12,115 results for 2000, University of Canterbury Library

  • A comparison of MDMA (Ecstasy) and 3,4-methylenedioxymethcathinone (Methylone) in their acute behavioural effects and development of tolerance in rats

    Davidson, Mark L. (2016)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Methylone (3,4-methylenedioxymethcathinone), the β-ketone analogue of the popular party drug MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, “ecstasy”), is a relatively new designer drug that is reported to have similar subjective effects and psychopharmacological properties to MDMA. However, unlike MDMA, little is known about the acute behavioural effects or the effects of repeated use of this drug. The goal of the current thesis was to investigate the behavioural effects of methylone and compare these to the effects of MDMA using an animal model. The second aim was to determine whether there was evidence of behavioural sensitisation or tolerance to methylone with repeated exposure. To achieve this, 108 male and female PVG/c hooded rats (6M and 6F per group) were administered various doses of MDMA or methylone (2.5, 5, 8, 12mg/kg), or saline vehicle (i.p.). The behavioural effects of these drugs were examined 20 m later, including horizontal locomotor activity, rearing behaviour, and central occupancy of an open field, anxiety behaviours in a light/dark box, and working memory in a novel object recognition task. The results showed that MDMA and methylone administration produce similar, but not identical, behaviours. Methylone was shown to produce greater psychostimulant effects, while MDMA produced more toxic effects. Female rats demonstrated greater psychostimulant effects than males, while males had higher rates of lethality. In order to assess the effects of repeated drug use, one week after binge-type drug administration of MDMA or methylone (5 mg/kg for 3 doses every 1h on 2 consecutive days), open field and light/dark box testing was repeated following a further 5 mg/kg challenge of drug. There was no evidence of locomotor sensitisation in the open field, although females showed sensitisation in rearing activity. These findings suggest that methylone may produce less toxic, but more stimulant, effects than MDMA. Methylone may therefore be a cocaine-MDMA mixed psychostimulant, both in a psychopharmacological and a behavioural sense.

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  • The 21st Century Landscape of Assessment and Implication on Student Engagement

    Compton, Jessica (2016)

    Journal Articles
    University of Canterbury Library

    High-stakes testing has encouraged achievement at a low-level baseline and successfully disconnected many students from their passion to learn. Simultaneously, the globalised nature of the twenty-first century world requires students to develop additional skills and knowledge beyond the traditional core subjects to thrive. There is a dire need for better summative tests which encourage students to engage in real-world challenges, rather than regurgitate memorised information. Additionally, though summative and formative assessment are both necessary in the teaching and learning process, formative assessment is more effective in the learning process and complements the development of these needed twenty-first century skills. Therefore, teachers should actively emphasise and implement formative assessment in order to develop engaged learners prepared for the twenty-first century.

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  • Positive Behaviour Management: A Critique of Literature

    Reveley, Emma (2016)

    Journal Articles
    University of Canterbury Library

    The current paper reviews literature surrounding Positive Behaviour Supports (PBS) and Positive Behaviour for learning (PB4L) with reference to the findings in a number of research papers. The aim of the current critique was to review the literature, report the findings, and identify limitations to provide contexts for future research in New Zealand. The results of the review indicated that the influence of positive behaviour management strategies was mostly positive, for instance student achievement, behaviour and school outcomes were all shown to increase when positive behaviour management strategies were implemented in a range of studies. There were a number of factors identified as fundamental to the implementation of positive management strategies, such as the necessity of the whole school being involved, and accurate data gathering in order to foster efficacy of these programs. Although the findings were mostly positive, there were gaps identified in the literature. There was a lack of gender identification as reported in the results of the studies, and there was also a lack in ethnicity data provided which is important in a New Zealand context. More research is needed in the New Zealand context in order to take into account the unique culture of Aoteoroa, as the results may differ from the findings of studies overseas. Keywords:

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  • Presenting a United Front: Parental Involvement Facilitating Children's Literacy Development

    Thomas, Julie (2016)

    Journal Articles
    University of Canterbury Library

    Literacy development is recognised across both education policy and research literature as essential for educational success. Historically, literacy has mainly been a focus for teachers within the classroom, however a growing body of research has established correlations between parental involvement and students’ literacy achievement. This literature review critiques the body of research examining the relationship between both home-based and school-based parental involvement and literacy development. Studies have consistently found positive associations between parental involvement in literacy practices and students’ literacy achievement. Research indicates that despite these positive correlations, many parents do not engage in literacy practices with their children. This review discusses the barriers which prevent some families from engaging in these literacy practices with their children and presents a New Zealand case study highlighting a home-school partnership programme which addresses these barriers with the goal of raising student literacy achievement. Through the conclusions drawn from the critique of the research and case study presented, this literature review establishes best practice for parents and teachers and suggests relevant direction for future research into home-school partnership programmes aimed at increasing parental involvement.

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  • Challenges facing Educators with regard to Gender and Sexuality Diverse Students

    Edmunds, Catherine (2016)

    Journal Articles
    University of Canterbury Library

    Inclusivity is at the heart of education in New Zealand and is founded on the key principle that every student deserves to feel like they belong in the school environment. One important aspect of inclusion is how Gender and Sexuality Diverse (GSD) students are being supported in educational settings. This critical literature review identified three key challenges facing educators that prevent GSD students from being fully included at school. Teachers require professional development in order to discuss GSD topics, bullying and harassment of GSD individuals are dealt with on an as-needs basis rather than address underlying issues, and a pervasive culture of heteronormativity both within educational environments and New Zealand society all contribute to GSD students feeling excluded from their learning environments. A clear recommendation drawn from the literature examined is that the best way to instigate change is to use schools for their fundamental purpose: learning. Schools need to learn strategies to make GSD students feel safe, teachers need to learn how to integrate GSD topics into their curriculum and address GSD issues within the school, and students need to learn how to understand the gender and sexuality diverse environments they are growing up in.

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  • Partnerships for Learning: Peer Group Influences on Learning Outcomes

    Wilson, Dan (2016)

    Journal Articles
    University of Canterbury Library

    The present study reviews the available literature concerning the ways in which peer groups (within and beyond the classroom) influence personal academic achievement for primary and secondary school students. Owing in part to the lack of literature identified, a focus is taken on contextualising the findings of the relevant studies within New Zealand educational practice guidelines. Total variation of peer group academic achievement, level of intrinsic reward gained from academic activities, cultural affiliation, group norms, peer acceptance and friend attachment are explored as possible mediating variables for the commonly observed causal (potentially non-linear) relationship between peer and personal academic performance. Suggestions for future research and suggestions for changing classroom practice including extra-curricular activities, reciprocal learning, collaborative reasoning and particularly fostering a community of learners are provided.

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  • The Impact of Early Childhood Teacher-Child Relationships on Social Adjustment and Behaviour

    Pavelka, Ariana (2016)

    Journal Articles
    University of Canterbury Library

    This literature review examines the significance of teacher-child relationships on social adjustment and behaviour in school contexts. It draws on a range of research to explore the impact of the quality of teacher-child relationships. It identifies factors that enhance positive outcomes, such as high quality professional relationships, closeness (for girls in particular) and courteous behaviour. In addition it considers factors that detract from positive outcomes for both teacher and children. These include problem behaviour, conflict (especially for boys) and dependency. Suggestions for future research identified in the studies reviewed were included with an emphasis on the contributions of both teacher and child

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  • Homework in Secondary School: Helpful or Hindrance?

    Dickson, Madeleine (2016)

    Journal Articles
    University of Canterbury Library

    Homework is a key element of secondary schooling across many contemporary education systems worldwide. However, debate about the value and efficacy of homework at the secondary school level is ongoing. Proponents of homework promote its numerous benefits for learning and achievement, while critics challenge the merit of homework, and highlight the potentially detrimental impacts it can have on student learning. Overall, the evidence from current research and literature shows that homework at the secondary school level generally has a positive impact on student academic achievement and learning. However, many factors and variables can influence this link in both a positive and negative fashion. These variables include: parental income and socio-economic status, parental support vs. control, quantity of homework completed, and overall time spent on completing homework. The research also suggests that homework is most useful and effective when it is used to expand upon concepts already taught in class, and when students have intrinsic motivation to engage with and complete homework.

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  • Perspectives on Narrative Assessment and Alternative Techniques in an Early Childhood Setting

    FitzGerald, Bethan (2016)

    Journal Articles
    University of Canterbury Library

    Assessment practices in education are important because they evidence desired and actual learning outcomes of curriculum. In Aotearoa New Zealand narrative assessment in the form of Learning Stories is the assessment method used for the National early childhood curriculum Te Whāriki. This literature review collates different perspectives on the current approach of assessing dispositional learning and working theories through narrative stories, with the intention that a best practice outcome might be observed. Quantitative studies appeared scarce on this subject, with most literature consisting of qualitative verdicts and theory-based opinions. Findings support the current assessment and curriculum goals in New Zealand, but valid concerns raised support further consideration and more substantial research.

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  • Parental Involvement in Home-Based Education

    van Gelder-Horgan, Karen (2016)

    Journal Articles
    University of Canterbury Library

    Decades of research have shown that parental involvement in education can have a crucial influence on the development and achievement of students. This involvement can present itself both within and outside of school hours. The current literature review explores parental involvement in a home-based context, briefly looking at the ways in which involvement can be shown. The scope of Parental involvement is then covered, identifying trends which occur in achievement when parents are involved and support their child in their education. This review then looks at the barriers which hinder parental involvement and in turn identifies strategies that can be implemented to foster increased involvement. Barriers covered include: parental beliefs, the nature and quality of the parent-teacher partnership and the ethnic diversity of students and families within the school. In summary, this review emphasises how teachers can facilitate parental involvement as a means of increasing the achievement of their students.

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  • The Undrained Cyclic Response of Monterey Sand in Direct Simple Shear

    Cappellaro, C.; Cubrinovski, M.; Bray, J.D.; Stringer, M.E.; Riemer, M.F.; Chiaro, G. (2016)

    Conference Contributions - Other
    University of Canterbury Library

    In 2010 and 2011 a series of earthquakes hit the central region of Canterbury, New Zealand, triggering widespread and damaging liquefaction in the area of Christchurch. Liquefaction occurred in natural clean sand deposits, but also in silty (fines-containing) sand deposits of fluvial origin. Comprehensive research efforts have been subsequently undertaken to identify key factors that influenced liquefaction triggering and severity of its manifestation. This research aims at evaluating the effects of fines content, fabric and layered structure on the cyclic undrained response of silty soils from Christchurch using Direct Simple Shear (DSS) tests. This poster outlines preliminary calibration and verification DSS tests performed on a clean sand to ensure reliability of testing procedures before these are applied to Christchurch soils.

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  • Evaluation of Liquefaction Potential of Pumiceous Deposits Through Field Testing

    Orense, R.P.; Wotherspoon, L.M.; Pender, M.J.; van Ballegooy, S.; Cubrinovski, M. (2016)

    Conference Contributions - Other
    University of Canterbury Library

    Pumice materials are frequently encountered in many engineering projects in New Zealand. Because of their lightweight, highly crushable and compressible nature, they are problematic from an engineering and construction viewpoint. However, there is very little information on the liquefaction characteristics of pumice deposits and most empirical procedures available for evaluating the liquefaction potential of sands are derived from hard-grained (quartz) sands.

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  • Informed preferences in forest-based land use planning in Indonesia : a methodological case study.

    Rahardja, Teguh (2005)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Indonesia is large and rich in natural resources. Its forest extends over 60 per cent of the country's land and contains many other natural resources. There are many stakeholders, often with conflicting interests. The demands placed on the forest have resulted in declining quantity and quality of the forest lands. People have recognised the need for reviewing and improving the forest-based land use plan, and, in so doing, promoting the participatory approach rather than the traditionally centralistic one. This has been attempted, but there were difficulties in the participatory evaluation of land use options' impacts. Therefore, this study aims to develop a method to help forestry-based land use planning take into account stakeholders' preferences after considering land use scenario consequences. Based on the situation in Indonesia and existing options, this study adopted the mixed rational-participatory approach. The rational side was attempted by FOLPI simulation of land use scenarios. An interview survey of opinions suggested eight scenarios of varying emphases on the economic, ecological and social aspects, which were simulated in FOLPI with area and resource data of each land use. The results were graphs of land use changes and their economic, ecological and social impacts. The participatory aspect was promoted by Q methodology applications. Q was used to analyse respondents' sorts of a set of statements about different aspects of land use planning, and revealed the typology and preferences of stakeholders with regard to land use planning. Using verbal statements in such exercises discovered the typology and normative preferences, while using the FOLPI application graphs as the statements disclosed the positive preferences. In tandem, they provide useful information as inputs to stakeholder deliberations towards a new, rational, and acceptable land use scenario. This study, therefore, recommends a method to help forest-based land use planning stakeholders. The method includes FOLPI simulation of the broad-scoped land use scenarios, and Q applications both the conventional verbal way and the innovative graphical way.

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  • Advanced surface texturing for silicon solar cells

    Ganesan, Kumaravelu (2005)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The multi-crystalline silicon (me-Si) solar cell is considered to be one of the most promising cells capable of achieving high efficiency at low cost and high reliability. Improving solar cells efficiency using low cost materials requires careful design considerations aiming to minimise the optical and electrical losses. In this work plasma texturing was employed to reduce optical reflections from silicon surfaces well below 1%. Plasma texturing is used to form light trapping structures suitable for silicon solar cells. Several plasma texturing methods are investigated and associated defects are analysed. Masked as well as mask-less texturing techniques are investigated. Conventional parallel plate Reactive Ion Elching (RIE), Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) and Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) plasma system are used to compare the plasma induced defects in silicon. The influence of various plasma etch parameters on plasma induced defect is investigated. A correlation between the minority carriers lifetime and surface area increased by texturing is established. Effective lifetime measurements using Quasi Steady State Photo Conductive (QSSPC) technique is mainly used to estimate the plasma induced defect in textured silicon substrates. Sinton lifetime tester is used to measure the effective lifetime of the substrates. The implied open circuit voltage is calculated from the lifetime data for textured substrates. In this work low temperature photoluminescence spectroscopy is also used to analyse the defect caused by plasma on me-Si substrates. Photoluminescence (PL) data is obtained using the 514.5 nm line of an Ar⁺ laser as an excitation source. The luminescence is dispersed with SPEX 1700 spectrometer with a liquid nitrogen cooled Germanium detector. Reflectance measurements are performed on textured surfaces usmg a purpose built integrating sphere attachment of a high accuracy spectrophotometer. Modelling is also performed using PV-optics software to compare the experimental and theoretical results. Finally, silicon solar cells are fabricated with measured efficiency around 18% . The efficiency is estimated from the I-V characteristics data obtained using a calibrated halogen lamp and a HP semiconductor parameter analyser. Spin-on-dopant source as well as solid diffusion source is used to form the ewitter junction of the solar cells fabricated on p-type silicon wafers. Multicrystalline silicon, CZ- silicon and FZ silicon wafers are used to fabricate solar cells in this thesis. The effect of single and double layer antireflection coatings on diffused reflections is also investigated.

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  • Effect of Partial Saturation on Liquefaction Triggering

    Baki, M.A; Cubrinovski, M; Stringer, Mark (2016)

    Conference Contributions - Other
    University of Canterbury Library

    To correlate liquefaction resistance with degree of saturation for characteristics Christchurch soils including sands with fines and silts.  To incorporate the effects of saturation in simplified procedures for liquefaction assessment.  Provide basis for quantifying the effects of partial saturation in advanced seismic analysis.

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  • Experimental investigation of the seismic residual capacity of earthquake-damaged concrete buildings: Preliminary results

    Cuevas, Alberto; Malek, A; Pampanin, S.; Scott, A.; MacRae, G.; Marder, K.; Elwood, K.; Clifton, G. (2016)

    Conference Contributions - Other
    University of Canterbury Library

    This poster presents preliminary results of ongoing experimental campaigns at the Universities of Auckland and Canterbury, aiming at investigating the seismic residual capacity of damaged reinforced concrete plastic hinges, as well as the effectiveness of epoxy injection techniques for restoring their stiffness, energy dissipation, and deformation capacity characteristics. This work is part of wider research project which started in 2012 at the University of Canterbury entitled “Residual Capacity and Repairing Options for Reinforced Concrete Buildings”, funded by the Natural Hazards Research Platform (NHRP). This research project aims at gaining a better understanding and providing the main end-users and stakeholders (practitioner engineers, owners, local and government authorities, insurers, and regulatory agencies) with comprehensive evidence-based information and practical guidelines to assess the residual capacity of damaged reinforced concrete buildings, as well as to evaluate the feasibility of repairing and thus support their delicate decision-making process of repair vs. demolition or replacement.

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  • Public Perceptions of Small to-Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in New Zealand - Implications for Policy Makers and Educators

    Egbelakin, T.; Becker, J.; Orchiston, C.; Ingham, J.; Johnston, D. (2016)

    Conference Contributions - Other
    University of Canterbury Library

    THIS STUDY EXPLORES HOW OWNERS OF SMALL TO-MEDIUM ENTERPRISES (SMEs) INTERPRET EARTHQUAKE RISKS AND RESPOND TO MITIGATION. THE RESEARCH EXAMINED THE VARIATIONS OF PERCEIVED SEISMIC RISKS AMONG SMEs BUSINESS OWNERS CONDUCTING THEIR OPERATIONS IN EARTHQUAKE-PRONE BUILDINGS (EPBs), AND HOW THESE VARIATIONS AFFECT THEIR DECISION TO OR NOT TO PREPARE FOR A POTENTIAL EARTHQUAKE DISASTER. THIS PROJECT FALLS UNDER THE FLAGSHIP THREE; EXAMINING SOCIETAL PERCEPTIONS AND POLICY IMPLICATIONS, AND EXAMINES AN OBJECTIVE UNDER THE PROJECT TITLED; “WHERE PERCEPTIONS AND POLICY MEET: UNDERSTANDING PATHWAYS TO IMPROVING MITIGATION FOR EARTHQUAKE PRONE BUILDINGS”.

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  • Public Perception of Earthquake Risks & Retrofitting of Heritage Buildings

    Yakubu, I.E.; Egbelakin, T.; Park, K.; Phipps, R. (2016)

    Conference Contributions - Other
    University of Canterbury Library

    This study aims to examine the public perception of earthquake risks and retrofitting of heritage buildings in New Zealand. In doing so, the study will seek: a. To examine the perception of the public concerning their earthquake safety in heritage buildings; b. To determine the level of value that the public attach to heritage buildings; c. To ascertain public preparedness in accepting a lower level of earthquake safety in order to retain heritage buildings; d. To examine how the public perception on earthquake occurrences, cultural values, and heritage preservation impact the degree of adoption of a nationally consistent approach that will address the risks posed by earthquakes and retrofitting of heritage buildings; e. To identify other attributes besides heritage where the public is prepared to accept a greater earthquake risk.

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  • Ground Motion Simulation Validation using Small-to-Moderate Magnitude Events in the Canterbury, New Zealand Region

    Lee, Robin L.; Bradley, Brendon; Jeong, Seokho; Razafindrakoto, Hoby; Thomson, Ethan (2016)

    Conference Contributions - Other
    University of Canterbury Library

    This poster presents work to date on ground motion simulation validation and inversion for the Canterbury, New Zealand region. Recent developments have focused on the collection of different earthquake sources and the verification of the SPECFEM3D software package in forward and inverse simulations. SPECFEM3D is an open source software package which simulates seismic wave propagation and performs adjoint tomography based upon the spectral-element method. Figure 2: Fence diagrams of shear wave velocities highlighting the salient features of the (a) 1D Canterbury velocity model, and (b) 3D Canterbury velocity model. Figure 5: Seismic sources and strong motion stations in the South Island of New Zealand, and corresponding ray paths of observed ground motions. Figure 3: Domain used for the 19th October 2010 Mw 4.8 case study event including the location of the seismic source and strong motion stations. By understanding the predictive and inversion capabilities of SPECFEM3D, the current 3D Canterbury Velocity Model can be iteratively improved to better predict the observed ground motions. This is achieved by minimizing the misfit between observed and simulated ground motions using the built-in optimization algorithm. Figure 1 shows the Canterbury Velocity Model domain considered including the locations of small-to-moderate Mw events [3-4.5], strong motion stations, and ray paths of observed ground motions. The area covered by the ray paths essentially indicates the area of the model which will be most affected by the waveform inversion. The seismic sources used in the ground motion simulations are centroid moment tensor solutions obtained from GeoNet. All earthquake ruptures are modelled as point sources with a Gaussian source time function. The minimum Mw limit is enforced to ensure good signal-to-noise ratio and well constrained source parameters. The maximum Mw limit is enforced to ensure the point source approximation is valid and to minimize off-fault nonlinear effects.

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  • Evaluation of Undisturbed Sampling Techniques for Pumiceous Soils

    Stringer, Mark; Orense, R.; Cubrinovski, M; Pender, M.; Asadi, M. (2016)

    Conference Contributions - Other
    University of Canterbury Library

    Soils containing pumice or volcanic ash are found across much of the North Island. In some cases, these soils are encountered in their original depositional state while in others they have been transported and redeposited in an alluvial environment. The engineering behaviour of soil containing pumice may be significantly affected by three key characteristic properties of pumice: High crushability Low unit weight Presence of voids on the grain surface

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