428 results for 2000, University of Otago, Journal article

  • Augmented reality projects in the automotive and aerospace industries

    Regenbrecht, Holger; Baratoff, G; Wilke, W (2005)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    To view the full text you require an IEEE log in. Click on the related link and you will be prompted for this.

    View record details
  • Cultural values and advertising in Malaysia: views from the industry

    Waller, David S; Fam, Kim-Shyan (2000)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    The full text of this item is available only via the related link.

    View record details
  • Keeping the stress off the sheep? Agricultural intensification, neoliberalism, and ‘good’ farming in New Zealand

    Campbell, Hugh; Haggerty, Julia; Morris, Carolyn (2008)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    Under neoliberal schemes like audit systems, consumer demands born of concerns about food safety, the environment and animal welfare are theoretically poised to influence agricultural production systems (Campbell and Le Heron, 2007). Whether such influences might reverse or redirect the trend toward environmentally- damaging rampant productivism of the 20th century hinges in part on the subjective positions of farmers and the ways in which they inform how farmers respond to policy and market signals. In this paper we argue the need for a genuine engagement with both the complexities of farmer subjectivity and the interactions amongst farmer subjectivity and agro-ecologies, and animal bodies in particular. This paper presents a case study of sheep farmers on the South Island that reveals contestation and transitions in traditional markers of "good farming”, particularly animal health. We observe how such transitions arise from reconfigurations of the relationships between agro-ecological, political and social histories. In this paper’s formulation, neither state subsidies nor neoliberalism in agriculture is primary cause or ultimate effect of the transformation of agricultural practice. Rather, changes in the political economy expose contradictions in farmer subjectivities, the resolution of which may block or reinforce trends suggested by the political economy. We suggest that contested ideas about animal health within the social field of pastoral farming in New Zealand makes it possible that New Zealand’s sheep growers may take the high road of best environmental practice via highly audited environmental standards of production demanded by elite consumer markets, or that they may remain in the intensifying trajectory of continuing to drive the sheep’s body to its maximum possible intensity of production. The mixed legacy of neoliberal reform is that it has simultaneously enabled both of these contradictory trajectories in New Zealand pastoralism.

    View record details
  • After the ‘Organic Industrial Complex’: An ontological expedition through commercial organic agriculture in New Zealand

    Campbell, Hugh; Rosin, Chris (2011)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    This article uses the evolving understandings of commercial organic agriculture within two research programmes in New Zealand to address three problematic claims and associated framings that have underpinned analysis of the political economy of commercial organic agriculture. These three framings are: 1) that recent commercial developments in organic agriculture have become organised around a grand binary of large-scale, corporate, industrialised organic agriculture that is inhabited by pragmatic newcomers to the industry, against a small-scale, local, authentic remnant of the original organic social movement. This grand binary is most popularly recognisable in the claim by author Michael Pollan of the existence of an ‘Organic Industrial Complex’ that is slowly subsuming authentic organic agriculture. This relates to claim 2) that commercialisation creates inevitable pressures by which organic agriculture becomes ‘conventionalised’. Finally, claim 3) positions organic agriculture alone as the only option for enabling improved environmental outcomes in agriculture. The Greening Food and ARGOS research programmes in New Zealand have studied the emergence of commercial forms of organic and other ‘sustainable’ agriculture in the period since 1995. A series of key engagements are highlighted in the unfolding history of these two programmes which demonstrate moments of transition in understandings of commercial organic, particularly in relation to situations of engagements between the research team and wider actors in the organic sector. These key engagements establish a clear sense in which the three major framings around the political economy of organic commercialisation could not explain the unfolding dynamics of the New Zealand organic sector. Rather, engagement with diverse actors enabled a whole new set of theoretical questions that opened up new areas of politics, contestation and elaboration of commercial forms of organic agriculture e particularly around shifts in power to the retail end of the agri-food chain, around new forms of agri-food governance, and around the politics of new audit systems. Within these shifts, the ontology of some of the researchers within these projects underwent parallel transformation. These transformative in!uences operated in two simultaneous directions. While the engaged research strategy of the two programmes clearly discomforted the researchers’ underlying assumptions for framing the major trajectories of commercial organic development, the presence of the two research programmes also had an important enactive power in the sector by both rendering ‘thinkable’ particular trajectories and economic experiments and also by reinforcing a ‘metric-centric’ tendency in the evolution of global environmental audit systems. Seen in this light, these engagements open up new questions about the research programmes themselves in terms of the emerging politics of what Philip Lowe describes as a more ‘enactive’ rural sociology and help direct attention to an emerging ‘ontological turn’ in the practice and politics of research.

    View record details
  • The top 100 questions of importance to the future of global agriculture

    Pretty, Jules; Sutherland, William J.; Ashby, Jacqueline; Auburn, Jill; Baulcombe, David; Bell, Michael; Bently, Jeffrey; Bickersteth, Sam; Brown, Katrina; Burke, Jacob; Campbell, Hugh; Chen, Kevin; Crowley, Eve; Crute, Ian; Dobbelaere, Dirk; Edwards-Jones, Gareth; Funes-Monzote, Fernando; Godfray, H. Charles J.; Griffon, Michel; Gypmantisiri, Phrek; Haddad, Lawrence; Halavatau, Siosiua; Herren, Hans; Holderness, Mark; Izac, Anne-Marie; Jones, Monty; Koohafkan, Parviz; Lal, Rattan; Lang, Timothy; McNeely, Jeffrey; Mueller, Alexander; Nisbett, Nicholas; Noble, Andrew; Pingali, Prahbu; Pinto, Yvonne; Rabbinge, Rudy; Ravindranath, R. H.; Rola, Agnes; Roling, Niels; Sage, Colin; Settle, William; Sha, J. M.; Shiming, Luo; Simons, Tony; Smith, Pete; Strzepeck, Kenneth; Swaine, Harry; Terry, Eugene; Tomich, Thomas P.; Toulmin, Camilla; Trigo, Eduardo; Twomlow, Stephen; Vis, Jan Kees; Wilson, Jeremy; Pilgrim, Sarah (2010)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    Despite a significant growth in food production over the past half-century, one of the most important challenges facing society today is how to feed an expected population of some nine billion by the middle of the 20th century. To meet the expected demand for food without significant increases in prices, it has been estimated that we need to produce 70–100 per cent more food, in light of the growing impacts of climate change, concerns over energy security, regional dietary shifts and the Millennium Development target of halving world poverty and hunger by 2015. The goal for the agricultural sector is no longer simply to maximize productivity, but to optimize across a far more complex landscape of production, rural development, environmental, social justice and food consumption outcomes. However, there remain significant challenges to developing national and international policies that support the wide emergence of more sustainable forms of land use and efficient agricultural production. The lack of information flow between scientists, practitioners and policy makers is known to exacerbate the difficulties, despite increased emphasis upon evidence-based policy. In this paper, we seek to improve dialogue and understanding between agricultural research and policy by identifying the 100 most important questions for global agriculture. These have been compiled using a horizon-scanning approach with leading experts and representatives of major agricultural organizations worldwide. The aim is to use sound scientific evidence to inform decision making and guide policy makers in the future direction of agricultural research priorities and policy support. If addressed, we anticipate that these questions will have a significant impact on global agricultural practices worldwide, while improving the synergy between agricultural policy, practice and research. This research forms part of the UK Government's Foresight Global Food and Farming Futures project.

    View record details
  • The social practice of sustainable agriculture under audit discipline: Initial insights from the ARGOS project in New Zealand

    Campbell, Hugh; Rosin, Chris; Hunt, Lesley; Fairweather, John (2011)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    One of the most interesting recent developments in global agri-food systems has been the rapid emergence and elaboration of market audit systems claiming environmental qualities or sustainability. In New Zealand, as a strongly export-oriented, high-value food producer, these environmental market audit systems have emerged as an important pathway for producers to potentially move towards more sustainable production. There have, however, been only sporadic and fractured attempts to study the emerging social practice of sustainable agriculture - particularly in terms of the emergence of new audit disciplines in farming. The ARGOS project in New Zealand was established in 2003 as a longitudinal matched panel study of over 100 farms and orchards using different market audit systems (e.g., organic, integrated or GLOBALG.A.P.). This article reports on the results of social research into the social practice of sustainable agriculture in farm households within the ARGOS projects between 2003 and 2009. Results drawn from multiple social research instruments deployed over six years provide an unparalleled level of empirical data on the social practice of sustainable agriculture under audit disciplines. Using 12 criteria identified in prior literature as contributing a significant social dynamic around sustainable agriculture practices in other contexts, the analysis demonstrated that 9 of these 12 dimensions did demonstrate differences in social practices emerging between (or co-constituting) organic, integrated, or conventional audit disciplines. These differences clustered into three main areas: 1) social and learning/knowledge networks and expertise, 2) key elements of farmer subjectivity - particularly in relation to subjective positioning towards the environment and nature, and 3) the role and importance of environmental dynamics within farm management practices and systems. The findings of the project provide a strong challenge to some older framings of the social practice of sustainable agriculture: particularly those that rely on paradigm-driven evaluation of social motivations, strong determinism of sustainable practice driven by coherent farmer identity, or deploying overly categorical interpretations of what it means to be ’organic’ or ’conventional’. The complex patterning of the ARGOS data can only be understood if the social practice of organic, integrated or (even more loosely) conventional production is understood as being co-produced by four dynamics: subjectivity/ identity, audit disciplines, industry cultures/structure and time. This reframing of how we might research the social practice of sustainable agriculture opens up important new opportunities for understanding the emergence and impact of new audit disciplines in agriculture.

    View record details
  • The Forgotten 60%: bird ecology and management in New Zealand's agricultural landscape.

    Macleod, Catriona; Blackwell, Grant; Moller, Henrik; Innes, John; Powlesland, Ralph (2008)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    Production lands make up 58% of Aotearoa New Zealand’s landcover and contribute greatly not only to the national economy but also to patterns and trends in native and introduced avian biodiversity. However, unlike in native forest and other indigenous habitats, birds in agro-ecosystems have received little attention to date. We argue that this is due to (1) a research focus on understanding the causes of the dramatic decline of New Zealand’s critically endangered, endemic species, (2) an adherence to a ‘preservation for intrinsic value’ over a ‘conservation through sustainable use’ paradigm for environmental management, and (3) a historical view of production landscapes as being devoid of endemic and native species and thus of no conservation value. In countering these attitudes, we suggest that the agricultural matrix may contain more native species than many people believe, and that many introduced bird species are key contributors to the social and environmental performance and resilience of these systems. We draw attention to the context, composition, ecology, and status of native and introduced birds in production landscapes in New Zealand, particularly in the face of ongoing agricultural intensification. We first identify the potential roles of local habitat, landscape composition, and introduced predators in shaping farmland bird communities. We then highlight the potential threats and opportunities for birds posed by ongoing intensification, particularly the influences of habitat modification and simplification, increased ecological subsidies through farm inputs, increased stocking rates and yields, and altered predator–prey interactions. We suggest the landscape is the appropriate spatial scale for research and management, and call for an integrated approach to the investigation of farmland birds that combines ecology, sociology, and agro-ecosystems management, and includes farmers, researchers, regulators, and the wider New Zealand public.

    View record details
  • Re–Establishing Britishness/Englishness: Representation Through Music in a non–Parliamentary Nation

    Burns, Robert G H (2015)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    Folk singers were once principal media sources by which news of national events was disseminated in what became the United Kingdom in 1707. Folk song has since been imbued with significance as a record of political events and socio/cultural change. This folk tradition still exists in the present with folk performers either singing critical narratives of historical events or criticising current politics. This paper discusses the question of national identity in the United Kingdom, particularly from the perspective of English identity. Interviews carried out with leading folk–orientated performers indicate that the question of Englishness is of lesser importance to politicians than the UK being a component of Europe. Moreover, Englishness does not enjoy the political representation experienced by other UK nations, yet it is key to English cultural arts and traditions, particularly in a number of new folk styles that have lead to a third phase of revivalism.

    View record details
  • Herr Daniel Bandmann and Shakespeare vs the World

    Warrington, Lisa (2016-12-27)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    German actor Daniel Bandmann played his first Hamlet at the age of 20, and made his English language debut as Shylock in New York, 1863. In his prime, he performed extensively in America, Great Britain, Australia, and New Zealand, amongst other countries. Though he played roles which ranged from Narcisse and the Corsican twins to Jekyll and Hyde, he was perhaps most closely identified with a handful of Shakespearean roles: Hamlet, Shylock, Macbeth, Othello, Iago. His apparently ungovernable temper led to a love/hate relationship with the critics, played out in public through the newspapers. His responses to criticism open a window into his playing of these roles. This paper examines Bandmann’s acting in the role of Hamlet and the critical interchanges he engaged in around the world, as an exemplar of the interaction of theatre and the global media.

    View record details
  • Following in the Tracks of a Dog: “The Beggarwoman of Locarno” Revisited

    Novero, Cecilia (2015-10)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    This essay identifies key themes in Kleist’s “The Beggarwoman of Locarno,” such as the contrast between meaning and noise, perception and reason, and human and animal. All of these themes are traced back to the dog in the tale, which is shown to play a pivotal role in exposing and expressing the limits of language, anthropomorphism, and reason. In this way, the essay hopes to show the specific ways in which Kleist’s story undermines the human speciesist claims to identity and individuality. To this aim, particular attention is devoted to the roles that sound and temporality play in the text.

    View record details
  • CO-DESIGNING AN MHEALTH TOOL IN THE NEW ZEALAND MĀORI COMMUNITY WITH A ‘KAUPAPA MĀORI’ APPROACH

    Te Morenga, Lisa; Pekepo, Crystal; Corrigan, Callie; Matoe, Leonie; Mules, Rangimarie; Goodwin, Debbie; Dymus, Janelle; Tunks, Megan; Grey, Jacqui; Humphrey, Gayl; Jull, Andrew; Whittaker, Robyn; Verbiest, Marjolein; Firestone, Tupa’ilevaililigi Ridvan; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona (2018-01-23)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    Peer Reviewed

    View record details
  • Regulating Ecotoxicity Attributed to Nanomaterial Waste

    Moore, Jennifer (2011)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    The increasing numbers of products containing manufactured nanomaterials (MNMs) are generating nanoparticle waste, some of which is toxic to the environment. Given the potential market of nanoproducts and the growing evidence of risks, it is important to have adequate regulation of nanowaste to prevent adverse environmental and public health outcomes. This article examines the current scientific data on ecotoxicity attributed to nanotechnology and nanoproducts. The suitability of New Zealands regulation of nanoecotoxicity is evaluated. Specifically, I assess the adequacy of the Waste Minimisation Act 2008 (WMA) for regulating potential environmental risks associated with nanomaterials. I argue that there will be challenges in applying the WMA to MNMs. Current deficiencies in knowledge about nanoecotoxicity mean that there is not adequate information to assess against the statutory thresholds. The absence of documented cases of adverse environmental effects directly attributable to MNMs may mean that nanoproducts may not be singled out as products likely to harm the environment when disposed ofas waste. No jurisdiction has applied its media-specific environmental laws to nanowaste. This article explores how such law in New Zealand could be applied to nanowaste and the novel challenges posed by nanoproducts.

    View record details
  • An Empirical Approach to the New Zealand Government’s Review of the Coronial Jurisdiction

    Moore, Jennifer (2014)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    Given the public profile of New Zealand coroners, it is surprising that there has been limited empirical research about coroners’ decision-making. This article uses evidence from New Zealand’s first empirical study of coroners’ recommendations to discuss the New Zealand government’s recent review of the coronial jurisdiction. In June and October 2013, New Zealand’s Courts Minister announced proposed changes to the coronial system. Several of the Minister’s proposals are consistent with the empirical evidence, but there are also significant gaps in the review. The Minister’s review acknowledges the importance of coroners’ preventive function, but will the proposals enable New Zealand’s coronial law to achieve its full preventive potential? The empirical evidence suggests that the prophylactic potential of coroners’ recommendations is not being maximised.

    View record details
  • Coroners' recommendations about healthcare-related deaths as a potential tool for improving patient safety and quality of care

    Moore, Jennifer (2014-07)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    Aim To describe and investigate the nature, recipients and preventive potential of New Zealand coroners’ recommendations from 1 July 2007–30 June 2012. Method (1) A retrospective study of coroners’ recommendations during the study period was undertaken. (2) Interviews with coroners, recipients of recommendations and interested parties were conducted. Results There were 607 coronial inquiries that resulted in 1644 recommendations. There were 309 recipients of coroners’ recommendations. Government organisations received the highest proportion of recommendations (121/309). Not for profit organisations received 67 recommendations, for profit organisations received 44 recommendations and individuals received 5 recommendations. There were 72 untargeted recommendations that did not specify an identifiable organisation. The Ministry of Health received the second-highest proportion of coroners’ recommendations. Transport accidents, drowning, intentional self-harm and complications of medical or surgical care were the main underlying causes of death categories investigated by coroners. Fifty-eight of the 607 inquiries involved complications of medical or surgical care. The 123 interview participants reported that there have been improvements in coronial recommendations since the introduction of the Coroners Act 2006, but that the prophylactic and patient safety potential of recommendations is not being maximised. Conclusion Coronial investigations provide external insight into the way that our health system works and recommendations can be used as a tool to learn from preventable deaths. Given that this was the first New Zealand study of coroners’ recommendations since the introduction of the Act, more research is needed to corroborate these findings.

    View record details
  • Proposed Changes to New Zealand’s Medicines Legislation in the Medicines Amendment Bill 2011

    Moore, Jennifer (2012)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    This article evaluates New Zealand’s Medicines Amendment Bill 2011. This Bill is currently before Parliament and will amend the Medicines Act 1981. On June 20, 2011, the Australian and New Zealand governments announced their decision to proceed with a joint scheme for the regulation of therapeutic products such as medicines, medical devices, and new medical interventions. Eventually, the joint arrangements will be administered by a single regulatory agency: the Australia New Zealand Therapeutic Products Agency. The medicines regulations in Australia and New Zealand will be updated as part of this process. The Medicines Amendment Bill addresses some of the well-recognised deficiencies in the Medicines Act 1981. However, a comprehensive overhaul of the Act is not being undertaken. I argue that repealing and replacing the Medicines Act 1981 would be preferable and advisable, given the number of legal difficulties with the Act and, in particular, where it does not align with equivalent current international law.

    View record details
  • New Zealand’s Regulation of Cosmetic Products Containing Nanomaterials

    Moore, Jennifer (2012)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    This paper evaluates the proposed amendments to New Zealand’s Cosmetic Group Standard that relate to nanomaterials in cosmetics. Manufactured nanomaterials are being increasingly used in cosmetic products. There are concerns that some nanomaterials present potential human and environmental health and safety risks. The proposed amendments are unique in New Zealand not only because they make specific mention of nanomaterials, but also because they propose introducing labelling requirements. Few jurisdictions have adopted mandatory labelling for products containing nanomaterials. The use of nanomaterials in consumer products provides another opportunity to explore the efficacy of labelling as a regulatory tool. The challenges are heightened for products containing nanomaterials due to the difficulties in defining the term “nano.”

    View record details
  • Is New Zealand’s Regulation of Nanomedicines Adequate?

    Moore, Jennifer (2011)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    This article investigates the adequacy of New Zealand's regulation of medical products produced by nanotechnology and containing nanomaterials. There is concern that the novel and unique properties of some nanoscale chemical substances will bring unforeseen human and environmental health and safety risks. Given the possible market for nanomedicines and their potential risks, it is important to have adequate regulation of nanomedicines in order to prevent adverse public health ramifications. This article argues that nanoparticles, invisible to the human eye, are illuminating and exacerbating, legislative imperfections in the Medicines Act 1981 (NZ). This Act does not include a pre-market approval process for medical devices, nor does it include provisions for combination products. This approach is inconsistent with international norms. The article proposes amendment of the Medicines Act 1981 (NZ) to address these weaknesses and the novel challenges posed by nanomedicines.

    View record details
  • Traumatised Bodies: Towards Corporeality in New Zealand’s Privacy Tort Law Involving Accident Survivors

    Moore, Jennifer (2011)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    This article combines several different literatures (legal, medical and theoretical) in order to explore privacy law cases which involve accident survivors. I adopt an inductive methodology which emphasises the accident survivors' experiences. Their accounts demonstrate their position of special vulnerability. However, accident survivors currently receive inadequate protection because the New Zealand privacy tort does not recognise their special vulnerable status. The accident survivors' privacy claim in Andrews v TVNZ, for example, failed because the Court held that the publication was not highly offensive. The legal status quo is problematic because accident survivors whose privacy has been breached expect the law to provide protection at a time when they are vulnerable and unable to protect themselves. The privacy intrusions experienced by accident survivors cause adverse health outcomes. Alternative perspectives from theoretical and empirical medicine reveal the extent of the problem and help to suggest necessary reforms. This literature justifies recognising accident survivors as a special class of plaintiffs. New Zealand's privacy tort could be reformed by presuming that they have a reasonable expectation of privacy and that images of accidents are distressing and humiliating.

    View record details
  • Spatial variation in burrow entrance density of the sooty shearwater (Puffinus griseus)

    Charleton, Kristin; Bragg, Corey; Knight, Ben; Fletcher, David; Moller, Henrik; Newman, Jamie; Scott, Darren (2009)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    The effects of a range of habitat variables on spatial variation of breeding burrow density of sooty shearwaters, Puffinus griseus, were measured on 5 islands near Rakiura (Stewart Is) and 1 island in The Snares Is group, during the 2000-01 breeding season. Density estimates for 4 islands where Rakiura Maori harvest chicks ranged from 0.30 to 0.47 burrows per m2. Density on 2 non-harvested islands occurred at opposite ends of the burrow density spectrum (Whenua Hou, 0.09 entrances per m2; The Snares, 0.90 per m2). Burrow density was consistently lower in areas with shallow soil, in inland areas, and where there was more plant debris on the forest floor. The latter may reflect cause or effect because the birds drag woody and leafy debris into their burrows to form nests and to block the burrow entrance. Large amounts of variation in burrow density were not explained by habitat predictors. Detection of harvest impacts on sooty shearwater density on harvested and non-harvested islands will be more powerful if models account for soil depth and island edge-effects, but disregard vegetation variation.

    View record details
  • Finding the ‘self’ after weight loss surgery: Two women’s experiences.

    Young, Jessica; Burrows, Lisette (2013)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    Drawing on narratives derived from two women’s YouTube vlogs (video blogs), we examine what weight loss surgery offers as a mode of being in the world. In these vlogs, Divataunia and Thebandinme have kept a record of their weight loss surgery ‘journey’. We explore the multiple selves they express, drawing on notions of embodiment and post-structuralist conceptualisations of subjectivity, to examine the contradictory and shifting experiences of having weight loss surgery. We examine the work that subjectivity ‘does’, in how each woman enacts her subjectivity, in what they ‘choose’ to express, and in how their choices are related to their perceptions and lived experiences of their bodies. In particular we investigate one subject position that the women both take up – a ‘fat subjectivity’ – and discuss how each woman relates to this subject position as her body changes. The notion of a weight loss surgery journey from an ‘old’ self to a ‘new’ one is explored and we conclude that the idea of a simple trajectory from ‘old’ to ‘new’ fails to adequately account for the complex vagaries of each women’s experience.

    View record details