1,384 results for 2000, Journal article, 2015

  • A Report on the Community Development Conference 2015

    Stansfield, John; Masih, Abishhek (2015-05-01)

    Journal article
    Unitec

    The Community Development Conference 2015 was an effort by the Department of Social Practice at Unitec and Community Development practitioners to bring together practitioners, academics and students to share their knowledge, research and stories about community development. Thirty-­‐five completed feedback forms were received - summary included.

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  • Efficient quantile regression for heteroscedastic models

    Jung, Yoonsuh; Lee, Yoonkyung; MacEachern, Steve N, (2015)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Quantile regression (QR) provides estimates of a range of conditional quantiles. This stands in contrast to traditional regression techniques, which focus on a single conditional mean function. Lee et al. [Regularization of case-specific parameters for robustness and efficiency. Statist Sci. 2012;27(3):350–372] proposed efficient QR by rounding the sharp corner of the loss. The main modification generally involves an asymmetric ℓ₂ adjustment of the loss function around zero. We extend the idea of ℓ₂ adjusted QR to linear heterogeneous models. The ℓ₂ adjustment is constructed to diminish as sample size grows. Conditions to retain consistency properties are also provided.

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  • Contrasting approaches to fuel poverty in New Zealand

    Lawson, Rob; Williams, John; Wooliscroft, Ben (2015-02-18)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    We contrast two measures of fuel poverty in New Zealand. The first is based on estimated expenditure of over 10% of household income on fuel. The second is self-reported deprivation of fuel because of an inability to afford it. Households denoted as fuel poor on the two measures are mostly different and the findings suggest that research is needed to investigate if different households make different trade-offs between expenditure on fuel and other necessities.

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  • Nurse peer group supervision: sharing the load

    Shaw-Brown, H. (2015)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    Discusses how peer group supervision can offer support, shared learning and professional development for nurses in management and leadership roles.

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  • The co-evolution of learning and internationalization strategy in international new ventures

    Pellegrino, J. M.; McNaughton, R.B. (2015)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    In this paper, we examine the co-evolution of learning and internationalization strategy in international new ventures (INVs). Many researchers have suggested that in contrast to the reliance on experiential knowledge by firms that internationalize incrementally, firms that internationalize rapidly use alternatives such as congenital and vicarious learning. However, few empirical studies explicitly examine how the use of learning processes in INVs evolves. We used retrospective longitudinal analysis to explore the learning processes of four New Zealand-based INVs, and found that their dominant learning mode and foci of learning changed as internationalization increased. Around the time of founding, congenital learning dominated, but as the firms began to internationalize, they relied more on experiential, vicarious, searching and noticing learning processes. The focus of their learning also shifted from product knowledge to knowledge about foreign markets and the internationalization process. In the later stages of their internationalization, experiential learning increased in importance, as did other resource-intensive learning processes such as grafting by acquiring a company overseas. We conclude that the learning processes used by INVs co-evolve with their internationalization, and are more rapid and less systematic than is implied by traditional models of the internationalization process, with substitutes for experiential learning dominating early in the process.

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  • Microbial carbon concentration in samples of seabird and non-seabirdforest soil: Implications for leaf litter cycling

    Hawke, D.J.; Vallance, J. R. (2015)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    The paucity of leaf litter in seabird forest is usually explained by litter burial in burrows, but burial byitself fails to address the processes controlling decomposition. We measured soil microbial C in samplesfrom a Westland petrel (Procellaria westlandica) colony both within and outside the breeding season,and compared the results with two non-seabird forests. From the few studies of seabird soil microbialC, we initially hypothesised a soil microbial C concentration sequence of occupied burrows > unoccupiedburrows > adjacent forest floor > non-seabird forest. Instead, the highest values came from non-seabirdforest, a pattern consistent with published meta-analyses on the effects of N addition. Within the colony,highest concentrations were in forest floor soil and there was no burrow occupation effect. However,seabird forest soil microbial C followed a strong inverse relationship with soil ı13C (r = −0.58; P < 0.001)as well as the expected relationship with total soil C (r = 0.75); the relationship with soil ı13C in non-seabird forest was not significant (P = 0.29). We propose that soil microbes in seabird forest repeatedlyprocess a single pool of increasingly refractory terrestrial soil C, facilitated by seabird guano priming oforganic matter mineralisation. In this context, the paucity of leaf litter in seabird forest can be seen asa consequence of microbial C limitation in a nutrient-saturated system, an explanation consistent withrecent theory.

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  • Generation Y New Zealand Registered Nurses’ views about

    Jamieson, I; Kirk, R; Wright, S; Andrew, C (2015)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    Aim: The aim of this article was to report on the analysis of qualitative, open text data, received from a national on-line survey of what factors Generation Y New Zealand Registered Nurses wish to change about nursing and consideration of the potential policy and practice impacts of these requests on their retention. Background: Prior to the economic recession of 2007–2010, the growing shortage of nurses in New Zealand presented a serious concern for the healthcare workforce. Given the ageing New Zealand nursing workforce, an ageing population and the increasing demands for health care, it is imperative that issues of retention of Generation Y nurses are resolved prior to the imminent retirement of more experienced nurses. Design: A descriptive exploratory approach using a national wide, on-line survey, eliciting both quantitative and qualitative data was used. Method: The survey, conducted from August 2009–January 2010, collected data from Generation Y New Zealand Registered Nurses (n = 358) about their views about nursing, work and career. Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene theory was used as the framework for the analysis of the open text data. Results: The factors that nurses wanted changed were skewed towards Herzberg’s hygiene-maintenance factors rather than motivating factors. This is of concern because hygiene-maintenance factors are considered to be dissatisfiers that are likely to push workers to another employment option.

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  • Women’s birthplace decision-making, the role of confidence: Part of the Evaluating Maternity Units Study, New Zealand

    Grigg, C.; Tracy, S.; Schmied, V.; Daellenbach, R.; Kensington, M. (2015)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    Objective: to explore women's birthplace decision-making and identify the factors which enable women to plan to give birth in a freestanding midwifery-led primary level maternity unit rather than in an obstetric-led tertiary level maternity hospital in New Zealand. Design: a mixed methods prospective cohort design. Methods: data from eight focus groups (37 women) and a six week postpartum survey (571 women, 82%) were analysed using thematic analysis and descriptive statistics. The qualitative data from the focus groups and survey were the primary data sources and were integrated at the analysis stage; and the secondary qualitative and quantitative data were integrated at the interpretation stage. Setting: Christchurch, New Zealand, with one tertiary maternity hospital and four primary level maternity units (2010–2012). Participants: well (at ‘low risk’ of developing complications), pregnant women booked to give birth in one of the primary units or the tertiary hospital. All women received midwifery continuity of care, regardless of their intended or actual birthplace. Findings: five core themes were identified: the birth process, women's self-belief in their ability to give birth, midwives, the health system and birth place. ‘Confidence’ was identified as the overarching concept influencing the themes. Women who chose to give birth in a primary maternity unit appeared to differ markedly in their beliefs regarding their optimal birthplace compared to women who chose to give birth in a tertiary maternity hospital. The women who planned a primary maternity unit birth expressed confidence in the birth process, their ability to give birth, their midwife, the maternity system and/or the primary unit itself. The women planning to give birth in a tertiary hospital did not express confidence in the birth process, their ability to give birth, the system for transfers and/or the primary unit as a birthplace, although they did express confidence in their midwife. Key conclusions and implications for practice: birthplace is a profoundly important aspect of women's experience of childbirth. Birthplace decision-making is complex, in common with many other aspects of childbirth. A multiplicity of factors needs converge in order for all those involved to gain the confidence required to plan what, in this context, might be considered a ‘countercultural’ decision to give birth at a midwife-led primary maternity unit. Keywords: Decision-making; Place of birth; Primary maternity unit; Tertiary hospital; New Zealand; Confidence

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  • Tenuous affair: Environmental and outdoor education in Aotearoa New Zealand

    Straker, J.; Irwin, D. (2015)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    The relationship between outdoor education and environmental education in Aotearoa New Zealand has undergone many changes since formal education began in early colonial times. Discussion draws from qualitative doctoral research undertaken by the authors that investigated education for sustainability in outdoor education and howmeaning is ascribed to outdoor experiences. The article describes how environmental education and outdoor education had common historical roots in nature studies that eventually were teased apart by the development of separate agendas for learning and assessment, coupled with the political context of the 1970s and 1980s. The article finds that contemporary forces relating to the economy, society and the environment are now driving a re-engagement of the two discourses in Aotearoa New Zealand at a variety of levels, from schools to national bodies, and that this re-engagement signals a positive outcome for addressing key environmental issues and engaging students in the outdoors.

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  • Going commercial: Navigating student radio in a deregulated media marketplace

    Reilly, B.; Farnsworth, J. (2015)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    This article describes an unusual form of student instructional radio, which is organized to run as a fully commercial broadcaster. Drawing on the case of a New Zealand student station, Mode 96.1FM, we look at how it functions in a highly competitive commercial environment. The student-run station reformats itself every year and attempts to emulate the styles and success of much larger national and local commercial music stations. We investigate two aspects. First, the tensions this creates between commercial, industry and educational objectives. Second, how students become located within the commodified speech practices intrinsic to marketing and branding. We also discuss how the station attempts to reconcile these in terms of seeking out diverse listening publics.

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  • Supporting New Zealand graduate midwives to stay in the profession: An evaluation of the Midwifery First Year of Practice programme

    Dixon,L; Calvert,S; Tumilty, E; Kensington, M; Gray, E; Campbell, N; Lennox, S; Pairman, S (2015)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    Background: the transition from undergraduate midwifery student to working as a confident midwife can be challenging for many newly qualified midwives. Supporting a smooth transition may have a positive impact on the confidence and retention of the new graduates with in the workforce. In New Zealand the Midwifery First Year of Practice programme (MFYP) was introduced in 2007 as a structured programme of support for new graduate midwives for the whole of their first year of practice.The main components of the programme include support during clinical practice, provision of a funded mentor midwife chosen by the new graduate midwife, financial assistance for education and a requirement to undertake aquality assessment and reflection process at the end of the first year. Aim: the aim of this study was to explore the retention of new graduates in midwifery practice following participation in the Midwifery First Year of Practice programme. Method: data was obtained from the register of MFYP participants between the years 2007 and 2010. This data was cross referenced with the Midwifery Council of New Zealand register and work force data for 2012. Findings: between the years 2007 and 2010 there were 441 midwives who graduated from a midwifery pre-registration education programme in New Zealand. Of these 415 participated in the MFYP programme. The majority were of New Zealand European ethnicity with 10% identifying as Māori. The mean age of participants reduced from 36.4 (SD 7.3) in 2007 to 33.4 (SD 8.1) in 2010. The overall retention rate for new graduate midwives who had participated in the MFYP programme was 86.3%, with 358 midwives still pracising in 2012. Conclusion: there is good retention of new graduate midwives within New Zealand and the MFYP programme would appear to support retention.

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  • Essential advising to underpin effective language

    Hobbs, M.; Dofs, K (2015)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    This paper is aimed at managers, teachers and advisors who are involved with language learner advising. It will first give a historic background to autonomy and advising (Benson & Voller, 1997; Crabbe, 1993; Holec, 1981) , then discuss what advising means and what skill set is required for this. The paper will also look at how autonomy is linked to advising, strategies for effective language learning (Oxford,1990), and self-regulation while using these strategies (Oxford, 2011; Ranalli, 2012; Rose 2012). It will then touch on more recent ideas around processes for helping students become more effective and more autonomous through advising (Mynard & Carson, 2012). Some practical approaches for advising (Kelly, 1996; Mozzon-McPherson, 2002 2007; Riley, 1997) will be referred to, as will the all-important differences between teaching and counselling approaches. Finally, the article will briefly discuss reflection as a useful professional development tool.

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  • Looking Back for the Future: Local Knowledge and Paleoecology Inform Biocultural Restoration of Coastal Ecosystems in New Zealand

    Lyver, Philip O'B; Wilmshurst, Janet; Wood, Jamie; Jones, Christopher J; Fromont, Mairie; Bellingham, Peter J; Stone, Clive; Sheehan, Michael (2015-10)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    We combine local knowledge of elders and environmental practitioners from two indigenous Māori communities and pollen evidence in soil cores from two islands and two mainland coastal sites to inform the planning of coastal ecosystem restoration initiatives in New Zealand. The Māori participants desired ecosystems that delivered cultural (e.g., support for identity), social (e.g., knowledge transfer), economic (e.g., agroecology) and environmental (e.g., biodiversity protection) outcomes to their communities. Pollen records identified three periods when vegetation was dominated by different taxa: (1) Pre-human (<AD c.1280) – forest dominated by native conifers, angiosperms and nīkau palm (Rhopalostylis sapida); (2) Māori settlement (AD c.1280–1770) – scrub and bracken fern (Pteridium esculentum); and (3) European settlement (post-1770) – Metrosideros excelsa forest with harakeke (Phormium sp.), raupō (Typha orientalis), grasses (Poaceae), exotic plantation conifers (Pinaceae), and agricultural weeds. A fourth, aspirational system that integrated human activities such as agriculture and horticulture with native forest was conceptualized. Our approach emphasizes the importance of placing humans within nature and the reciprocity of environmental and social well-being.

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  • Effects of stock type, irrigation and effluent dispersal on earthworm species composition, densities and biomasses in New Zealand pastures

    Manono, Bonface; Moller, Henrik (2015-09)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    We investigated the effects of grazing stock, irrigation and effluent dispersal on earthworm species compositions, densities and biomasses in 615 locations across 41 farms in the Waitaki Basin, New Zealand, between April and September 2012. No native megascolecid earthworms were found, but four introduced European species were encountered. Among earthworms collected, Aporrectodea caliginosa accounted for 70% of the total, 23% were Lumbricus rubellus and 4% Aporrectodea longa. When compared with untreated locations, total earthworm density was higher by 42% in effluent only locations and 72% in irrigated only locations. Maximum densities and biomasses occurred where both effluent and irrigation were applied. L. rubellus density was 32% higher in effluent only locations, 123% higher in irrigated only locations and 180% higher in effluent and irrigated locations than untreated locations. A. longa occurred in 24% of the sampled locations and appeared to be suppressed in irrigated locations. When equivalent treatments were applied, earthworm densities were 15.4% to 36.6% higher on sheep farms than on dairy farms; earthworm biomasses differed by –3.3% to 55.8% between these two kinds of stock animal farms. Treatment effects on earthworms were evident only in the upper 10 cm soil layer. Effluent and water application may have reduced the risk of desiccation and increased the availability of resources for earthworms. However, local absence of the deep burrowing species (e.g. A. longa) raises concerns about ecosystem functioning. This is a topic that should be explored further.

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  • Release of constraints on nest-site selection in burrow-nesting petrels following invasive rat eradication

    Buxton, Rachel T; Anderson, Dean; Moller, Henrik; Jones, Christopher J; Lyver, Philip O'B (2015)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    Introduced mammals have been eradicated from many offshore islands around the world, removing predation pressure from burrow-nesting seabirds and other affected wildlife. Nest-site selection in procellariiform seabirds is mediated by nesting habitat characteristics and social information, although it is unclear if, or how, nest-site selection will affect post-eradication colony growth. Using a Bayesian hierarchical modeling approach we assessed how nest-site selection differs among burrow-nesting seabird colonies at different stages of recovery after Pacific rat (Rattus exulans) eradication. We compared nest-site selection in a community of seven procellariiform species among six offshore islands in northeastern New Zealand: four designated rat-free over a continuum within the last 26 years, an island which never had rats, and an island with rats present. We hypothesized that, immediately after eradication, birds would be constrained to nesting habitat where they were less vulnerable to predation, and as time since eradication increased birds would eventually spread to new habitat. We found a positive relationship between mean burrow density and time since rat eradication. Soil depth was the most important predictor of burrow presence, abundance, and occupancy in plots among islands, with more burrows found in deeper soil. We found that the relationships between habitat covariates and nest-site selection decreased with increasing time since eradication. The probability of a covariate having a significant effect on nest-site selection decreased with increasing time since eradication and decreasing variability in the covariate across an island. Our results suggest that the eradication of rodents reduced constraints on petrel nesting distribution and that nest-site selection in burrow-nesting petrels may be influenced by burrow density, where selection of particular nesting habitat characteristics may be relatively more important in small recovering populations. We conclude that colony expansion immediately after predator removal is complex, influenced by numerous interacting factors, but may be partly limited by the availability of suitable nesting habitat.

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  • Embryonic and larval development of the New Zealand bivalve Paphies ventricosa Gray, 1843 (Veneroida: Mesodesmatidae) at a range of temperatures

    Gadomski, Kendall; Moller, Henrik; Beentjes, Michael; Lamare, Miles (2015-08)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    Paphies ventricosa is a large (up to 150 mm shell length) surf clam endemic to New Zealand, with a geographically patchy distribution. Using scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy, its fertilization, embryonic and larval development were observed at three culturing temperatures (12, 16 and 20 °C). The progress of development follows that previously described for the family Mesodesmatidae, with P. ventricosa having a small egg (63–70 µm), with a 83–102 µm trochophore stage observed at 15 h, and a 100 µm D-veliger larva observed at 22 h at 12 and 16°C, and 37 h at 20 °C. At 20 °C, the pediveliger larval stage was reached by 31 d. While the morphology of the embryonic and larval stages of P. ventricosa is typical for bivalves, we show that in this species the shell field invagination occurs in the gastrula stage and that the expansion of the dorsal shell field occurs during gastrulation, with the early trochophore having a well-developed shell field that has a clearly defined axial line between the two shell lobes. The growth of P. ventricosa larvae cultured at 12, 16 or 20 °C over 39, 33 and 31 d respectively, was faster at warmer temperatures. Using the temperature quotient Q10 at day 27 to quantify the response to temperature, values of Q10 = 1.82 for the range 12–16 °C and Q10 = 2.33 for the range 16–20 °C were calculated. Larval shape was not temperature dependent, suggesting that the smaller larvae found at colder temperatures reflect a slowing of larval development, rather than physiological damage by temperature resulting in abnormal larval development.

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  • Key biocultural values to guide restoration action and planning in New Zealand

    Lyver, Philip O'B; Akins, Ashli; Phipps, Hilary; Kahui, Viktoria; Towns, David R; Moller, Henrik (2015-12-19)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    A pluralist and cross-cultural approach that accommodates differing values while encouraging the collaboration and social cohesion necessary for the complex task of ecological restoration is needed. We used qualitative and quantitative analyses to investigate value assigned to biocultural restoration of coastal forests in northern New Zealand by 26 interviewees from three groups (environmental managers, Māori community members, and community project leaders). Māori community members primarily emphasized the importance of Cultural Stewardship and Use in the restoration process, while placing less emphasis on Ecological Integrity. Otherwise, all participants shared common trends, culminating in three interrelated value sets: (1) Personal Engagement, (2) Connection, and (3) the generation and transfer of Knowledge & Wisdom. These values demonstrate that restoration's benefits to people and community are as significant as its reparations of ecological components. Despite differences, all stakeholders were united in a broadly common goal to restore socio-ecological systems. Their knowledge and shared passion for conservation signal enormous promise for accelerated and effective restoration of coastal forests, if it is conducted using a pluralistic approach. Because some values expressed were intangible and complex, with cross-cultural dimensions, current valuation tools used by ecological economists to guide management investment fail to adequately account for, in particular, Māori values of ecological restoration.

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  • Monitoring burrowing petrel populations: A sampling scheme for the management of an island keystone species

    Buxton, Rachel T; Gormley, Andrew M; Jones, Christopher J; Lyver, Philip O'B (2015-09-24)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    Burrow-nesting petrels (order Procellariiformes) are keystone species in island ecosystems, where they modify habitat through guano deposition and burrow digging. Burrowing petrels are among the most threatened groups of birds, yet robust long-term monitoring data remain scarce because of the financial and logistical constraints of working on offshore breeding islands, the variety of surveying strategies used, and the birds' below-ground breeding behavior. We examined the sampling requirements of monitoring programs to detect changes in the number of breeding pairs of gray-faced petrels (Pterodroma gouldi), a common species in northern New Zealand. We first examined the relationship between burrow entrance density and breeding pair density using 4 years of data from 3 large colonies. We then conducted a simulation-based power analysis to assess the ability of different burrow-occupancy sampling regimes to detect changes in breeding bird abundance. Power to detect change was influenced by population growth rates, initial bird density, inter-annual variation in abundance, plot size, number of plots, intervals between surveys, time of year surveys are undertaken, and duration of the monitoring program. Our analyses suggest that, under the most suboptimal monitoring conditions, at least 45 randomly assigned 5-m-radius plots surveyed annually during the incubation period for ≥20 years will be required to detect a 1% annual change in breeding bird abundance. Because power will vary depending on project specifications, local conditions, and potential change, we created an online application with over 50,000 combinations of starting parameters (https://landcare.shinyapps.io/petrels). This allows managers to determine the power of different combinations of survey intensities while maintaining consistency and maximizing efficiency. © 2015 The Wildlife Society.

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  • Advancing Marine Policy Toward Ecosystem-Based Management by Eliciting Public Preferences

    Chhun, Sophal; Kahui, Viktoria; Moller, Henrik; Thorsnes, Paul (2015-03)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    The implementation of marine protected areas, such as marine reserves and customary fishing areas, is considered an important step toward advancing ecosystem-based management (EBM), but has proven difficult due to resistance from well-organized fishing interests. This raises the question of how the values of less well-organised parties can be brought into the political decision-making process. We summarise the results of a discrete choice survey of the general public in New Zealand that elicits willingness to make tradeoffs among taxes and four socio-ecological attributes: biodiversity, maintenance of Maori customary practices, and restrictions on commercial and recreational fishing. We apply cluster analysis, which provides information about political ‘market shares’ of respondent preferences, and derive estimates of average public willingness to pay for various policy scenarios. Both analyses reveal broad-scale support for conservation of biodiversity and cultural practices, providing quantifiable input from the public in the process of marine space reallocation.

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  • Estimating Regions of Oceanographic Importance for Seabirds Using A-Spatial Data

    Humphries, Grant Richard Woodrow (2015-09-02)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    Advances in GPS tracking technologies have allowed for rapid assessment of important oceanographic regions for seabirds. This allows us to understand seabird distributions, and the characteristics which determine the success of populations. In many cases, quality GPS tracking data may not be available; however, long term population monitoring data may exist. In this study, a method to infer important oceanographic regions for seabirds will be presented using breeding sooty shearwaters as a case study. This method combines a popular machine learning algorithm (generalized boosted regression modeling), geographic information systems, long-term ecological data and open access oceanographic datasets. Time series of chick size and harvest index data derived from a long term dataset of Maori ‘muttonbirder’ diaries were obtained and used as response variables in a gridded spatial model. It was found that areas of the sub-Antarctic water region best capture the variation in the chick size data. Oceanographic features including wind speed and charnock (a derived variable representing ocean surface roughness) came out as top predictor variables in these models. Previously collected GPS data demonstrates that these regions are used as “flyways” by sooty shearwaters during the breeding season. It is therefore likely that wind speeds in these flyways affect the ability of sooty shearwaters to provision for their chicks due to changes in flight dynamics. This approach was designed to utilize machine learning methodology but can also be implemented with other statistical algorithms. Furthermore, these methods can be applied to any long term time series of population data to identify important regions for a species of interest.

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