890 results for 2000, University of Canterbury Library, 2016

  • Assessment of the Opportunity of Modern Cable Yarders for Application in New Zealand

    Campbell, Thornton (2016)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This study examined the opportunity of implementing modern yarder machinery to increase the productivity and worker safety of cable logging operations within New Zealand. Cable yarding equipment used in New Zealand is generally based on designs from pre-1980 with the majority of the machines built around that time in the Pacific Northwest, USA. New yarder designs have a number of features that may give them an advantage, including being; smaller, quieter, more fuel efficient, safer and more ergonomic to operate. These benefits can be of even greater value as the forest industry transitions from predominantly larger scale commercial plantations, to a significant proportion of woodlot scale operations. Field studies ranging from three to five day of duration were carried out on three new machines believed to have potential in New Zealand; the Active 70 at two locations in the central North Island region of New Zealand, the Koller 602h in the Gisborne region of New Zealand and for comparison the Koller 507 in Austria. The studies focussed on assessing productivity and ergonomic advantages. Productivity was measured with a time and motion study and the potential ergonomic advantages were assessed using choker-setter heart rates and machine noise emissions. The time and motion study found a productivity level for the Active 70 of 23.5m3/SMH with a utilisation rate of 65% at site one and 24.5m3/SMH at a utilisation rate of 76% for site two. The productivity for the Koller 602h was 21.0m3/SMH at an utilisation rate of 55% and 7.9m3/SMH for the Koller 507 at an utilisation rate of 55%. Productivity was deemed to be negatively impacted by poor site conditions for the Active 70 and Koller 507, and utilisation was low for the Koller 602h which was mainly attributed to the lack of crew experience with the new machine. Choker-setter heart rate results showed choker-setters to be working at the level of ‘hard continuous work’ (‘relative heart rate at work’ over 30%, but less than 40%). In this study the motorised carriage used at the first Active 70 study site offered no ergonomic advantages over the traditional North Bend system at the second site. Decibel analysis found that the modern equipment was significantly quieter, resulting in smaller zones in which hearing protection is required. In particular, the Koller K602hrecorded 70dB at 5 meters during operation, well below the 85dB level that is common recognised as the decibel threshold for hearing damage. During these case studies the machines all operated below the average New Zealand productivity rate of 26.3m3/SMH and no clear ergonomic advantage was established for the choker-setters. As such these machines are not likely to out-compete existing machinery choices in either productivity or choker-setter work rate. However, cost-benefit analyses were not possible because of limited information about operating cost and the absence of truly comparable settings. Advantages such as the advanced control systems and lower noise levels, while still achieving respectable productivity figures, indicate that they are viable alternatives for New Zealand cable yarding if applied correctly.

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  • Effective use of Technologies in the Classroom

    White, Annabelle (2016)

    Journal Articles
    University of Canterbury Library

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  • Interdisciplinary Team Teaching to support 21st Century Learning Skills

    Buick, Danielle (2016)

    Journal Articles
    University of Canterbury Library

    There is a need to reimagine education in the New Zealand secondary school context that better supports twenty-first century learning skills. Interdisciplinary team teaching provides a model of change that could enable schools to reimagine how education is delivered, how knowledge is created, and better exemplify and incorporate learning skills relevant to a rapidly developing world. This article explores primarily qualitative data drawn from research addressing interdisciplinary team teaching (ITT) that spans across primary to tertiary settings in a range of contexts. The findings from this research express why it is necessary to reimagine current education systems, the benefits and barriers of ITT, and what enables the successful implementation of ITT. If a school is able to negotiate the barriers and understand what is necessary to make it work then research suggests that ITT can provide a structural, pedagogical, and philosophical change that will enhance learning skills necessary for the twenty-first century world.

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  • Editorial, Volume 2, November 2016

    Astall, Chris; Fastier, Murray; Lewis, Trish; Graham, James (2016)

    Journal Articles
    University of Canterbury Library

    Welcome to the second issue of the Journal of Initial Teacher Inquiry. This journal celebrates inquiry based research as conducted by Initial Teacher Education (ITE) students completing the intensive, one year Master of Teaching and Learning (MTchgLn) course at the University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand. Our MTchgLn programme whakataukī emphasises the value we place on our ITE students and their learning; Ahakoa he iti, he pounamu - Although it is small, it is greenstone

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  • Mentor and Student Teacher Relationship Factors During Placement

    Bodger, Glenn (2016)

    Journal Articles
    University of Canterbury Library

    This article discusses findings from research concerning the expectations and perceptions of mentor teachers and student teachers (mentees), and how communication may affect this mentor-mentee relationship. The research points to the mentor-mentee relationships as pivotal in the development of student teachers. Findings show that expectations and perceptions of the roles require clarity from both mentor teacher and student teacher perspectives, and with more explicit communication there is an increased likelihood of building positive relationships. It is crucial that communication occurs from the beginning of the mentor-mentee relationship. The research examined also identified significant differences in the messages being communicated between the partners in the mentor-mentee relationship when student teachers are mentored in pairs, as opposed to one on one mentoring. The change in dynamics with paired placements may also lead to a more teaching focussed experience with reduced pressure on the individual student teacher.

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  • The impact of heavy metals on benthic macroinvertebrate communities in Christchurch's urban waterways

    Eden, Jason Scott (2016)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The urbanisation of a catchment results in substantial changes to associated waterways. These effects, known as the “urban stream syndrome” can include flashier hydrographs due to stormwater inflows, altered geomorphology, and increased inputs of sediment, nutrients, and toxicants. Metal pollution of rivers and streams is an area of significant concern for management of freshwaters, and urban runoff is recognised as an increasingly relevant source of metals. Heavy metals can to be toxic to aquatic invertebrates, and can impact community structure and abundance. To investigate the influence of heavy metals on macroinvertebrate community composition, I compared invertebrate community composition over a gradient of heavy metal pollution within Christchurch City’s urban waterways. I also investigated the survival of three taxa, the mayfly Deleatidium spp., the caddisfly Pycnocentria spp., and the snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum in short-term in situ mesocosm experiments in six streams of varying metal contamination. CCA analysis identified that sediment bound metals, dissolved metals, and impervious surface area were the three most significant environmental factors explaining invertebrate community structure. Stepwise regression analysis of invertebrate community metrics and indices identified metals bound to the sediment to be among the prevailing factors in explaining invertebrate community composition across my study sites. The results of my mesocosm experiments suggest that heavy metal contamination could be rendering more impacted streams uninhabitable to relatively sensitive taxa (such as Deleatidium and Pycnocentria). However, over the seven day time frame of my mesocosm experiment, conditions in moderately polluted streams did not appear to directly affect survival of Deleatidium significantly more than conditions in streams containing natural populations of the mayfly. Knowledge of relevant stressors is key to the management and rehabilitation of urban streams. My results suggest that heavy metals are likely a key stressor on many invertebrate communities in Christchurch’s urban waterways. While rehabilitation of streams in Christchurch’s heavily urbanised areas can improve attractiveness and societal value, unless stormwater inputs and associated pollutants are mitigated an improvement in biological communities seems unlikely.

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  • Journal of Initial Teacher Inquiry, Volume 2 November 2016 

    Compton, Jessica; Buick, Danielle; Bodger, Glenn; White, Annabelle; Edmunds, Catherine; FitzGerald, Bethan; Reveley, Emma; van Gelder-Horgan, Karen; Wilson, Dan; Dickson, Madeleine; Thomas, Julie; Pavelka, Ariana (2016)

    Journal Articles
    University of Canterbury Library

    Welcome to the second issue of the Journal of Initial Teacher Inquiry. This journal celebrates inquiry based research as conducted by Initial Teacher Education (ITE) students completing the intensive, one year Master of Teaching and Learning (MTchgLn) course at the University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand. Our MTchgLn programme whakataukī emphasises the value we place on our ITE students and their learning; Ahakoa he iti, he pounamu - Although it is small, it is greenstone.

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  • A comparison of MDMA (Ecstasy) and 3,4-methylenedioxymethcathinone (Methylone) in their acute behavioural effects and development of tolerance in rats

    Davidson, Mark L. (2016)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Methylone (3,4-methylenedioxymethcathinone), the β-ketone analogue of the popular party drug MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, “ecstasy”), is a relatively new designer drug that is reported to have similar subjective effects and psychopharmacological properties to MDMA. However, unlike MDMA, little is known about the acute behavioural effects or the effects of repeated use of this drug. The goal of the current thesis was to investigate the behavioural effects of methylone and compare these to the effects of MDMA using an animal model. The second aim was to determine whether there was evidence of behavioural sensitisation or tolerance to methylone with repeated exposure. To achieve this, 108 male and female PVG/c hooded rats (6M and 6F per group) were administered various doses of MDMA or methylone (2.5, 5, 8, 12mg/kg), or saline vehicle (i.p.). The behavioural effects of these drugs were examined 20 m later, including horizontal locomotor activity, rearing behaviour, and central occupancy of an open field, anxiety behaviours in a light/dark box, and working memory in a novel object recognition task. The results showed that MDMA and methylone administration produce similar, but not identical, behaviours. Methylone was shown to produce greater psychostimulant effects, while MDMA produced more toxic effects. Female rats demonstrated greater psychostimulant effects than males, while males had higher rates of lethality. In order to assess the effects of repeated drug use, one week after binge-type drug administration of MDMA or methylone (5 mg/kg for 3 doses every 1h on 2 consecutive days), open field and light/dark box testing was repeated following a further 5 mg/kg challenge of drug. There was no evidence of locomotor sensitisation in the open field, although females showed sensitisation in rearing activity. These findings suggest that methylone may produce less toxic, but more stimulant, effects than MDMA. Methylone may therefore be a cocaine-MDMA mixed psychostimulant, both in a psychopharmacological and a behavioural sense.

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  • The 21st Century Landscape of Assessment and Implication on Student Engagement

    Compton, Jessica (2016)

    Journal Articles
    University of Canterbury Library

    High-stakes testing has encouraged achievement at a low-level baseline and successfully disconnected many students from their passion to learn. Simultaneously, the globalised nature of the twenty-first century world requires students to develop additional skills and knowledge beyond the traditional core subjects to thrive. There is a dire need for better summative tests which encourage students to engage in real-world challenges, rather than regurgitate memorised information. Additionally, though summative and formative assessment are both necessary in the teaching and learning process, formative assessment is more effective in the learning process and complements the development of these needed twenty-first century skills. Therefore, teachers should actively emphasise and implement formative assessment in order to develop engaged learners prepared for the twenty-first century.

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  • Positive Behaviour Management: A Critique of Literature

    Reveley, Emma (2016)

    Journal Articles
    University of Canterbury Library

    The current paper reviews literature surrounding Positive Behaviour Supports (PBS) and Positive Behaviour for learning (PB4L) with reference to the findings in a number of research papers. The aim of the current critique was to review the literature, report the findings, and identify limitations to provide contexts for future research in New Zealand. The results of the review indicated that the influence of positive behaviour management strategies was mostly positive, for instance student achievement, behaviour and school outcomes were all shown to increase when positive behaviour management strategies were implemented in a range of studies. There were a number of factors identified as fundamental to the implementation of positive management strategies, such as the necessity of the whole school being involved, and accurate data gathering in order to foster efficacy of these programs. Although the findings were mostly positive, there were gaps identified in the literature. There was a lack of gender identification as reported in the results of the studies, and there was also a lack in ethnicity data provided which is important in a New Zealand context. More research is needed in the New Zealand context in order to take into account the unique culture of Aoteoroa, as the results may differ from the findings of studies overseas. Keywords:

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  • Presenting a United Front: Parental Involvement Facilitating Children's Literacy Development

    Thomas, Julie (2016)

    Journal Articles
    University of Canterbury Library

    Literacy development is recognised across both education policy and research literature as essential for educational success. Historically, literacy has mainly been a focus for teachers within the classroom, however a growing body of research has established correlations between parental involvement and students’ literacy achievement. This literature review critiques the body of research examining the relationship between both home-based and school-based parental involvement and literacy development. Studies have consistently found positive associations between parental involvement in literacy practices and students’ literacy achievement. Research indicates that despite these positive correlations, many parents do not engage in literacy practices with their children. This review discusses the barriers which prevent some families from engaging in these literacy practices with their children and presents a New Zealand case study highlighting a home-school partnership programme which addresses these barriers with the goal of raising student literacy achievement. Through the conclusions drawn from the critique of the research and case study presented, this literature review establishes best practice for parents and teachers and suggests relevant direction for future research into home-school partnership programmes aimed at increasing parental involvement.

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  • Challenges facing Educators with regard to Gender and Sexuality Diverse Students

    Edmunds, Catherine (2016)

    Journal Articles
    University of Canterbury Library

    Inclusivity is at the heart of education in New Zealand and is founded on the key principle that every student deserves to feel like they belong in the school environment. One important aspect of inclusion is how Gender and Sexuality Diverse (GSD) students are being supported in educational settings. This critical literature review identified three key challenges facing educators that prevent GSD students from being fully included at school. Teachers require professional development in order to discuss GSD topics, bullying and harassment of GSD individuals are dealt with on an as-needs basis rather than address underlying issues, and a pervasive culture of heteronormativity both within educational environments and New Zealand society all contribute to GSD students feeling excluded from their learning environments. A clear recommendation drawn from the literature examined is that the best way to instigate change is to use schools for their fundamental purpose: learning. Schools need to learn strategies to make GSD students feel safe, teachers need to learn how to integrate GSD topics into their curriculum and address GSD issues within the school, and students need to learn how to understand the gender and sexuality diverse environments they are growing up in.

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  • Partnerships for Learning: Peer Group Influences on Learning Outcomes

    Wilson, Dan (2016)

    Journal Articles
    University of Canterbury Library

    The present study reviews the available literature concerning the ways in which peer groups (within and beyond the classroom) influence personal academic achievement for primary and secondary school students. Owing in part to the lack of literature identified, a focus is taken on contextualising the findings of the relevant studies within New Zealand educational practice guidelines. Total variation of peer group academic achievement, level of intrinsic reward gained from academic activities, cultural affiliation, group norms, peer acceptance and friend attachment are explored as possible mediating variables for the commonly observed causal (potentially non-linear) relationship between peer and personal academic performance. Suggestions for future research and suggestions for changing classroom practice including extra-curricular activities, reciprocal learning, collaborative reasoning and particularly fostering a community of learners are provided.

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  • The Impact of Early Childhood Teacher-Child Relationships on Social Adjustment and Behaviour

    Pavelka, Ariana (2016)

    Journal Articles
    University of Canterbury Library

    This literature review examines the significance of teacher-child relationships on social adjustment and behaviour in school contexts. It draws on a range of research to explore the impact of the quality of teacher-child relationships. It identifies factors that enhance positive outcomes, such as high quality professional relationships, closeness (for girls in particular) and courteous behaviour. In addition it considers factors that detract from positive outcomes for both teacher and children. These include problem behaviour, conflict (especially for boys) and dependency. Suggestions for future research identified in the studies reviewed were included with an emphasis on the contributions of both teacher and child

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  • Homework in Secondary School: Helpful or Hindrance?

    Dickson, Madeleine (2016)

    Journal Articles
    University of Canterbury Library

    Homework is a key element of secondary schooling across many contemporary education systems worldwide. However, debate about the value and efficacy of homework at the secondary school level is ongoing. Proponents of homework promote its numerous benefits for learning and achievement, while critics challenge the merit of homework, and highlight the potentially detrimental impacts it can have on student learning. Overall, the evidence from current research and literature shows that homework at the secondary school level generally has a positive impact on student academic achievement and learning. However, many factors and variables can influence this link in both a positive and negative fashion. These variables include: parental income and socio-economic status, parental support vs. control, quantity of homework completed, and overall time spent on completing homework. The research also suggests that homework is most useful and effective when it is used to expand upon concepts already taught in class, and when students have intrinsic motivation to engage with and complete homework.

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  • Perspectives on Narrative Assessment and Alternative Techniques in an Early Childhood Setting

    FitzGerald, Bethan (2016)

    Journal Articles
    University of Canterbury Library

    Assessment practices in education are important because they evidence desired and actual learning outcomes of curriculum. In Aotearoa New Zealand narrative assessment in the form of Learning Stories is the assessment method used for the National early childhood curriculum Te Whāriki. This literature review collates different perspectives on the current approach of assessing dispositional learning and working theories through narrative stories, with the intention that a best practice outcome might be observed. Quantitative studies appeared scarce on this subject, with most literature consisting of qualitative verdicts and theory-based opinions. Findings support the current assessment and curriculum goals in New Zealand, but valid concerns raised support further consideration and more substantial research.

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  • Parental Involvement in Home-Based Education

    van Gelder-Horgan, Karen (2016)

    Journal Articles
    University of Canterbury Library

    Decades of research have shown that parental involvement in education can have a crucial influence on the development and achievement of students. This involvement can present itself both within and outside of school hours. The current literature review explores parental involvement in a home-based context, briefly looking at the ways in which involvement can be shown. The scope of Parental involvement is then covered, identifying trends which occur in achievement when parents are involved and support their child in their education. This review then looks at the barriers which hinder parental involvement and in turn identifies strategies that can be implemented to foster increased involvement. Barriers covered include: parental beliefs, the nature and quality of the parent-teacher partnership and the ethnic diversity of students and families within the school. In summary, this review emphasises how teachers can facilitate parental involvement as a means of increasing the achievement of their students.

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  • The Undrained Cyclic Response of Monterey Sand in Direct Simple Shear

    Cappellaro, C.; Cubrinovski, M.; Bray, J.D.; Stringer, M.E.; Riemer, M.F.; Chiaro, G. (2016)

    Conference Contributions - Other
    University of Canterbury Library

    In 2010 and 2011 a series of earthquakes hit the central region of Canterbury, New Zealand, triggering widespread and damaging liquefaction in the area of Christchurch. Liquefaction occurred in natural clean sand deposits, but also in silty (fines-containing) sand deposits of fluvial origin. Comprehensive research efforts have been subsequently undertaken to identify key factors that influenced liquefaction triggering and severity of its manifestation. This research aims at evaluating the effects of fines content, fabric and layered structure on the cyclic undrained response of silty soils from Christchurch using Direct Simple Shear (DSS) tests. This poster outlines preliminary calibration and verification DSS tests performed on a clean sand to ensure reliability of testing procedures before these are applied to Christchurch soils.

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  • Evaluation of Liquefaction Potential of Pumiceous Deposits Through Field Testing

    Orense, R.P.; Wotherspoon, L.M.; Pender, M.J.; van Ballegooy, S.; Cubrinovski, M. (2016)

    Conference Contributions - Other
    University of Canterbury Library

    Pumice materials are frequently encountered in many engineering projects in New Zealand. Because of their lightweight, highly crushable and compressible nature, they are problematic from an engineering and construction viewpoint. However, there is very little information on the liquefaction characteristics of pumice deposits and most empirical procedures available for evaluating the liquefaction potential of sands are derived from hard-grained (quartz) sands.

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  • Effect of Partial Saturation on Liquefaction Triggering

    Baki, M.A; Cubrinovski, M; Stringer, Mark (2016)

    Conference Contributions - Other
    University of Canterbury Library

    To correlate liquefaction resistance with degree of saturation for characteristics Christchurch soils including sands with fines and silts.  To incorporate the effects of saturation in simplified procedures for liquefaction assessment.  Provide basis for quantifying the effects of partial saturation in advanced seismic analysis.

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