9,200 results for 1900

  • Accounting for thinking with reference to the deaf

    Long, D. S. (1975)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Faced with an apparent conflict between two approaches to the teaching of deaf children : (i) that we should teach deaf children a language so that they can think, and (ii) that we should teach deaf children to think so that they can then acquire a language - I have examined the assumptions about thinking assumed by these two schools of thought. Reductionists hold that thinking is nothing but such things as inner speech (they identify thinking with its expression). Duplicationists argue that this is an inadequate explication of the concept of thinking (that it is only half the story) and they argue that thinking is something else as well as its expression. If successful Duplicationism becomes an objection to Reductionism. Unfortunately it results in an infinite regress. A third alternative account of thinking (Ryle's Adverbial account) regards thinking as an adverbial characterization: thinking is the way or circumstances in which we perform certain diverse and neutral (vis-a-vis thinking) activities. By such an account the elements of thinking which Duplicationists accuse Reductionist of ignoring become conditional dispositions. I argue that they should be regarded as categorical dispositional ascriptions. Additionally Ryle assumes a "process" account of thinking when in point of fact an "episodic" account is required. The thesis concludes by arguing that we need an ontology sufficiently large to take in all the aspects of thinking and that in turn this will generate not one precept but a matrix of precepts for the education of the deaf.

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  • Economic policy in New Zealand 1936-1939

    Oxnan, D. W. (1941)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The aim of this survey is twofold. First, it attempts to describe and analyse the more important aspects of the Labour Government’s economic policy, and second, it attempts to demonstrate how the achievement of this policy is conditioned by the characteristics of the New Zealand economy. The economic policy of the Labour Government is important for several reasons. First, both the “recovery measures” of the previous Government during the depression, and Labour’s policy after the depression tend to show that New Zealand, in common with other countries, is experiencing a definite trend towards an extension of State control of economic life. Secondly, since the 1890’s the Dominion has indulged in economic and social experiments which have attracted the attention of economists not only in New Zealand but also abroad. The economic and social policy of the Labour Government thus appears to be an acceleration of this long term trend. In addition it is generally recognised that conditions in New Zealand are more favourable to economic experimentation than those existing in most other countries. In examining this policy it is of fundamental importance to realise that the Ottawa Agreements of 1932, mark the end of an era when New Zealand could confidently rely on a large and expanding overseas market for her exports. Moreover the rise of economic rationalism, the progress of agrarian protectionism, the developments in the alternative sources of supply and the declining rate of growth of population in the consuming countries, all have forcibly demonstrated the inherent weakness of the New Zealand economy. Consequently the post depression years have witnessed a conscious expansion of New Zealand’s secondary industries. Although the social and economic policy of the Labour Government is in many respects similar to that of the Liberal Administration of Balance and Seddon in the early ‘nineties’ of last century, it has certainly been carried out under far less favourable circumstances. It is mainly for these reasons that this subject provides a fruitful field for economic research. To cover the whole of the policy in detail and would be beyond the limits of a brief survey of this nature. It would be possible to write a detailed survey on any one aspect of the policy. Nevertheless, it is felt that a broad treatment of policy is not entirely unfruitful. On the contrary a wide survey has much to commend it, for a detailed analysis of one aspect only tends to lose sight of the nature of the policy as a whole. Thus the first two chapters are devoted to an analysis of the Labour Government’s Programme and the economic factors limiting the achievement of this programme. The remaining chapters are concerned with the development of policy. Separate chapters deal in turn with Monetary Policy, Marketing, Transport, Rationalisation of Industry, Import and Exchange Control, and Labour and Social Legislation. In a concluding chapter, the threads are drawn together and an evaluation of the policy attempted. It should be noted that the period under review extends from 1936 to 1939 inclusive. It does not deal with the policy after the outbreak of war in September 1939, because this has created new problems and has thus modified to a certain extent the direction of Government policy. At the outset, originality is disclaimed. Much has already been written on particular aspects of policy, but little if any, on the policy as a whole. The material has been collected from all available relevant literature, consisting of numerous pamphlets, periodicals, articles and officials publications. A detailed account of references is given in the bibliography. Finally it is not proposed to reveal anything which is not already known to competent economists. This survey merely aims to make a comprehensive and critical analysis of the economic policy followed by the Labour Government in the years 1936-39.

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  • The failure of corporate failure models to classify and predict : aspects and refinements

    Alexander, P. B. (1991)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Much has been written about the use of multiple discriminant analysis in corporate distress classification and forecasting. Classification and prediction models are notoriously difficult to establish in such a way that they will stand the ultimate test of time. Many articles severely criticise the use of the technique yet there are aspects which may improve our ability to develop satisfactory models. We are probably yet a long way off from being able to do so with any great degree of satisfaction, yet it behoves us to try to develop models that do justice to the assumptions and the theory. This thesis explores several important aspects of the model-building process and concludes that some of the more conventional criticisms of the models developed so far are less important than claimed. It suggests that more critical than the failure to meet the conditions of multivariate normality, the equality of the variance-covariance matrices, and the use of a priori probabilities are the need for: a satisfactory model specification that can be theoretically justified, the strict use of random sampling, the efficient use of sample data, the search for stable mean vectors which are significantly different from each other, and ex ante validation. If these requirements are met then the MDA technique is robust enough to cope with breaches of the assumptions.

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  • Stress : strain relationships for confined concrete : rectangular sections

    Scott, Bryan D. (1980)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    An experimental investigation into the behaviour of square, confined, reinforced concrete columns was undertaken. Thirty 450 mm square, 1200 mm high units were cast with varying amounts of longitudinal and lateral steel. These were subjected to concentric or eccentric axial loads to failure at slow or dynamic loading rates. Confinement requirements of reinforced concrete columns are discussed and the results and analyses of experimental work presented. Results include an assessment of the significance of loading rate, eccentricity, amount and distribution of longitudinal steel, and the amount of confining steel. A general stress-strain curve for rectangular concrete sections loaded at seismic rates is proposed and compared with existing curves based on previous static loading tests.

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  • The Labour Party after 75 years

    Clark, Margaret (1992)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The 75th anniversary of the founding of the New Zealand Labour Party occurred in 1991. Needless to say the party itself was not in a notably celebratory mood, having just suffered a huge electoral defeat and all that that entailed in terms of after-the-event recriminations and soul-searching. However as academics we thought the occasion should be marked and pondered. After all there are not many local organisations which have persisted for half the length of our constitutional history, let alone one that is so full of impassioned, ideals-driven, argumentative people as the Labour Party. The following papers were presented at a day-long seminar held in the Stout Research Centre on 29 October 1991. Contributors contemplated not only the Labour Party's past triumphs and disasters, but also its future political and policy options. Party activists and officials present were as frank as more detached observers in acknowledging the Party's internal difficulties and contradictions, and the need to define a fresh vision for itself. The discussion was lively and good-natured, but alas our efforts to record it for transcription failed. It must remain only a pleasant memory for participants.

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  • Hostile borders on historical landscapes : the placeless place of Andamanese culture

    Pandya, Vishvajit (1999)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This paper is an analysis of meanings attributed to contacts between Jarwas and non-Jarwas in the Andaman Islands. Unlike other Andaman tribal groups, the Jarwas are confined to a government-designated area of 765 square kilometres of forest reserve, which is only a fraction of their former tribal land. Since early colonial occupation, government parties have sought out Jarwas on the west coast of the island they inhabit, bringing them gifts to try to establish friendly relations. On the eastern side of Jarwa territory, on the other hand, the Jarwas raid settlements and occasionally kill settlers and police who venture into their territory. The paper addresses the issue of how the contact event on the eastern side is different in Jarwa eyes from what occurs on the western side. The boundaries are given meanings by the various outsiders and the Jarwas, and these meanings are not fixed. Although contact events are in tended to establish 'friendly' relations with 'hostile' Jarwas, no true relationship of trust and understanding has yet been established. This underlines the fact that meanings are bound by cultural, political and historical contexts.

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  • The state and income redistribution: a study of the social wage and taxation in New Zealand 1949-1975

    Reveley, J. W. C. (1990)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This thesis examines the role of the state in redistributing income between social classes in New Zealand during the years 1949-1975. It applies an innovative methodology, developed by E. Ahmet Tonak, to a set of data drawn from New Zealand's national accounts and estimates a quantity labelled 'net-tax', defined as the taxes that the working class cede to the state less the expenditure that the working class receives from the state in the form of a social wage. A detailed theoretical discussion precedes the empirical analysis. Insofar as Tonak's method requires that the social wage (the portion of state expenditure consumed by the working class) be identified as an empirical quantity, the argument that all taxes, and hence all state expenditures, originate from surplus value is confronted. The views of the main representatives of this contemporary school of thought are subjected to detailed scrutiny. They are rejected in favour of the views of a school which considers the portion of taxes funding the state expenditure that constitutes the social wage to originate in 'wages'. A model which theoretically 'grounds' the comparison of taxes paid to state expenditure received, effected in the remaining chapters of this study, is then formulated. In the empirical analysis, the empirical referent of the 'net-tax' concept is calculated for the years 1949-1975. The net-tax data set is then used to construct a transference ratio, which indicates the degree and direction of income redistribution effected by the state. The main finding to emerge is that, in all but one of the twenty-seven years surveyed in this study, the working class has surrendered more wealth in taxes to the state than it has received back from the state as a social wage. In light of these results, it can be concluded that the welfare state has not materially benefitted the working class in New Zealand. Moreover, insofar as income has consistently been redistributed from the working class to 'non-labour' (the capitalist class and the state itself), the state can be considered to owe the working class a debt in the amount of 3671.26 million (constant 1975) dollars.

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  • The impact of the Internet on small firms

    Martin, Ross A. (1998)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Several researchers have designed frameworks to model and analyse impacts of the Internet on firms. This research takes one such framework aimed at small firms (Lymer et al., 1997b) and attempts to validate its usefulness by comparing it to similar and conflicting models, and by applying it to impacts collected from both the literature and from four case studies of small firms. The findings suggest that several changes to Lymer et al.'s (1997b) framework are necessary to make the model more effective and more practical for researchers and practitioners. A revised Internet impacts model is proposed that incorporates these changes. Preliminary evaluation has been performed on the revised model, resulting in the conclusion that the study makes a valuable contribution to the area of Internet research by significantly enhancing the usability and analytical usefulness of Lymer et al.'s (1997b) Internet impacts model.

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  • Promoting sustainable management in local resource management issues

    Weastell, Lynda (1994)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The Resource Management Act (RMA) 1991 is a much discussed and frequently criticised piece of legislation in New Zealand. The RMA 1991 is much discussed because it is part of a substantial reform of New Zealand's resource management law. It is much criticised because the overall purpose of the RMA 1991 is to promote the sustainable management of natural and physical resources (S.5(1)) but the meaning given to sustainable management in the RMA 1991 (S.5(2)) is ambiguous. These discussions and criticisms focus on the legislation. Little research on promoting sustainable management in the context of resource management practice has been undertaken so far. This research needs to be done because the context of resource management issues and the public planning process will influence how sustainable management is interpreted and applied in resource management practice. This thesis is a comparative analysis of promoting sustainable management in four local government resource management issues: the northern access road issue, Christchurch; underground coal mining at Mount Davy, Rewanui; subdivision of Travis Swamp and Kennedy's Bush Spur, Christchurch; and air access into Westland National Park. The aims of the research are to establish: how sustainable management is being promoted in resource management practice; how important the RMA 1991 and promoting sustainable management is in determining resource management outcomes in the public planning process; and whether promoting sustainable management is resulting in a radical change in resource management practice. The thesis makes three conclusions. Firstly, that while sustainable management is an ambiguous concept a 'working' interpretation is emerging in resource management practice based on managing adverse environmental effects. Secondly, that the RMA 1991 and promoting sustainable management is important to legitimise resource management proposals in terms of the law, but it is not the raison d'etre for these proposals. Thirdly, that promoting sustainable management has resulted in changes in the way in which resource management proposals are assessed, but there are a lot of conitunities in resource management practice despite resource management law reform.

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  • Engineering geological roading aggregate investigations of the Wakatipu Basin

    Watts, C. R. (1988)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The Wakatipu Basin lies within the Otago Schist belt, and aggregates derived from the schist do not meet New Zealand basecourse specifications. This study comprises engineering geological investigations of the roading aggregate with the objective of identifying potential aggregate source areas which comply with specifications. Five aggregate sources, two glacial and three post-glacial, have been identified, and their geology related to aggregate quality. A survey of existing aggregate quarries confirmed the sub-specification quality of schist derived roading aggregate, and that the highest quality roading aggregate of the Basin is produced from exotic glacial transported graywacke. A graywacke rich aggregate source area of Kame terraces was investigated. Investigations included mapping at scales of 1:10 000 and 1:1 500, and the excavation of test pits. A geotechnical testing programme concluded that the Kame terrace source area was capable of producing roading aggregate for basecourse, and is comparable with the highest quality roading aggregate of the Wakatipu Basin. Subsequently, the Queenstown - Lakes District Council has developed an aggregate quarry within the Kame terrace source area.

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  • The environmental concern of commerce students -a survey

    Saunders, Louise M. (1996)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The evolution of attitudes towards the environment has culminated in the entrenchment of environmental concern as a characteristic of Western society. Overseas research has found young, well educated, urban individuals are most likely to express concern for the environment. However, the features of environmentally concerned New Zealanders have largely failed to attract the attention of researchers. In a sample of University of Canterbury Commerce students, aspects of environmental concern, and salient issues, were identified. As expected, individuals raised in urban centres were more likely to express environmental concern, although the expected influence of age and education were not observed. Women were more concerned about the environment, as were New Zealand-raised and New Zealand-ethnic respondents. It was concluded that the environmental concern of this population has many similarities to populations in other Western nations in the salience of issues, the issues of concern, and the levels of concern shown. As the respondents in this study were not representative of the New Zealand public, the suggestions for further research focus on the need to investigate environmental concern in a representative sample. A need was also suggested for research into areas of specific concerns, actual behaviour, commitment, and knowledge in the New Zealand population.

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  • The palynology of the Ohai coalfield, Southland

    Warnes, Malcolm D. (1988)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The Upper Cretaceous Morley Coal Measures in the Ohai Coalfield are one of three non-marine formations constituting the Ohai Group. In the past, seam correlation has generally been carried out using lithological criteria, however due to dramatic thinning and splitting of seams, associated faulting, and abrupt facies changes uncertainties in coal seam correlation have frequently arisen. In order to minimize lithostratigraphic uncertainties Couper (1964) pioneered a palynological zonation which demonstrated the potential of palynology for coal seam correlation. However, Couper's early work has proved unreliable and is in need of further refinement. Recent drillholes incorporating almost fully cored sequences of the Morley Formation have permitted further palynological examination of the coal measures. Nine drillholes were selected and 140 samples taken, at 10 metre intervals, for palynological analyses. The Morley Coal Measures are unconformably overlain by the Beaumont Coal Measures. This important boundary, though difficult to detect lithologically, is readily defined on palynological grounds. Biostratigraphic subdivision of the Morley Coal Measures was investigated by the application of three quantitative techniques. These entailed the construction and analysis of: (1) Standard pollen diagrams based on relative abundances of selected taxa and groups of taxa; (2) Pollen diagrams zoned by the numerical method of cluster analysis; (3) Ratios of selected taxa of recurrent and variably high frequency. Technique (1), involving relative abundance patterns of key taxa and groups of taxa was successful in providing a basis for subdivision of the Morley Coal Measures into three pollen zones, two interzonal units and two unzoned units. The three pollen zones were, in stratigraphically descending order: The Nothofagus kaitangata acme zone, the SPPA assemblage zone, and the Tricolpites reticulatus acme zone. Techniques (2) and (3) were, in all practicality, unproductive, although results suggested that, with refinement, cluster analysis could aid the zonation of pollen diagrams.

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  • An examination of employees' observations and informal information in a distressed organisation : the case of Fortex Group Limited

    Tobin, Scott Mylrea (1995)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    A review of previous qualitative corporate distress research reveals that non-managerial employees appear to have been overlooked as a potential source of information on a failed company. Yet assertions by Argenti (1976a) and an analysis of Altman's (1983) and McBarnet, Weston and Whelan's (1993) research indicates that employees can potentially observe the symptoms of distress. However, Argenti (1976a) reported that employees could only observe the non-financial systems of distress, and that they could not determine that an organisation was distressed. McBarnet et al's (1993) research and a pilot case study indicated otherwise. The pilot study also found that employees had access to the informal communication network, or grapevine, and an informal accounting information system (IAIS). McBarnet et al (1993) report that informal information may assist employees to detect problems or unusual events within a company. Consequently, this research sought to clarify the anomaly between Argenti's assertions and McBarnet et al's (1993) and the pilot study's findings, determining the problems or concerns that employees observed in a company before. it collapsed, and whether these observations could cause employees to believe that a company was distressed before it failed. The research also examined whether information from an IAIS and/or the grapevine contributes to employees' observations and opinions in a distressed company. A single case study of a failed organisation was conducted. The subject was Fortex Group Limited, a South Island meat-processing company. The findings challenged and extended previous beliefs regarding employees' observations in a distressed company, indicating that they may not only observe the symptoms of distress, but also observe the defects and mistakes which cause, and contribute to, failure. Moreover, from the symptoms observed, the employees recognised that the company was distressed. The research also established preliminary links between the grapevine, IAISs, employees' observations and corporate distress. Each area was identified as an alternative source of information which could potentially assist the early detection of corporate distress. Despite limitations, this research increases the body of knowledge in these areas, and recommends directions for future research.

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  • Wavefront estimation in astronomical imaging.

    Irwan, Roy (1999)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The challenge in building astronomical telescopes is to obtain the clearest possible image of a distant star, which should appear as a single point. Extended objects, such as galaxies and planets can be regarded as collections of points. However, turbulence in the atmosphere degrades any optical signal that passes through it. The optical effects of the atmospheric turbulence arise from random inhomogeneities in the temperature distribution of the atmosphere. As a consequence of these temperature inhomogeneities, the index of refraction distribution of the atmosphere is random. Plane waves striking the atmosphere from space objects acquire an aberration as they propagate through the atmosphere. The plane wave's surface of constant phase is no longer planar when intercepted by a,n a.stronornica.l telescope. The prnctica.l consequence of a.tmospheric turbulence is that resolution is generally limited by turbulence rather than by optical design and quality of a telescope. There are a number of approaches to solving this problem, ranging from an orbiting telescope (the Hubble Space Telescope), adaptive optics, and post detection processing. The latter approaches have applications to less expensive ground based telescopes and have been the subject of many years of research. Adaptive optics is a general term for optical components whose characteristics can be modified in real time so as to alter the phase of an incident optical wavefront. An adaptive optics system can be used to correct for atmospheric induced distortions. Before any corrections can be applied, however, some measurement must be made of the phase distortions. It is the aim of this study to estimate the degradation of the wavefronts phase. Two approaches to do so are presented. Firstly, through wavefront sensors, which many adaptive optics systems have been devised from. Among them the Shack-Hartmann sensor is the most commonly used. The sensor requires a subdivision of the receiving pupil by means of sub-apertures, wherein the lowestorder deformation of the wavefront phase is estimated. This linearizes the problem of phase retrieval to solving a linear system of equations. A new analysis is presented which differs from previously published work in the estimation of the noise inherent in the centroid calculation used in this sensor. This analysis is supported by computer simulations. Secondly, the nonlinear approach of phase retrieval is discussed. The problem becomes how to relate the phase and magnitude of the Fourier transform. It is thus necessary to estimate the phase distortion in the instrument solely from measurements made at the image plane of the telescope. The process of phase retrieval is then divided into two distinct steps. The expression for the covariance of the phase distortion using a Kolmogorov model for the turbulence is derived first. This covariance is then employed as part of a formal Bayesian estimate of the phase distortion. It is also shown that phase retrieval can be employed as a robust technique for estimating the wavefront distortion using a lenslet array. The results obtained compare favorably with the alternative approach of phase diversity. Furthermore, the introduction of prior information, in the form of statistical information of the distortion, is shown to considerably enhance the success of the phase retrieval especially for very low light levels. A comparative evaluation shows the superiority of phase retrieval to Shack-Hartmann sensing, only if the local maxima are overcome. The principal drawback of phase retrieval is the relatively long computing time required to find the solution when general-purposed computer is used.

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  • Code optimisation for the NZTAB Pascal compiler

    Douthwaite, Ian M. (1983)

    Discussion / Working Papers
    University of Canterbury Library

    The aim of this project was optimisation of the code produced by the NZTAB Pascal compiler. This compiler is used for almost all the code in the TAB's nationwide betting system. The desire to improve the performance of the code was prompted by two reasons: * Certain heavily-used parts of the code are presently written in assembler for efficiency. For maintainability, it would be better to have all code written in Pascal. * The performance of the betting system is significantly affected by certain system control functions. The TAB wished to pursue the adding of an optimisation stage to the compiler so that performance might be improved in that way. The task of this project, then, was to consider the problem of adding optimisation to the TAB compiler, assessing possible optimisation techniques, and implementing the best of these. There are several aspects to this project and the structure of this report reflects that. This does not mean, however, that each aspect represents a chronological phase. The first section deals with the problem and with the constraints placed on possible optimisation methods. Section two briefly presents various kinds of optimisations that are often done and reviews the main methods available for doing them. In section three there is an analysis of the nature of the code currently produced by the TAB compiler and the implications of this for optimisation. Fourthly, various optimisation strategies that were considered are presented with their problems and advantages. Section five deals with two strategies for which some implementation was done, with the problems that arise in their implementation, and with their potential benefits. Finally, in section six, some questions are posed that are relevant to if and how the project should proceed and some recommendations are given. Naturally, the ideal result of such a project would have been the completion of an optimiser that performed sufficiently well for the earlier goals to be realised: this has not been achieved. One should remember though that this project can viewed in two ways. In one way it can be seen as being required to add some form of optimisation to a Pascal compiler. At the other level, however, it can be seen as ryeeding to provide optimisation that is sufficient for the goals given at the start of this introduction, and that is obtained in a way that is acceptable to the TAB environment. This latter goal is far more difficult but it is towards this goal that the efforts of this project have been directed.

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  • Packet flow analysis in X.25 public data networks : a simulation tool

    Reynolds, Paul (1984)

    Discussion / Working Papers
    University of Canterbury Library

    This report describes a Simula program designed to model the behaviour of X.25 Public Data Networks and produce statistics on various performance indices of the network. These include such indices as: - packet transfer times for each pair of nodes - time spent in each node - line utilisations - wait times for each line - buffer utilisations The user describes the network by suppling the model with information on each node and the lines that connect the nodes. This allows a large variety of X.25 network configurations to be studied.

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  • Performance measurement and optimization of an implementation of stage2 in B6700 algol

    Naguleswaran, M. (1977)

    Discussion / Working Papers
    University of Canterbury Library

    Program optimization is the process of changing the organization of a software systems so as to optimize resource utilization. When the program to be optimized is an application program rather than a systems program, the factors to be optimized are very much simplified and usually involves, in priority order i) CPU time ii) I/0 processor time iii) storage requirement This project involved making performance measurements on a particular software, namely STAGE2 macroprocessor and on the strength of the information thus gained, change the organization of the software so as to produce an optimal version.

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  • Poverty in London, 1885-95.

    Cullen, Michael John (1967)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Poverty is a relative term. Therefore the first task in this study was to establish working definitions of "poverty" and the "poor" together with an estimate of the extent of poverty in London in our period. This task had already been done for us by Charles Booth in his great survey of the Life and Labour of the People in London. The problem was thus reduced to one of testing Booth's conclusions; this question is dealt with in Chapter I. The rest of this work is concerned with describing the structure of poverty in London in our period. The end of that period is marked by the completion of the investigations carried cut for the Industry Series of the Booth Survey, the beginning by the finish of the Royal Commission on the Housing of the Working Classes of 1884-5. The Booth Survey is the major source for our study, but the decade 1885-95 also saw a number of Royal Commissions and Select Committees on topics related to the structure of poverty. Indeed, the Parliamentary Papers of the period contain a wealth of material on our subject. It was not possible to utilize this material quite as fully as had been hoped because the microcards of the Parliamentary Papers did not arrive at Canterbury as expected. Consequently, the Papers had to be used during a somewhat extended visit to Wellington. However, it must be emphasized that this is not a thesis about the Booth Survey but a thesis about poverty in London in the decade 1885-95.

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  • Jack McCullough : workers' representative on the Arbitration Court

    Nolan, Melanie (1985)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This biography of Jack McCullough is also the chronicle of the Canterbury Trades and Labour Council coterie he helped to organize at the turn of the century. This group of class conscious unionists attempted to persuade the nascent trade union movement to adopt their socialist objectives. This thesis examines the opposition that McCullough's coterie faced. It experienced difficulty, first, in distinguishing itself from an 'advanced' Liberal establishment in Christchurch which assiduously cultivated its working class power base. Organized Labour in Christchurch divided into Lib-Lab and Independent Labour factions. The Independent Labour unionists' attempt to use the arbitration system to rebuild class conscious unions was also vigorously opposed locally by a new managerial elite which attempted to control relations in the workplace and who had their own expectations of the Arbitration Court. McCullough's coterie's objectives were also challenged from the left by the militant Red Feds. Ultimately, however, McCullough's ideal ran aground. It was the victim not so much of the employers or the Red Feds as of a groundswell of more moderate Labour opinion which found its home in the Labour Party formed in July 1916. McCullough's coterie eventually failed in its attempt to create a democratic socialist revolution in its own lifetime based on either the trade union movement or the Labour Party. McCullough himself was thus left with his role as Workers' Representative on the Arbitration Court. Increasingly, he was to find this role impossible to sustain and resigned. His resignation and his entire career as workers' representative before the Court illustrates the difficulties faced by socialist reformers who chose to attempt to bring about reform from within the apparatus of the capitalist state.

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  • Palaeolimnological studies on Lake Maratoto, North Island, New Zealand

    Green, John D. (1979)


    University of Waikato

    The Middle Waikato (or Hamilton) Basin is a promising area for studies of the postglacial history of Northern New Zealand. The major geomorphological features of the basin were developed in the last 40,000 years, mainly by aggradation of the ancestral Waikato River (Mccraw 1967, Hume et al 1975) and in the process a number of peat bogs and small lakes were formed which now provide suitable locations for palaeoclimatic and palaeoecological investigations. Four pollen diagrams from peats in the area have been published (Harris 1963, McGlone et al 1978) which show similar features to diagrams from elsewhere in the North Island (McGlone and Topping 1979) but there have been no comparable studies of sediments from the lakes.

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