12,117 results for 2000, University of Canterbury Library

  • Relations between Japan and Korea : a diachronic survey in search of a pattern

    Yoon, Seok Hee (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Ever since Korea and Japan established kingdoms in the 6th century, both countries greatly influenced each other politically, militarily, socially, culturally, and economically through international exchange. Korea and Japan kept their close relationship throughout history because of geographic proximity. It is also notable that 54 per cent of Japanese males and 66 per cent of Japanese females carry Sino-Korean genes in present-days and there are records that Japan carried a close relationship with Paekche, a kingdom of the Korean peninsula which introduced script, Confucianism, and Buddhism to Japan at an early stage. In the Medieval Period, Korea and Japan maintained a friendly trade policy but there were incidents such as Mongol invasions, wakō (Japanese pirates) raids and two invasions by Toyotomi Hideyoshi, which worsened the relations between the two countries. And yet, during Japan’s period of isolation (from 1639 to1854), Korea was the only nation with which full and free trade was permitted. The 20th century is based on invasion and colonisation of Japan over Korea. For 35 years from 1910 to 1945, under the control of Japan, the Japan-Korea relationship was nothing but misfortune: forced labour, suppression of Korean culture and language, press-gangs, sex slaves, and so forth. The aim in this thesis is to go into greater detail about each significant event and its effect on the relationship between Japan and Korea to uncover some rationale or pattern such as gekokujō (the master being outdone by the pupil, and being treated thereafter with contempt).

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  • Assessment and revision of a paediatric diagnostic audiology report

    Donald, Ashleigh (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Optimising outcomes for children with hearing impairment (HI) requires a family centred approach that prioritises parent involvement. Families must be provided with information to encourage participation; and meet their need for emotional support and knowledge. Diagnostic audiology reports can help provide this information, but their delivery alone is insufficient. If these reports are not readable and comprehendible they cannot meet national and international legal standards, nor can they support the health literacy of parents. The majority of New Zealand adults have insufficient health literacy skills, a concerning fact given the strong association between poor health literacy and negative health outcomes. The aim of this study was to evaluate a paediatric diagnostic audiology report, revise it and verify the revision. A mock audiology report was evaluated via a readability analysis and semi-structured interviews with parent participants. Results confirmed that the report was difficult to read and understand. Next, the report was revised using best practice guidelines and parental recommendations. Verification of the revision process with 32 participants revealed that parents who read the revised report had significantly greater comprehension, self-efficacy and perception ratings than parents who read the unrevised report. Additionally, the report’s readability was markedly improved. These results may have critical implications for parents and their children with HI. Incomprehensible audiology reports fail to support parental health literacy, promote understanding, encourage participation or offer emotional support. Because knowledge is power for these families, it is hoped that the findings of this study will be recognised and implemented into clinical practice.

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  • Response of New Zealand birds to the presence of novel predators

    White, Robyn (2014)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Predation is the highest cause of mortality for birds and can place intense selection pressures on their behavioural traits. A number of studies have shown that some animals have innate predator recognition, while others which are predator-naïve have been unable to adapt to the introduction of exotic predators. For my thesis, I firstly studied how eight species of introduced and native birds respond to model predators at their nests. This enabled me to determine whether the native birds have been able to adapt to introduced mammalian predators and have developed recognition of them being a threat. In most species, the reaction to the stoat (Mustela erminea) (an introduced predator) was similar to that of a model morepork (Ninox novaeseelandiae) (a native predator). This suggests these species can successfully recognise introduced mammals as a risk. It also allowed me to test whether recently introduced birds have any innate recognition of snakes, which are a significant nest predator in their native ranges but do not exist in New Zealand. I found that introduced birds did not appear to have any recognition of snakes as being a threat. These losses and gains of recognition may have been caused by evolutionary changes or they may be influenced by learning and experience. Secondly, I examined how South Island robins (Petroica australis) on a predator-free island responded to predator models and compared this to the responses of robins on the mainland (where they co-occur with mammalian predators). The island birds were assumed to show the ancestral reactions to mammalian predators, while any differences in response shown by the mainland robins would indicate they had acquired these behaviours in response to increased predation risk. I found that the island robins did not appear to recognise or react to a taxidermic mount of a stoat while mainland robins did respond to the stoat, confirming that at least some native birds can develop recognition of novel predators. Finally, I compared the personalities of South Island robins on a predator-free island and on the mainland (where mammalian predators are present). I tested where individuals placed on the ‘bold-shy’ continuum by observing their willingness and speed to approach a risky situation in order to collect food. Studies have shown that average personality between populations can differ where predation risk differs. I found that the island robins were on average bolder than mainland robins. They came nearer to the observer and were faster to approach and remove a food item, while mainland robins were less likely to approach, and those that did approach took a longer time. It is likely that these differences were due to selection pressures by mammalian predators favouring shy individuals on the mainland while other pressures such as interspecific competition favours bold individuals on the island. Personality has been shown to be genetic and heritable, however, learning and experience cannot be ruled out and may also play a part in influencing how personality is expressed. Together, my results support the importance of historical and ontogenetic factors in influencing how predator recognition and personality traits are expressed.

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  • Emotional appeals: the effects of donation button design on donor behaviour

    Seyb, Stella Kara (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Webpage design is an important factor in the capturing of new donor populations and increasing charitable giving. Charities often use emotional appeals when soliciting donations but little is known about the effects of embedding different verbal triggers directly into donation buttons. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of three emotional triggers on donor compliance, donation amount and trust in the charity. A between-groups experimental design was used to test six hypotheses regarding the impact of social approval, empowerment, and guilt on donor compliance, donation amount and trust in the charity. Eighty students completed the research protocol using a simulated online donating platform. The hypotheses were not supported and the implications of the findings are discussed within the context of the strengths and limitations of the research design.

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  • Detailed characterisation of ground water nitrate/leachate flow in gravelly deposits using EM and GPR methods with particular reference to temporal flow changes

    James, Matt (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Irthing Road is situated 20 kilometres north of the small town of Lumsden in Northern Southland, New Zealand. Irthing Road is accessed from State Highway 97 and leads north-west for 7 kilometres up the Irthing Creek Valley. The research site is situated 4.4 kilometres from the Irthing Road - State Highway 97 intersection and the area is at 300 metres elevation above sea level on gently south sloping Quaternary alluvial deposits. The study was initiated by Environment Southland and Southern Geophysical Ltd with the intention of investigating the potential uses of near surface geophysics in the mapping of shallow groundwater contamination, specifically agriculturally sourced nitrates and leachates. The changes in land use and the introduction of high density grazing of dairy cattle on free draining soils in Southland has created cause for concern around the ease at which large volumes of contaminants could potentially gain access to the shallow groundwater system. The investigation of the Irthing Road field site included: (1) background research into historical land use changes that may have affected the area 2) a study of the Lumsden area geological and hydrogeological setting 3) six trips to the field site throughout the year to collect near surface geophysical data using a Geonics Ltd EM31-MK2, Dualem Inc. DUAL-EM 421s, and Sensors & Software pulseEKKO Pro GPR system; 4) ground- water testing conducted by Environment Southland; 5) an evaluation of the geophysical and groundwater data sets to identify whether leachate concentrations were high enough to register an anomalous response 6) the identification of how the groundwater system at the Irthing Road field site behaves 7) a conclusion as to the effectiveness of all three near surface geophysical techniques in this application. The major conclusions that emerged from this study are: (1) the groundwater system is transporting a large volume of water beneath the site and this leads to such effi- cient removal of contaminants that the concentrations are not high enough to register a response in the geophysical data 2) the groundwater system is highly sensitive to rain- fall and this is a contributing factor to the variation within the geophysical data 3) the Geonics Ltd EM31-MK2 and Sensors & Software pulseEKKO Pro GPR system returned highly consistent results and have great potential in further contaminated groundwater applications 4) Environment Southlands' DUAL-EM 421s needs more consistency, how- ever the device has a lot of potential once reliability can be ensured 5) further research is needed to determine the contamination ow paths and destinations at a larger, regional scale.

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  • The role of autonomy in the self-management of exercise in emerging adults with type 1 diabetes – an exploratory study.

    McPherson, Melinda Clare (2014)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The aim of the study was to explore the role of autonomy in participants’ self-management of exercise behaviours and the transfer of responsibility throughout adolescence. The design of this study used qualitative description with information collected and presented using a case study approach. Participants were five emerging adults (aged 18–24) with Type 1 diabetes for a minimum of one year who lived in Canterbury. Data was gathered through three sources: a semi-structured interview seeking self-reported exercise throughout adolescence, a set of questionnaires based on four instruments, and physical activity performed over a week as recorded by an activity monitor. All participants achieved autonomy for exercise, however participants achieved autonomy at different ages. Participants’ diabetes self-management and physical activity levels varied according to their stage of life and lifestyle. They received varying advice about exercise from health professionals. Participants sought to determine their own exercise choices during adolescence, leading them to obtain a driver licence to be independent of parental transport. Three of the five met current guidelines for physical activity levels, and another met recommendations by her clinician. Policy implications regarding healthcare advice and barriers to exercise for young people are discussed, as are limitations of the research and future avenues for research.

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  • Screening for Antisocial Development

    Tyler-Merrick, Gaye Margaret (2014)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Teachers report that there are an increased number of students engaging in persistent antisocial behaviour in their classrooms. Teachers need to identify these students early because if there is early identification then there is the potential for early intervention, which in turn may prevent negative long-term outcomes for these students as well as long-term costs to society. The aims of this study were (1) develop a psychometrically sound, cost effective, three-step multiple gating behaviour screening procedure that teachers could use in their kindergarten/classroom so that they could identify those students at-risk of antisocial development, (2) examine if the third gate of this procedure was necessary for the accurate identification of these students, and (3) could such a screening procedure be adapted for classroom teacher use in New Zealand kindergartens and schools. Forty eight teachers from three kindergartens and 10 primary/intermediate schools volunteered for the study, of which 34 teachers completed all three gates of the screening procedure. Results indicate the three gate screening procedure was easily adapted for kindergarten and classroom use with, at Gate 3, teachers’ self-recording 30 direct observations of a nominated and control student during their normal teaching lesson with good accuracy. All three gates were effective in identifying those students at-risk of antisocial development but Gates 1 and 2 were the most effective in terms of accuracy, time and resourcing. The teachers found the three gate procedure manageable, required very little training and did not interrupt classroom routine or schedules. The implications of these findings are discussed.

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  • International Student Mobility and Internationalisation of Universities - The role of serendipity, risk and uncertainty in student mobility and the development of cosmopolitan mind-sets through knowledge and intercultural competence. Employability, students’ future mobility aspirations and the EU’s support of international student mobility

    Weibl, Gabriel (2014)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The background to this study lies in the discrepancy between the perceptions of international student mobility in the context of the internationalisation of higher education by the EU and universities on one hand and international students themselves in terms of their motivations to study abroad on the other hand. This is a comparative study based on three main case studies, of six universities in New Zealand, Oxford University in the UK and the Charles University in the Czech Republic. It explores the students’ experiences abroad in terms of their intercultural competence, the shaping of identities, the acquisition and transfer of knowledge, the possible forming of cosmopolitan mind-sets and empathy, perceptions of employability and their future mobility aspirations. This thesis also considers the barriers and ‘push and pull’ factors of mobility, perceptions of risk and uncertainty in regards to mobility and the role of serendipity in student mobility, which has been overlooked in the literature on mobility and migration. The theoretical framework of the study builds on social capital theory, Europeanisation and the ‘do-it-yourself biography’ theory. The nature of this topic, however, suggested the employment of the concepts of globalisation, transnationalism and consideration of other forms of capital, such as the total human capital, mobility capital and transnational identity capital. This is predominantly a qualitative, mixed-method and longitudinal research project, which uses surveys, case studies, interviews and the data collecting tool called grounded theory. It triangulates data to support and enhance the analytical validity of the thesis. This research concludes that student experiences abroad as well as the internationalisation efforts of universities and the EU would benefit from the introduction of education for global citizenship, which should focus on the intercultural competencies of students. The thesis suggests sociocultural elements for example the cosmopolitan mind-set can enhance the economic, academic and political rationales of internationalisation, such as employability.

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  • Discovery of novel circular replication-associated protein encoding single-stranded DNA viruses in ecosystems using viral metagenomic approaches

    Dayaram, Anisha (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The introduction of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies has dramatically changed the field of virology, with many significant discoveries of novel circular replication-associated protein (Rep) encoding single-stranded (CRESS) DNA viruses. Traditionally, most research into CRESS DNA viruses has often focused on investigating plant and animal pathogens that are of significant economic importance. This research has led to the discovery and establishment of three different CRESS DNA families including Geminiviridae, Nanoviridae and Circoviridae, which infect eukaryotes. CRESS DNA viruses can have single or multicomponent genomes, with the latter requiring all components for infection. CRESS DNA viruses have circular single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) genomes with at least one protein encoding a Rep which is responsible for viral replication. It has been shown that CRESS DNA viruses are able to evolve rapidly with nucleotide substitution rates that are similar to those observed in RNA viruses. The Rep gene has conserved regions known as motifs which are often used to determine relatedness between CRESS DNA virus. NGS has expanded our knowledge on the diversity of novel CRESS DNA viruses. Viral genomes are now routinely recovered from different sample types without any prior knowledge of the viral sequence. This has led to the development of the field of viral ecology. This field places an emphasis on viruses being one of the most abundant organisms on earth, and are therefore likely to play a major role in ecosystems. Environmental metagenomic studies have isolated CRESS DNA viruses from sea water, freshwater, faecal matter from various animals, soil, the atmosphere, sediments and sewage; dramatically increasing the known CRESS DNA viral genomes in the public domain. These studies are shedding light on the distribution of CRESS DNA viruses, as well as providing baseline data for future studies to examine virus-host interactions, community structure and ultimately viral evolution. Vector enable metagenomics (VEM) is another novel approach utilising NGS techniques for discovering CRESS DNA viruses. As many plant-infecting CRESS DNA viruses such as geminiviruses and nanoviruses are vectored by insects, this approach exploits this mechanism by using insect vectors as a surveillance tool to monitor and survey these viruses circulating in ecosystems. Recent studies have used these methods to identify known viral plant pathogens as well as novel viruses circulating in insect vectors such as whiteflies and other higher order insects such a mosquitoes and dragonflies. These approaches successfully demonstrated that VEM can be used as a unique method, with the first mastrevirus discovered in the new world being recovered from dragonfly species Erythrodiplax fusca using this approach. The research in this thesis uses metagenomics to survey CRESS DNA viral diversity in different organisms and environments. Two hundred and sixty eight novel CRESS DNA viruses were recovered and verified in this study from a range of sample types (adult Odonata, Odonata larvae, Mollusca, benthic sediment, water, Oligochaeta and Chironomidae) collected in the United States of America, Australia and New Zealand. All viral genomes isolated had two major proteins encoding for a putative Rep and coat protein (CP), with major Rep motifs identified in most Reps. Phylogenetic analysis of the Reps encoded by the viral genomes highlighted that most were extremely diverse falling outside of the previously described ssDNA viral families. A top-down approach was implemented to recover CRESS DNA viruses and possible viral pathogens from Odonata and their larvae. Thirty six viral genomes were recovered from terrestrial adult dragonflies as well as the twenty four from aquatic larvae. Dragonfly cycloviruses were isolated from the some adult Odonata species which were closely related to the isolates previously described by Rosario et al. (2012). The viruses isolated in the aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems differed substantially indicating that different CRESS DNA viromes exist in both land and water. The diversity of CRESS DNA viruses in seven different mollusc species (Amphibola crenata, Austrolvenus stutchburyi, Paphies subtriangulata, Musculium novazelandiae, Potamopyrgus antipodarum, Physella acuta and Echyridella menziesi) from Lake Sarah and the Avon-Heathcote estuary both in New Zealand, were also investigated. One hundred and forty nine novel viral genomes were recovered. Two CRESS DNA genomes were recovered from molluscs which have Rep-like sequences most closely related to those found in some bacterial genomes. Sclerotinia sclerotiorum hypovirulence-associated DNA virus 1 (SsHADV-1) was originally isolated from fungal species Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in china and was later found in benthic sediments in New Zealand. As part of this study, SsHADV-1 was recovered from dragonflies (Erythemis simplicicollis, Ischnura ramburii and Pantala hymenaea) collected in Arizona and Oklahoma, USA suggesting a larger distribution of these viruses and not surprising given the near global distribution of S. sclerotiorum. Dragonfly larvae-associated circular DNA viruses (DflaCVs) that were originally isolated in Odonata larvae samples from three New Zealand lakes were later recovered from water, benthic sediment, worms and molluscs from one of the lakes initially sampled, suggesting that these viruses are ubiquitous in freshwater environments. This study has attempted to generate baseline data of CRESS DNA viruses in certain environments using NGS-informed approaches. This data was used to try and establish whether viral distribution in different samples types can potentially be explained by the food web interactions between different samples types. Although the analysis did not show any significant relationships between sample type interactions and viral distribution a few common associations between Odonata larvae and benthic sediment were evident. This was expected as the larvae live within the sediment so it could be assumed that they potentially have similar CRESS DNA viral distribution. Although the distribution of viruses varied across sample types, molluscs proved the best sampling tool for isolating largest numbers of CRESS DNA viruses in an ecosystem with extensive diversity. Overall, this research demonstrates the applications of NGS for investigating the diversity of CRESS DNA viruses. It demonstrates that some sample types such as Odonata in terrestrial systems and molluscs in aquatic environments, can be used as effective sampling tool to determine the diversity of CRESS DNA viruses in different environments as well as detecting previously isolated viruses. The CRESS DNA viruses isolated in this body of work provides baseline data that can potentially be used in future research to investigate hosts of these viruses and their interactions with hosts and potential flow in their environments.

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  • Psychology in the 21st C – Getting over our addiction to p so our research can be evidence for our practice.

    Blampied, N.M. (2014)

    Conference Contributions - Other
    University of Canterbury Library

    Psychology in the 21st C – Getting over our addiction to p so our research can be evidence for our practice Neville M Blampied University of Canterbury In the middle years of the 20th C two things happened that had far-reaching impacts on psychology. The first was the invention by R.A Fisher and other statisticians of modern factorial research designs, requiring random assignment of participants to conditions and statistical inference based on null-hypothesis statistical tests (NHST) of group averages. By the mid 1950’s researchers in psychology were ‘addicted to p’ and the use of NHST became essential for research to be published. The second development occurring at almost the same time, was the development by the American Psychological Association of the scientist-practitioner model of clinical practice. This ideal rapidly became the dominant model for university training of clinical psychologists in the USA and has been generalised to the training of applied psychologists in general and across the world. Not surprisingly, the ‘scientist’ part of the scientist-practitioner ideal became closely associated with NHST-based research. Clinical and applied research has for nearly 50 years thus also been ‘addicted to p’, dominated by the search for statistical significance among group mean differences rather than clinical or practical significance and unable legitimately to make inferences about individual clients. The contemporary rise of the evidence-based practice movement, which can be considered a reformulation of the scientist-practitioner model, has brought sharply into focus again what has also been known for most of those 50 years: Our research methods, and especially our data analysis methods, are poorly adapted to the needs of practice. Research is about ideal, abstract, average types; practice is about individuals in all their diversity and variability. Furthermore, there is now an emergent ‘crisis’ in psychology due to the recognition that much of our research fails to replicate. I will review this lamentable history, and then consider some of the ways that we can adapt our research practices to make them much better adapted to evidence-based practice. These include the use of single—case research designs and novel methods of visual analysis of data. Reference: Blampied, N.M. (2013). Single-case research and the scientist-practitioner ideal in applied psychology. In G. Madden (Editor-in-chief). Handbook of Behavior Analysis Vol 1. (pp 177 – 197). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

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  • Clinical Results From a Glycaemic Control Protocol Implementation in Neonatal Care

    Dickson, J.L.; LeCompte, A.J.; Lynn, A.M.; Desaive, T.; Benyo, B.; Chase, J.G. (2014)

    Conference Contributions - Other
    University of Canterbury Library

    Hyperglycaemia is associated with increased mortality and morbidity in neonatal intensive care. STAR-GRYPHON is a model-based glycaemic control protocol, which uses insulin sensitivity to tailor insulin treatments to patients and changing patient condition. It is implemented as a standard of care in a neonatal intensive care unit in Christchurch, New Zealand.

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  • Guidance on disaster waste management using influencing factors

    Brown, C.O.; Milke, M.W. (2014)

    Conference Contributions - Other
    University of Canterbury Library

    Disaster waste management guidance can too readily focus only on the techniques needed to manage the manifold problems presented. Disasters can vary greatly from one to another, and the waste management issues after disasters can also vary (Brown et al., 2011). The variation between events is so great that guidance manuals can be reduced to either broad general statements of the relevant topics, or else provide a series of case studies that are difficult to use in pre-disaster planning. Analysis of waste management after past disasters makes it clear that, in spite of the great differences between disasters, waste managers faced similar key decisions. Those decisions were influenced by common factors. There is a need for disaster waste management guidance that differentiates between likely situations and focuses on key decisions.

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  • Services for women with female genital mutilation in Christchurch : perspectives of women and their health providers

    Hussen, Marian Aden (2014)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Abstract In recent decades there has been increased immigration to New Zealand of women from East Africa. These countries have the highest prevalence rates (between 90-97%) of Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) worldwide. FGM therefore has become part of the care experience of some New Zealand health providers. Information on FGM is available on the New Zealand Ministry of Health website. This study captures the experience of a group of East African women in Christchurch who have undergone FGM and given birth in Christchurch Hospitals. Two focus groups, each with ten women, were held so that women could talk about their health services experience. A narrative approach was adopted, listening to their stories in order to explore, to gain insight and to understand how these women felt during reproductive and antenatal care, childbirth and after childbirth. Interviews with three health providers sought their experiences of caring for women with FGM. The study identifies diverse potential explanations with the focus group members telling their stories and identifying issues related to FGM. Several short case histories are presented to illustrate these experiences. The thematic analysis reported four themes: satisfaction with clinical care, concern about infibulation, barriers to knowledge for women, and problems of cross-cultural communication. Health providers reported similar issues, with themes related to their own clinical experience, knowledge gaps, and need for greater cultural understanding and communication. These themes reflect the journey of the East African women with FGM in Christchurch and the challenges faced by them and their providers. This research recommends that women with FGM receive more education and support to manage their relationships with the health system and their own health. Health providers need continuing education and further support in the psychosocial, psychological and physical health needs of East African women living in Christchurch. Service outcomes should be evaluated.

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  • Values in Antarctica: Discourse Analyses of Two Topical Issues in Antarctic Policy

    Engelbertz, Sira (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    In light of growing international awareness and interests in the ‘frozen continent’ of Antarctica, the topic of Values in Antarctica has recently gained more research interest. Due to the complexity of the concept of value, values in Antarctica have been approached from many different perspectives, including Antarctic wilderness and aesthetic values, values manifested in Antarctic law or value based behavioural changes through the Antarctic experience. The present thesis addresses values as human connections to Antarctica with a focus on Antarctic policy-making. The investigation contained three analytical stages that built on each other. The first stage has been an interdisciplinary literature review examining what values are and how values can be studied, but also considered values in the context of environment, human behaviour and policy. Value and value-related concepts were selected in view of a potential application to the Antarctic. The second analytical stage involved a general framework analysis of the Antarctic Treaty System to identify key elements and structures in the system suitable for a study of Antarctic values, and to develop the research questions. The third stage of analysis included empirical investigations of two Antarctic case studies. Key elements that influence the Antarctic Treaty System in a way that is relevant for a study of Antarctic values include external factors and events, action situations and actors participating in these action situations. Antarctic Treaty Meeting of Experts appeared as an action situation particularly suitable for a study of Antarctic values. The last two Antarctic Treaty Meeting of Experts on ship-borne tourism and climate change have been chosen as case studies, presenting two topical issues in Antarctic policy. Using discourse analysis based on documents submitted to the meetings and the meetings’ reports, values that are driving the discourses were to be identified through structures and patterns in the discourses. Further, based on the discourse analysis following three research questions were to be answered: What role is ascribed to Antarctica concerning contemporary issues? Where and why do conflicts arise in the ATS policy-making process that are based on conflicting values? What changes in the underlying belief-systems are driving policy-making processes and what has caused the change? Based on the literature, values are defined as internalised codes that affect behaviour and include judgements on what is good and desirable. Through the framework analysis it was identified that Antarctic policy involves a multi-layered system of different value systems, which was considered in the two case studies. For both case studies, values in the discourses were mostly identified based on Schwartz’s basic human value theory. The most prominent human value that drives both the ship-born tourism and the climate change discourse is security. Both discourses are further motivated by the conservation of the Antarctic environment and its associated ecosystems. Other values, such as power and conformity with rules were also clearly expressed in the discourses. With regard to the research questions, both case studies discussed Antarctica from two different perspectives, as a hazardous place for human activities and as a place vulnerable to any kind of changes. Conflicts in the ship-borne tourism discourse were more obvious, while the climate change discourse within the expert meeting proceeded in consensus. Value-based changes that are evident in changes in belief-systems underlying Antarctic policy-making could not be identified. This thesis argues, based on careful consideration of documents, that values play a crucial role in Antarctic policy-making at a number of different scales: individuals, political actors, and governmental levels. Values were found to be at the core of most, if not all, conflicts within the Antarctic system. Finally, this thesis provides the first understanding of the values held by the various stakeholders involved in governing and use of the Antarctic, which is crucial for further decision-making and research.

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  • Neighbourhoods of Phylogenetic Trees: Exact and Asymptotic Counts

    de Jong, Jamie Victoria (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    A central theme in phylogenetics is the reconstruction and analysis of evolutionary trees from a given set of data. To determine the optimal search methods for the reconstruction of trees, it is crucial to understand the size and structure of neighbourhoods of trees under tree rearrangement operations. The diameter and size of the immediate neighbourhood of a tree has been well-studied, however little is known about the number of trees at distance two, three or (more generally) k from a given tree. In this thesis we explore previous results on the size of these neighbourhoods under common tree rearrangement operations (NNI, SPR and TBR). We obtain new results concerning the number of trees at distance k from a given tree under the Robinson-Foulds (RF) metric and the Nearest Neighbour Interchange (NNI) operation, and the number of trees at distance two from a given tree under the Subtree Prune and Regraft (SPR) operation. We also obtain an exact count for the number of pairs of binary phylogenetic trees that share a first RF or NNI neighbour.

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  • When Terra is no longer Firma: Enabling wellbeing by helping children to be reflective, relational and resilient learners

    Jamieson, Sandra (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This thesis focuses attention on the ongoing effects of the earthquakes on children in Christchurch. It identifies the learning and behavioural difficulties evident in an increasing number of students and cautions the use of the word 'resilient' to describe children who may be just managing. This assumption has a significant impact on the wellbeing of many Christchurch children who, disaster literature warns, are likely to be under-served. This thesis suggests that, because of the scale of need, schools are the best place to introduce practices that will foster wellbeing. Mindfulness practices are identified as a potential tool for ameliorating the vulnerabilities experienced by children, while at the same time working to increase their capabilities. This thesis argues that, through mindful practices, children can learn to be more reflective of their emotions and respond in more considered ways to different situations. They can become more relational, having a greater understanding of others through a deeper understanding of themselves, and they can build resilience by developing the protective factors that promote more adaptive functioning. This thesis identifies the strong links between mindfulness and the holistic wellbeing concept of Te Whare Tapa Whã and a Mãori worldview. Strong links are also identified with the vision, values and key competencies of the New Zealand Curriculum and 21st Century learners. Both short and long term recommendations are made for the introduction of mindfulness practices in schools to enhance the wellbeing of children.  

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  • Landfill Design Teaching: An Ideal Design Project for Civil/Environmental Engineers?

    Milke, M.W. (2014)

    Conference Contributions - Other
    University of Canterbury Library

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  • Dialect difference: Can awareness improve outcomes for struggling readers?

    Belgrave, J.; Everatt, J.; Fletcher, J. (2015)

    Conference Contributions - Other
    University of Canterbury Library

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  • Shame and relationship difficulties in dissociative identity disorder

    Dorahy, M.J.; Seager, L.; Middleton, W. (2014)

    Oral Presentations
    University of Canterbury Library

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  • Treating simple and complex trauma: What to do and when. [Treatment workshop]

    Dorahy, M. J. (2014)

    Oral Presentations
    University of Canterbury Library

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