planets is calculated using all 76 known objects. The result using this new procedure (4-6 Earth impacts per million years) is somewhat higher than previous estimates, indicating that these asteroids do not represent a steady-state population.

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  • Seismic resistant design of base isolated multistorey structures

    Andriono, Takim (1989)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The Base Isolation technique and its benefits in reducing the transmitted earthquake energy into a structure has gained increasing recognition during the last two decades. This recognition is indicated by the application of Base Isolation systems to a large number of bridges, several multistorey buildings and some power plants in countries which have high seismic risk. Unfortunately, the currently available design procedures, especially for multistorey structures, seem inadequate and too restrictive and as a result present practice still relies upon a series of deterministic time history analyses which are not only impractical for design purposes but appear unable to give the designer a clear insight into the seismic behaviour of the multistory structure. This research is carried out to investigate in more detail the effects of various structural parameters and ground motion characteristics on the seismic response of Base Isolated multistorey structures. It also reviews the shortcomings of the current design methods. The results are then used to develop two simplified analysis methods for practical design. The first method which is called the Code-Type approach can be used to accurately estimate the inertia forces, not only at the level of the isolation devices but throughout the height of the multistorey structure. It is recommended for use as a preliminary design tool or even a final design tool for simple Base Isolated multistorey structures. The second procedure which is based on the Component Mode Synthesis method is suggested for final design purposes of more complex Base Isolated multistorey structures. This method enables the designer to evaluate the effects of the isolation devices on the contribution of each mode of vibration to the total response of the structure.

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  • Ring laser dynamics.

    King, Benjamin Thomas (1999)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The departure of the behaviour of large ring laser gyros from the ideal is examined. A detailed description of the experimental operation of large ring lasers is provided along with several new innovations in equipment layout, data collection and especially in data reduction. The limits on gyro performance due to noise are investigated. A review of literature regarding the fundamental limit placed on gyro resolution is provided. This limit is due to spontaneous emission in the gain medium of the laser and it is demonstrated that our ring lasers approach this quantum limit. Two entirely independent methods for evaluating the quantum noise induced linewidth are demonstrated to agree well. One of the methods, which uses a second order autoregressive model, is able to make accurate linewidth estimates in sub-second gate times. A complex model is proposed which accounts for specific observed light scattering phenomena within a ring laser. This model is compared with dual beam data taken from C-I and is able to describe frequency shifts and waveform distortion accurately. The model also performs favourably when describing locking profiles for low rotation rates and externally induced perimeter modulation. When locked to an external signal the ring laser is found to be an extremely sensitive low frequency vibration detector. The commissioning of a very large (14 m perimeter) prototype ring laser gyro, GO, is described along with a comparison with the smaller ( 4 m perimeter) gyros C-I and C-II. This prototype has proven to be an invaluable testing ground for designs and techniques to be used on a proposed high precision 16 m perimeter gyro named the Grossring (G).

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  • Solid state spectroscopy : rare earth - hybride centres in the alkaline earth fluorides

    Jacobs, I.T. (1971)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Both the optical and infrared spectra of cerium and praseodymium tri-positive ions in the alkaline earth fluorines have been studied. Various charge compensation mechanisms have been employed including negative hydride, deuteride and tritide ions. For the hydride centres the degenerate local mode lines are resolved into more than one component. These splittings are attributed to electron-phonon interaction effects between the low lying rare earth 4f electronic states and the hydride ion local mode phonons. The 4f-5d electronic transitions of the cerium hydride type centres show large isotope shifts up to 50 cm⁻¹. Only the non-degenerate hydride ion vibration appears in the 4f-5d optical spectra and the vibrational interval is increased from absorption to fluorescence by as much as 15%. Both the isotope and vibronic shifts for the tetragonal cerium sites are attributed to electron-phonon interaction effects. Simple models involving point charges and point dipoles account in a semi-quantitative way for several features of the spectra but fail to account for either the sign or magnitude of the isotope and vibronic shifts.

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  • Pollen Dispersal Across the Southern Alps, South Island, New Zealand

    Randall, Paul M. (1990)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The aim of this research was to improve the understanding of modern pollen deposition in central South Island in order to interpret Quaternary pollen profiles. This was accomplished by examining the results from a chain of pollen traps (exposed for one year), moss polsters collected along a transect from Westland across the Southern Alps to Canterbury (with and without addition of exotic spores to facilitate 'absolute' counting) and three short peat monoliths. The role of topography, vegetation type and weather patterns were also briefly assessed. The results were analysed by means of principal components and cluster analyses to identify the respective contribution of different pollen taxa. The conclusions are: 1. Trap and polster results are broadly comparable. 2. With exceptions, caused by local effects such as fire and contributions by adjacent vegetation and taxa introduced since 1850, the monolith profiles show little change over the period studied. 3. Forest sites in Westland were dominated by pollen of local podocarps (Dacrydium cupressinum, Prumnopitys) and broadleaved angiosperm species (Metrosideros, Quintinia, Weinmannia). Nothofagus fusca type pollen dominates within the beech forest areas, but drops to about 10% a short distance from the forest edge. Poaceae pollen shows low frequencies in forested sites, but dominates in grass/scrubland areas. 4. Sites above the treeline on the Main Divide shows proportionately high counts of exogenous Podocarpaceae pollen. However, the high counts involve no 'real' increase in regional deposition.

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  • Upper atmospheric studies : some observations of the south tropical OI airglow phenomenon

    Malcolm, Roger K. (1972)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    An account is presented of a series of observations of the dynamic behaviour of a region of the south tropical airglow·arcs made from Rarotonga (Lat. 21.2° south, long. 159.8° west) with the aid of a large aperture (90 cms), high resolution (½° beamwidth) scanning photometer. The night airglow is found to be strongly disturbed on many nights, characteristically by elliptical areas of lower than normal intensity drifting in an easterly direction. It was possible to associate their passage with the occurrence of 'spread-F' as observed by the Rarotongan ionosonde. An attempt is made to account for the airglow processes; suggestions are made concerning the possible origin of the disturbances; and their presence is examined in the light of the trans-equatorial propagation of V.H.F. signals from Hawaii, as recorded at Rarotonga.

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  • Solid state spectroscopy : the electron paramagnetic resonance spectra of gadolinium anderbium ions in hydrogenated alkaline earth fluoride crystals

    Edgar, A. (1974)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The Electron Paramagnetic Resonance technique has been used to study alkaline earth fluoride crystals doped with both hydride and gadolinium (or erbium) ions, and the spin Hamiltonian parameters have been determined for the various kinds of charge-compensated rare earth ion site which occur. In particular, two sites of tetragonal symmetry with the structures RE³⁺-FI⁻, RE³⁺-HI⁻ have been examined, and small shifts in the EPR spectra of the latter site have been measured when a deuteride or tritiide ion replaces the hydride ion. A crystal lattice model of point charges and point dipoles at distorted lattice sites predicts a value of the crystal field parameter B₀² for the tetraqonal sites which is only one half of that estimated from the observed spectra, but the model successfully accounts for the larger value of B₀² for the RE³⁺-HI⁻ site compared with the RE³⁺-FI⁻ site on the basis of the larger polarisability of the H⁻ ion. Isotope shifts are interpreted by the electron phonon interaction between the 4f electrons of the rare earth ion and the localised mode of vibration of the light anion. The magnitudes of the shifts, calculated on a point charge/point dipole model, are in good agreement with experiment. The reorientation of the tetragonal Gd³⁺-HI⁻ sites has been examined by EPR line broadening and dielectric loss techniques. No distinct dielectric loss peak corresponding to this site was observed, and it is proposed that it cannot be distinguished from that for Gd³⁺-FI⁻ sites. An interstitialcy model for the reorientation has been investigated and is found to be consistent with this explanation and with the observation of a metastable Gd³⁺-HS⁻-FI⁻ site in u.v. irradiated calcium fluoride.

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  • "A colour line affair" : race, imperialism and rugby football contacts between New Zealand and South Africa to 1950.

    Buckley, Mike (1996)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This thesis is an attempt to construct an alternative tradition of New Zealand and South African rugby football contacts to 1950. It examines the wider social conditions of such contacts, unlike the existing plethora of rugby-centred chronicles of matches, tours, and sporting personalities. Rugby tours between New Zealand and South Africa before 1950 raised questions over the relationship between sport, race and imperialism. The manner that rugby reflected the divergent racial traditions in both societies thus challenges the cliche that sport is separate from wider social and political considerations. The thesis consists of an introduction, conclusion and four chapters. The chapters correlate with the New Zealand and South African rugby exchanges of 1921, 1928, 1937, and 1949. They are dominated by the themes of race relations and sporting imperialism, which form the context of the tours. Research is based on New Zealand newspaper sources; contextual material is derived from secondary sources.

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  • Hari Hari : a study of land use and a community

    Maturin, Susan E. (1981)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    A multi-disciplinary approach was used to study land use, and the associated community of Hari Hari. Land use decisions concerning forestry and agriculture, were placed in the context of social and economic needs of the human system and ecological requirements of the natural system. Data was collected from interviews with 17% of the Hari Hari community. The needs of the community were identified, from a detailed study of the Hari Hari people. Past and present land uses were studied in detail to determine the suitability of each land use, and its ability to work within the constraints imposed by the natural system. Future land use options and their social, economic and ecological implications were outlined. The most appropriate options were selected, according to their ability to satisfy the needs of the community, and ecological requirements of the natural systems. Appropriate options for agriculture included the following: a. continuing as at present; and, b. increasing farm management efficiency; and, c. diversification into opossum and deer farming. These options met ecological requirements and would contribute to community needs. The most appropriate option for forestry was found to be; immediate cessation of production logging until the natural constraints are identified and a logging system which works within these constraints is identified. This option conflicts with the social need to maintain employment. However the study found that closure of the sawmill would have little impact upon the Hari Hari community, other than a reduction in employment. Possible options for establishing alternative employment activities were suggested. These included a fur industry, an out-door pursuits centre, cottage industries, and ventures which would promote community self-sufficiency. As a whole, this study emphasised the value of a multi-disciplinary approach to land use planning.

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  • A history of the political labour movement in New Zealand, 1850-1913

    Robinson, K.W. (1937)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    A typically modern trend in democratic countries has been the entry of labour representatives into the political arena. New Zealand has proved no exception to the rule, but the history of her own labour movement, particularly in its earlier years, is still rather disconnected in the eyes of the general public. This thesis therefore attempts to recount the origins of that movement with the object of presenting a clearer idea of the nature of the beginnings of the party which constitutes the present government. It was at first intended to write of the Labour Party in later years, but preliminary investigation was sufficient to show that no such treatment could be adequate without a knowledge of the origins of the Party. Further investigation showed those origins to be worthy of separate study in themselves, and the history of the Labour Party is therefore left for other pens to write. The aim throughout has been to trace, not a party, but a movement, and to discover how much that movement was influenced by contemporary events and how much it was a natural and inevitable development. A thorough study of the subject, giving an exhaustive survey of opinions and incidents, individuals and groups in every centre of population, would have required intensive and prolonged research which the writer was not in a position to carry out. The extra work would doubtless have made the history more comprehensive, but it is certain that the general conclusions arrived at would not have been modified seriously. Newspapers are generally regarded as an unreliable source of evidence, but in this case exception can perhaps be claimed for making extensive use of one paper, since it gave expression to working-class opinions without displaying the fanaticism of purely labour publications. Thanks are due to the Central Office of the Labour Party in Wellington for the courtesy of the officials in placing material at my disposal. It is unfortunate that some of this material, which may have been of considerable value, went astray in the post, and was not traced. Thanks must also be expressed to the Hon. John Rigg, who was helpful in supplying newspaper cuttings and reminiscences dealing with the Political Labour League, and to Mr. E.J. Howard, M.P. for valuable advice. In some cases likely people who were approached, while showing keen interest, seemed unable to rely on their memories for anything definite; one supplied suggestions which were of no use; another, from whom much was expected, did not reply at all. During the whole period of research what impressed one most was the dearth of published material on the subject and the scant attention paid to the movement in general in comprehensive works. This made the task of constructing general outlines as a basis for work very difficult. The investigation has suggested that the early organised labour parties in New Zealand were striving not so much for something they did not possess as to maintain certain privileges which they felt were slipping from their grasp. Their aim appears to have been not so much an emancipation from the present as a safeguard for the future. This, at least, is apparent to the mind of the writer, and it is hoped that his efforts may be of some use in clearing the mist which shrouds the infancy of labour in this country.

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  • The mineralogy, geochemistry and origin of Lower Tertiary smectite-mudstones, East Coast deformed belt, New Zealand.

    Fergusson, Linda Jan (1985)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Marine smectite-mudstones of Lower Tertiary age (Teurian to Runangan) occur throughout the East Coast Deformed Belt of New Zealand. In Marlborough, Marl lithofacies of the Amuri Limestone comprise calcareous, siliceous smectite-mudstone alternating with biomicrite. In Wairarapa, the Kandahar Formation consists of calcareous smectite-mudstone, micritic limestone beds and mass-flow greensand beds. Calcareous smectite-mudstone is also a minor interbedded lithology in the Mungaroa Limestone of Wairarapa. The Wanstead Formation in Hawkes Bay comprises uncemented smectite-mudstone with interbedded mass-flow greensands. Lower Tertiary sequences throughout the East Coast Deformed Belt are typically disrupted by thrust faults and associated shear/mélange zones which have developed in the weak smectite-mudstone lithology. Insoluble clay fractions of the smectite-mudstones are composed of well crystallised smectite + illite ± quartz (chert). Both the smectite and illite clays are discrete phases with no interstratification suggestive of post-sedimentary transformation of smectite to illite. From detailed phase analysis, the smectite clay overall is a montmorillonitic species, but with varying interstratification of other dioctahedral smectite species and varying layer charge. No distinct stratigraphic trends in clay fraction mineralogy or smectite mineralogy are apparent. Sand fractions of the mudstones are dominated by authigenic or non-volcanic detrital minerals. Average smectite + illite structural formulas calculated from chemical analyses are commonly non-ideal, with deficiencies in aluminium particularly apparent. The dominant exchangeable cations are calcium in Marlborough mudstones and sodium in Hawkes Bay mudstones. Trace element geochemistry of the smectite-mudstones is similar to that of typical shale and carbonate rocks. Variations in trace element abundances·reflect the lithological character of the mudstones and do not appear to be a useful tool for regional stratigraphic correlation. Combined sedimentological, mineralogical and geochemical features of the smectite-mudstones indicate a non-volcanic origin. They did not form by in-situ alteration of ash-falls and are unlikely to have formed from transported/reworked ash. Previous use of the term 'bentonite' for the smectite-mudstones implies such a mode of genesis and should be discontinued. Hemipelagic sedimentation and/or mass-flow redeposition of detrital or neoformed clay in an open oceanic, relatively deep water environment is proposed as the origin of the smectite-mudstones.

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  • Final report for BOP Fertiliser Ltd. : transportation, marketing, process design and costing for the commercialisation of granular reactive phosphate rock

    Ferris, Tim (1999)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This report was completed to determine the commercial feasibility of granular Reactive Phosphate Rock (RPR) as a fertiliser, and the requirements needed to bring it to market. Recommendations based on this report are as follows: • Redesign the existing Morrinsville plant • Change the name of the final product to something that is not directly associated with RPR, ie Gradual Delivery Phosphate • Convince the sales representatives in the ability of the new granular RPR • Employ a dedicated representative to target the forest and organic markets • Sell granular RPR for $210 per tonne ex works from year one • Consider adding extra nutrients into granular RPR for the Forestry market • Use marketing to current markets extensively • Appoint a Program Director for the implementation of granular RPR • Offer bulk discounts and special deals to bring in customers for the initial sale of RPR.

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  • Some aspects of molybdenum halide chemistry

    Gainsford, G.J. (1969)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Chemical and X-ray crystallographic studies of molybdenum(II) halides, which are based on the well-known (Mo₆Cl₈)⁴⁺ cluster, have been carried out. Contrary to previous reports, the reactions of 2,2'-bipyridyl with the halides (Mo₆Cl₈)Cl₄ and (Mo₆Cl₈)I₄ yield, even under mild conditions, bipyridylium salts of chloromolybdic(II) and iodomolybdic(II) acids respectively: (BipyH)₂((Mo₆Cl₈)X₆) where X = Cl, I and Bipy = 2,2'-bipyridyl. The reactions are complicated by the formation of mixtures of products, which are mainly various crystalline forms of the bipyridylium salts. An amorphous product may be a true mono-bipyridyl complex. An unusual oxidation occurs during the reactions of triphenylphosphine (Ph₃P) and triphenylarsine (Ph₃As) with (Mo₆Cl₈)Cl₄ and (Mo₆Cl₈)I₄. Infra-red spectral and X-ray powder photographic studies show that the oxidized ligand complexes, (Mo₆Cl₈)X₄(Ph₃Z0)₂ (X = Cl, I; Z = As,P), are formed except under conditions in which both molecular and chemically-bound oxygen is rigorously excluded. The conditions required to coordinate more than two neutral unidentate ligands to the (Mo₆Cl₈)⁴⁺ cluster have been examined. It proved possible to obtain new ionic complexes under a range of conditions. The six-fold coordination of the (Mo₆Cl₈)⁴⁺ cluster is maintained in these compounds (e.g. ((Mo₆Cl₈)I₃(triphenylphosphine oxide)₂(pyridine))⁺I⁻) by the ionization of one or more of the terminal halogen atoms in the molybdenum(II) halide starting material (e.g.(Mo₆Cl₈)I₄). The X-ray single crystal structures of two isomorphous salts, (BipyH)₂(( (Mo₆Cl₈)X₆) (X = Cl,I), have been solved using the difference Patterson method. To solve another crystalline modification of the chloro-salt, the (Mo₆Cl₈) cluster was constrained to its established geometry with its centroid fixed at the origin of the unit cell. This rigid group of atoms was then rotated by the least-squares refinement of the three orientation-defining angles. The three structures contain discrete ((Mo₆Cl₈)X₆)²⁻(X = Cl,I) and (C₁₀H₉N₂)⁺ (bipyridylium) ions. The anions consist of highly-symmetric (Mo₆Cl₈) clusters (Mo-Mo = 2.606, Mo-Cl = 2.48 Ao), with six terminal halogen atoms (X) bound by single covalent bonds to the molybdenum atoms (Mo-Cl = 2.423, Mo-I = 2.737 Ao). The bipyridylium cations are twisted from perfect cis conformations in all three structures. The average dihedral angle between the two rings is 13 degrees. Further details of the geometries of the anion and cation are discussed. The ionic packing in the three crystals is dominated by the bulky anions. These are arranged in expanded "hexagonal close-packed" layers with the cations centred on approximately trigonal holes in this array. The two crystalline modifications of the chloro-salt differ in the orientation of the bipyridylium cations in these layers.

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  • Uranium luminescence

    Nicholas, J.V. (1966)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

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  • Some studies of the theory and application of continuous groups in atomic spectroscopy

    Cunningham, M.J. (1971)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This thesis is concerned with the representation theory of continuous groups both compact and non-compact and its application to atomic spectroscopy. In Chapter I some atomic wavefunctions for equivalent electrons in the group scheme SU2 x (U2l+1 R2l+1 R3) are constructed in terms of electron fermion creation and annihilation operators. The concept of semiconjugacy is defined and shown to reduce the number of states that must be explicitly calculated. The states of the d shell are calculated and tabulated. In Chapter II it is shown how to extract n-body cfp's associated with arbitrary auxiliary quantum numbers from the n-body generalisation of Redmond's formula. The method is applied to give explicit formulae for the squares of one body cfp's of the atomic d-shell. Group theory is applied in Chapter III to extend the quasiparticle formalism developed by Armstrong and Judd to expose the complete group structure of the eigenfunctions of the equivalent electron l shell. A simple method for relating quasiparticle states to determinantal states and for calculating quasiparticle matrix elements is developed. The need for fractional parentage coefficients in calculating these matrix elements is eliminated. In Chapter IV the technique and formalism is extended to describe general mixed configurations. The hydrogen atom is factorised according to the scheme 0(4,2) 0(2,1) x 0(3) in Chapter V and the radial group 0(2,1) studied. It is shown that rkD n/(n+q) , where Da is a dilatation operator, is proportional to a tensor operator in this scheme, allowing a group theoretical study of the radial matrix element rk, including an explanation of the Pasternack and Sternheimer selection rule. The technique is extended in Chapter VI to solve a differential equation directly related to the generalised Kepler equation of Infeld and Hull in an 0(2,1) x 0(3) group scheme. This equation contains as special cases the Schrodinger, Klein-Gordan, and Dirac (two forms) hydrogen atoms. A generalised Pasternack and Sternheimer selection rule exists and some matrix elements can be evaluated group theoretically.

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