1,396 results for 2000, Journal article, 2015

  • A Report on the Community Development Conference 2015

    Stansfield, John; Masih, Abishhek (2015-05-01)

    Journal article
    Unitec

    The Community Development Conference 2015 was an effort by the Department of Social Practice at Unitec and Community Development practitioners to bring together practitioners, academics and students to share their knowledge, research and stories about community development. Thirty-­‐five completed feedback forms were received - summary included.

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  • Efficient quantile regression for heteroscedastic models

    Jung, Yoonsuh; Lee, Yoonkyung; MacEachern, Steve N, (2015)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Quantile regression (QR) provides estimates of a range of conditional quantiles. This stands in contrast to traditional regression techniques, which focus on a single conditional mean function. Lee et al. [Regularization of case-specific parameters for robustness and efficiency. Statist Sci. 2012;27(3):350–372] proposed efficient QR by rounding the sharp corner of the loss. The main modification generally involves an asymmetric ℓ₂ adjustment of the loss function around zero. We extend the idea of ℓ₂ adjusted QR to linear heterogeneous models. The ℓ₂ adjustment is constructed to diminish as sample size grows. Conditions to retain consistency properties are also provided.

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  • Nurse peer group supervision: sharing the load

    Shaw-Brown, H. (2015)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    Discusses how peer group supervision can offer support, shared learning and professional development for nurses in management and leadership roles.

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  • The co-evolution of learning and internationalization strategy in international new ventures

    Pellegrino, J. M.; McNaughton, R.B. (2015)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    In this paper, we examine the co-evolution of learning and internationalization strategy in international new ventures (INVs). Many researchers have suggested that in contrast to the reliance on experiential knowledge by firms that internationalize incrementally, firms that internationalize rapidly use alternatives such as congenital and vicarious learning. However, few empirical studies explicitly examine how the use of learning processes in INVs evolves. We used retrospective longitudinal analysis to explore the learning processes of four New Zealand-based INVs, and found that their dominant learning mode and foci of learning changed as internationalization increased. Around the time of founding, congenital learning dominated, but as the firms began to internationalize, they relied more on experiential, vicarious, searching and noticing learning processes. The focus of their learning also shifted from product knowledge to knowledge about foreign markets and the internationalization process. In the later stages of their internationalization, experiential learning increased in importance, as did other resource-intensive learning processes such as grafting by acquiring a company overseas. We conclude that the learning processes used by INVs co-evolve with their internationalization, and are more rapid and less systematic than is implied by traditional models of the internationalization process, with substitutes for experiential learning dominating early in the process.

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  • Microbial carbon concentration in samples of seabird and non-seabirdforest soil: Implications for leaf litter cycling

    Hawke, D.J.; Vallance, J. R. (2015)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    The paucity of leaf litter in seabird forest is usually explained by litter burial in burrows, but burial byitself fails to address the processes controlling decomposition. We measured soil microbial C in samplesfrom a Westland petrel (Procellaria westlandica) colony both within and outside the breeding season,and compared the results with two non-seabird forests. From the few studies of seabird soil microbialC, we initially hypothesised a soil microbial C concentration sequence of occupied burrows > unoccupiedburrows > adjacent forest floor > non-seabird forest. Instead, the highest values came from non-seabirdforest, a pattern consistent with published meta-analyses on the effects of N addition. Within the colony,highest concentrations were in forest floor soil and there was no burrow occupation effect. However,seabird forest soil microbial C followed a strong inverse relationship with soil ı13C (r = −0.58; P < 0.001)as well as the expected relationship with total soil C (r = 0.75); the relationship with soil ı13C in non-seabird forest was not significant (P = 0.29). We propose that soil microbes in seabird forest repeatedlyprocess a single pool of increasingly refractory terrestrial soil C, facilitated by seabird guano priming oforganic matter mineralisation. In this context, the paucity of leaf litter in seabird forest can be seen asa consequence of microbial C limitation in a nutrient-saturated system, an explanation consistent withrecent theory.

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  • Generation Y New Zealand Registered Nurses’ views about

    Jamieson, I; Kirk, R; Wright, S; Andrew, C (2015)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    Aim: The aim of this article was to report on the analysis of qualitative, open text data, received from a national on-line survey of what factors Generation Y New Zealand Registered Nurses wish to change about nursing and consideration of the potential policy and practice impacts of these requests on their retention. Background: Prior to the economic recession of 2007–2010, the growing shortage of nurses in New Zealand presented a serious concern for the healthcare workforce. Given the ageing New Zealand nursing workforce, an ageing population and the increasing demands for health care, it is imperative that issues of retention of Generation Y nurses are resolved prior to the imminent retirement of more experienced nurses. Design: A descriptive exploratory approach using a national wide, on-line survey, eliciting both quantitative and qualitative data was used. Method: The survey, conducted from August 2009–January 2010, collected data from Generation Y New Zealand Registered Nurses (n = 358) about their views about nursing, work and career. Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene theory was used as the framework for the analysis of the open text data. Results: The factors that nurses wanted changed were skewed towards Herzberg’s hygiene-maintenance factors rather than motivating factors. This is of concern because hygiene-maintenance factors are considered to be dissatisfiers that are likely to push workers to another employment option.

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  • Women’s birthplace decision-making, the role of confidence: Part of the Evaluating Maternity Units Study, New Zealand

    Grigg, C.; Tracy, S.; Schmied, V.; Daellenbach, R.; Kensington, M. (2015)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    Objective: to explore women's birthplace decision-making and identify the factors which enable women to plan to give birth in a freestanding midwifery-led primary level maternity unit rather than in an obstetric-led tertiary level maternity hospital in New Zealand. Design: a mixed methods prospective cohort design. Methods: data from eight focus groups (37 women) and a six week postpartum survey (571 women, 82%) were analysed using thematic analysis and descriptive statistics. The qualitative data from the focus groups and survey were the primary data sources and were integrated at the analysis stage; and the secondary qualitative and quantitative data were integrated at the interpretation stage. Setting: Christchurch, New Zealand, with one tertiary maternity hospital and four primary level maternity units (2010–2012). Participants: well (at ‘low risk’ of developing complications), pregnant women booked to give birth in one of the primary units or the tertiary hospital. All women received midwifery continuity of care, regardless of their intended or actual birthplace. Findings: five core themes were identified: the birth process, women's self-belief in their ability to give birth, midwives, the health system and birth place. ‘Confidence’ was identified as the overarching concept influencing the themes. Women who chose to give birth in a primary maternity unit appeared to differ markedly in their beliefs regarding their optimal birthplace compared to women who chose to give birth in a tertiary maternity hospital. The women who planned a primary maternity unit birth expressed confidence in the birth process, their ability to give birth, their midwife, the maternity system and/or the primary unit itself. The women planning to give birth in a tertiary hospital did not express confidence in the birth process, their ability to give birth, the system for transfers and/or the primary unit as a birthplace, although they did express confidence in their midwife. Key conclusions and implications for practice: birthplace is a profoundly important aspect of women's experience of childbirth. Birthplace decision-making is complex, in common with many other aspects of childbirth. A multiplicity of factors needs converge in order for all those involved to gain the confidence required to plan what, in this context, might be considered a ‘countercultural’ decision to give birth at a midwife-led primary maternity unit. Keywords: Decision-making; Place of birth; Primary maternity unit; Tertiary hospital; New Zealand; Confidence

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  • Tenuous affair: Environmental and outdoor education in Aotearoa New Zealand

    Straker, J.; Irwin, D. (2015)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    The relationship between outdoor education and environmental education in Aotearoa New Zealand has undergone many changes since formal education began in early colonial times. Discussion draws from qualitative doctoral research undertaken by the authors that investigated education for sustainability in outdoor education and howmeaning is ascribed to outdoor experiences. The article describes how environmental education and outdoor education had common historical roots in nature studies that eventually were teased apart by the development of separate agendas for learning and assessment, coupled with the political context of the 1970s and 1980s. The article finds that contemporary forces relating to the economy, society and the environment are now driving a re-engagement of the two discourses in Aotearoa New Zealand at a variety of levels, from schools to national bodies, and that this re-engagement signals a positive outcome for addressing key environmental issues and engaging students in the outdoors.

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  • Going commercial: Navigating student radio in a deregulated media marketplace

    Reilly, B.; Farnsworth, J. (2015)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    This article describes an unusual form of student instructional radio, which is organized to run as a fully commercial broadcaster. Drawing on the case of a New Zealand student station, Mode 96.1FM, we look at how it functions in a highly competitive commercial environment. The student-run station reformats itself every year and attempts to emulate the styles and success of much larger national and local commercial music stations. We investigate two aspects. First, the tensions this creates between commercial, industry and educational objectives. Second, how students become located within the commodified speech practices intrinsic to marketing and branding. We also discuss how the station attempts to reconcile these in terms of seeking out diverse listening publics.

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  • Supporting New Zealand graduate midwives to stay in the profession: An evaluation of the Midwifery First Year of Practice programme

    Dixon,L; Calvert,S; Tumilty, E; Kensington, M; Gray, E; Campbell, N; Lennox, S; Pairman, S (2015)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    Background: the transition from undergraduate midwifery student to working as a confident midwife can be challenging for many newly qualified midwives. Supporting a smooth transition may have a positive impact on the confidence and retention of the new graduates with in the workforce. In New Zealand the Midwifery First Year of Practice programme (MFYP) was introduced in 2007 as a structured programme of support for new graduate midwives for the whole of their first year of practice.The main components of the programme include support during clinical practice, provision of a funded mentor midwife chosen by the new graduate midwife, financial assistance for education and a requirement to undertake aquality assessment and reflection process at the end of the first year. Aim: the aim of this study was to explore the retention of new graduates in midwifery practice following participation in the Midwifery First Year of Practice programme. Method: data was obtained from the register of MFYP participants between the years 2007 and 2010. This data was cross referenced with the Midwifery Council of New Zealand register and work force data for 2012. Findings: between the years 2007 and 2010 there were 441 midwives who graduated from a midwifery pre-registration education programme in New Zealand. Of these 415 participated in the MFYP programme. The majority were of New Zealand European ethnicity with 10% identifying as Māori. The mean age of participants reduced from 36.4 (SD 7.3) in 2007 to 33.4 (SD 8.1) in 2010. The overall retention rate for new graduate midwives who had participated in the MFYP programme was 86.3%, with 358 midwives still pracising in 2012. Conclusion: there is good retention of new graduate midwives within New Zealand and the MFYP programme would appear to support retention.

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  • Essential advising to underpin effective language

    Hobbs, M.; Dofs, K (2015)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    This paper is aimed at managers, teachers and advisors who are involved with language learner advising. It will first give a historic background to autonomy and advising (Benson & Voller, 1997; Crabbe, 1993; Holec, 1981) , then discuss what advising means and what skill set is required for this. The paper will also look at how autonomy is linked to advising, strategies for effective language learning (Oxford,1990), and self-regulation while using these strategies (Oxford, 2011; Ranalli, 2012; Rose 2012). It will then touch on more recent ideas around processes for helping students become more effective and more autonomous through advising (Mynard & Carson, 2012). Some practical approaches for advising (Kelly, 1996; Mozzon-McPherson, 2002 2007; Riley, 1997) will be referred to, as will the all-important differences between teaching and counselling approaches. Finally, the article will briefly discuss reflection as a useful professional development tool.

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  • Higher prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy in two Māori cohorts: findings from the Hauora Manawa/Community Heart Study

    Whalley, Gillian; Pitama, Suzanne G.; Wells, J. Elisabeth; Faatoese, Allamanda F.; Troughton, Richard W.; Richards, Mark; Cameron, Vicky A.; Gillies, Tawhirimatea W.; Doughty, Rob N.; Gamble, Greg D.; Huria, Tania (2015-08)

    Journal article
    Unitec

    Objectives: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality in New Zealand with a disproportionate burden of disease in the Māori population. The Hauora Manawa Project investigated the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and CVD in randomly selected Māori and non-Māori participants. This paper reports the prevalence of structural changes in the heart. Methods: A total of 252 rural Māori, 243 urban Māori; and 256 urban non-Māori underwent echocardiography to assess cardiac structure and function. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine variables associated with heart size. Results: Left ventricular (LV) mass measurements were largest in the rural Māori cohort (183.5,sd 61.4), intermediate in the urban Māori cohort (169.7,sd 57.1) and smallest in the non Māori cohort (152.6,sd 46.7; p<0.0001); and gender (p=0.0048). Conclusion: Structural and functional heart abnormalities are more prevalent in Māori compared to non-Māori, and especially rural Māori. Early identification should lead to better management, ultimately improving life expectancy and quality of life

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  • Changes in two migrant learners’ beliefs, learning strategy use and language achievements in a New Zealand context

    Zhong, Qunyan (Maggie) (2015-07-04)

    Journal article
    Unitec

    Substantial amount of research regarding L2 learners’ beliefs has been conducted in recent years. However, less attention has been paid to the interactions among the three constructs: learners’ beliefs, learning strategies and language learning achievements. This longitudinal case study investigated changes in two Chinese migrant learners’ beliefs and learning strategy use, and gains in their achieved proficiency in New Zealand. Through the triangulation of various data sources, this study revealed both learners changed the beliefs they held to varying degrees. Common to both learners were changes in their beliefs about approaches to language learning from an initial analytical approach to a later more experiential one. In addition, a new belief about collaborative learning emerged after the learners had been exposed to new approaches to language teaching in New Zealand. Like beliefs, the learners’ strategies also evolved. Both learners started employing social strategies which they had not attempted in China. Although both learners’ language did improve, there was a noticeable variation in the extent to which their language proficiency was achieved. The results suggested the complex relationship between learners’ beliefs and learning strategies and challenged the linear relationship between the two variables as suggested by previous quantitative studies.

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  • Participation, Partnerships and Pilots in Community Development Policy

    Toogood, Fleur M. (2015-05-01)

    Journal article
    Unitec

    This paper critically examines the current New Zealand government’s policy of promoting local participation and ‘partnerships’ in community development and the provision of social services with particular consideration of three pilot programmes: ‘Community-led Development’ (Department of Internal Affairs); ‘Social Sector Trials’ and ‘Make it Happen Te Hiku’ (Ministry of Social Development). A review of New Zealand and international literature reveals that further research into the implications of this policy direction is required around the position of power in local leadership; the roles and relationships between local government and local service providers (both government and non-government); and public private partnerships in community development and social service provision. This paper asks how and why central government is directing ‘community-led’ development and questions government’s commitment to building of capacity at a local level, a fundamental requirement of participative models. It also questions the focus on communities defined by place and considers implications of this policy direction for communities of interest and association.

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  • Community development with Japanese settlers in Aotearoa New Zealand : the story of a Japanese interdisciplinary network group in Auckland. Japanese Interagency Group

    Isogai, Shoichi; Okamura, Jun (2015-05-01)

    Journal article
    Unitec

    Over the past five years increased attention from Not-for-Profit-Organisations (NPOs) that support new Japanese settlers in Auckland suggests concern about resettlement needs, health inequality and social exclusion among these settlers. This community is growing due to an increase in the numbers of Japanese economic refugees after two significant disasters that occurred in Japan in 2011. Nevertheless, there are limited culturally-relevant resources and Japanese-oriented groups available for the community of Japanese settlers in Auckland. This paper presents a story of a strengths-based, interdisciplinary and Japanese-oriented project called the Japanese Interdisciplinary Network Group in Auckland (JINGA). It explains the development and a range of JINGA activities to facilitate the production of culturally-relevant resources amongst Japanese settlers, promote collaborative partnership amongst agencies, and inspire shared visions of full participation and supportive community networks amongst Japanese community leaders and professionals. Attention is given to the usefulness and limitations of the locality-development model to work effectively with an ethnic minority community, which takes the form of monthly professional meetings and collaborative seminars with other agencies and Japanese practitioners. The implications of this project on community development practice are also discussed. Ongoing engagement with Japanese community members and mainstream service providers promotes various services and supports them to engage with relevant services and/or groups, which is essential to create a supportive Japanese community that promotes a socially cohesive society in Aotearoa (indigenous people of Aotearoa New Zealand) New Zealand.

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  • Radical community development : we do talk politics here

    Russell, Alastair (2015-05-01)

    Journal article
    Unitec

    Radical community development is explicitly political. It involves a combination of thought (analysis, debate, reflection) and action. Crucial to radical community development is standing with people experiencing oppression and against an oppressive status quo. Also crucial to radical community development is an understanding of both place and history. Implications of Te Tiriti o Waitangi and the effects of the breaching of Te Tiriti by the Crown (government) are discussed along with how Auckland Action Against Poverty responds to this. Auckland Action Against Poverty (AAAP) puts radical community development into practice. This paper provides detailed examples of how this is done, including organizing Benefit Impacts, which involves large numbers of advocates at a Work and Income office for three days. AAAP works with unemployed and low waged workers. There is an explicit rejection of professional social work as a model of engagement both within benefit advocacy and the range of other activities which AAAP does. Competent solidarity replaces this professionalism. The paper is based on the belief that it is possible to contribute to debate and practice from outside academia and from within community based knowledge. The ongoing challenge is to put thought into action for social change and social justice

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  • First, revive the spirit: a paper for the community development conference 2015 – Unitec, Auckland

    O’Reilly, Denis (2015-05-01)

    Journal article
    Unitec

    Following the 2014 General Election, New Zealand Prime Minister John Key announced that his government is determined to do something about those "doing it tough" - the poor. He considers poverty a long term issue and one that has confronted successive governments but is anxious about the perverse effects of welfare as regards the 'trap' of welfare dependency. He wants to help and also enable people to help themselves. He concedes that providing or being in work is not the answer on its own. This paper examines the principles of community economic development and takes James K Baxter's notions of differing types of poverty, Nga Pohara (the poor), Nga Mokai (the fatherless), Nga Raukore (the trees who have had their leaves and branches stripped away). It argues that if we are to address poverty, first we need to address poverty of spirit. Globally this idea has Friereian elements but here in Aotearoa it especially aligns with the principles of Whānau ora, and in particular an initiative called E Tu Whānau, the by-line of which is Te Mana Kaha o Te Whānau. E Tu Whānau has a particular aim to counter domestic violence but the upside down thinking approach it takes is to eschew pathology and focus on potentiality. In this it seeks to enrol a cadre of community leaders (Kahukura) and using Māori precepts to set in motion a community multiplier that produces social capital to fill the void, counter dysfunction and enable people to enjoy rich fulfilling lives

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  • Research interviewing : how does it differ from therapeutic interviewing?

    Rain, Thora; Lawley, James; Henwood, Suzanne (2015-03)

    Journal article
    Unitec

    It is understable to assume that someone with strong clinical skills would easily transition into doing research interviews, but as we found out recently not always quite as straight forward as it seems. There are subtle, yet important differences between therapeutic sessions and research interviews that require significant rethinking at every stage. This article shares the personal experiences of one therapist-researcher (Thora Rain), under supervision, who made that transition successfully.

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  • Sustainable production of carbon fiber: Effect of cross-linking in wool fiber on carbon yields and morphologies of derived carbon fiber

    Hassan, M.M.; Schiermeister, L.; Staiger, M.P. (2015)

    Journal article
    University of Canterbury Library

    Currently, most of the carbon fibers are made from unsustainable fossil fuel-based precursors including high purity polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and pitch. High purity PAN is not only more expensive than wool fiber but also a limited quantity is produced because of global shortage of its monomer. In this work, various cross-linking pathways are explored as a means of altering the yield and tensile properties of carbon fiber derived from the carbonization of cross-linked wool fiber at 800°C under nitrogen. A range of ionic and covalent-bond-forming cross-linking agents including bifunctional carboxylic acids (succinic acid and sebacic acid), a disulfonic acid (naphthalene disulfonic acid), a dialdehyde (glyoxal), and dianhydrides (succinic anhydride and itaconic anhydride) was investigated. The resulting carbon fibers were characterized in terms of chemical composition, carbon yield, surface topology, crystal structure, hydrophilicity, and tensile properties. It was found that the carbon yield can be increased by 55% by using cross-linking treatments. Carbon fiber produced from untreated and crosslinked wool fibers all exhibited superhydrophilicity. Although the tensile strength of the resulting carbon fiber was relatively low in this preliminary study, the resulting fiber could have applications in the manufacturing of thermoplastic composite materials as low modulus filler.

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  • Toward creating simpler hydrological models: a LASSO subset selection approach

    Bardsley, W. Earl; Vetrova, V. V.; Liu, S. (2015)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    A formalised means of simplifying hydrological models concurrent with calibration is proposed for use when nonlinear models can be initially formulated as over-parameterised constrained absolute deviation regressions of nonlinear expressions. This provides a flexible modelling framework for approximation of nonlinear situations, while allowing the models to be amenable to algorithmic simplification. The degree of simplification is controlled by a user-specified forcing parameter λ. That is, an original over-parameterised linear model is reduced to a simpler working model which is no more complex than required for a given application. The degree of simplification is a compromise between two factors. With weak simplification most parameters will remain, risking calibration overfitting. On the other hand, a high degree of simplification generates inflexible models. The linear LASSO (Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator) is utilised for the simplification process because of its ability to deal with linear constraints in the over-parameterised initial model.

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