21,782 results for 2000, Journal article

  • The sub-Antarctic mite Ayersacarus: a new species from mainland New Zealand, and its isotopic ecology (Acari: Mesostigmata: Leptolaelapidae)

    Clark, J.; Hawke, D. (2011)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    Ayersacarus woodi sp. n. (Acari: Leptolaelapidae) is described from Westland petrel (Procellaria westlandica Falla) burrows at Punakaiki, South Island, New Zealand. The genus has previously been reported only from sub-Antarctic islands. The new species is most like A. plumapilus Hunter (type species) but differs from it in females in the size and shape of the epigynal shield; much larger metapodal shields; and a wider than long anal shield with lateral pores. The ecology of the new species was explored using stable isotope (13C/12C; 15N/14N) analysis of females alongside contextual data from the site. From the 13C/12C results, the new species is dependent on marine C from petrels rather than terrestrial photosynthetic C. In terms of trophic level, the isotopic data are consistent with consumption of guano decomposers or their eggs.

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  • Picturing peace

    Pauli, D. (2011)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

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  • Export barriers in a changing institutional environment: A quasi-longitudinal study of New Zealand's manufacturing exporters

    Kahiya, E.T.; Dean, D.L.; Heyl, J. (2014)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    The primary gap in export barrier literature has been the lack of studies adopting a longitudinal research design to examine this phenomenon. This vital and timely research addresses this long standing void by investigating the influence of export barriers at two specific points in time, 1995 and 2010. Examining the influence of export barriers across time is fundamental for aligning export development programmes with exporter needs and also for helping export managers craft winning strategies. Following a careful review and synthesis of extant literature, the study uses changes in the exporters’ institutional environment to predict change in the influence of export barriers. Data are drawn via simple random probabilistic samples of manufacturing exporters, from the same working population, using an identical survey instrument. Discriminant analysis results show that the influence of export barriers differs markedly over the two periods as evidenced by the classification accuracy of 85 %. There is support for the overarching hypothesis that export barrier influence is traceable to the changes occurring in the institutional or task environment. Specifically, deregulation of the economy, commitment to free trade, increased adoption of information and communication technology communication and floating of the exchange rate appear to shape the influence of export barriers for New Zealand exporters. Thus, while past research ascribes change in export barrier influence to organizational and internationalization variables, our study suggests that over time the institutional environment can explain export barrier influence. The study makes the case for policymakers to better align export development programmes with prevailing barriers while challenging export managers to revisit and augment the skill sets required for export success.

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  • Using ¹³⁷Cs and ²¹⁰Pb to characterise soil mixing by burrowing petrels: an exploratory study

    Hawke, D. (2010)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    This exploratory study tested the hypothesis that petrels (Aves: Procellaridae) actively plough the soil of their entire breeding colonies, as implied by their well-known burrowing capabilities but contra-indicated by widespread horizonation in colony soil. Two profiles to lithic contact were excavated within a forested Westland petrel (Procellaria westlandica) colony; one, a ridgeline control without nearby petrel burrows, and the other from a steep slope among petrel burrows. On the ridgeline, 137Cs activities (estimated per volume) steadily decreased with depth as expected. At the burrowed site, a subsurface maximum at 12–16 cm depth indicated a post-1963 burrowing or landslip event. Both 210Pb profiles were successfully modelled (r 2 c. 0.9) using a simple first-order model usually applicable only to undisturbed soils. In this model, mixing is accounted for by radioactive decay and first-order, mm-scale biodiffusion. The results therefore indicated that soil mixing was not dominated by petrel burrowing; rather, petrels confine their burrowing activities to maintenance of their burrows as semi-permanent (decades to centuries) structures. However, further sampling is recommended to confirm this view.

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  • An exploration of influences on women’s birthplace decision-making in New Zealand: a mixed methods prospective cohort within the Evaluating Maternity Units study

    Grigg, C.; Tracy, S.; Daellenbach, R.; Kensington, M.; Schmied, V. (2014)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    Background: There is worldwide debate surrounding the safety and appropriateness of different birthplaces for well women. One of the primary objectives of the Evaluating Maternity Units prospective cohort study was to compare the clinical outcomes for well women, intending to give birth in either an obstetric-led tertiary hospital or a free-standing midwifery-led primary maternity unit. This paper addresses a secondary aim of the study – to describe and explore the influences on women’s birthplace decision-making in New Zealand, which has a publicly funded, midwifery-led continuity of care maternity system. Methods: This mixed method study utilised data from the six week postpartum survey and focus groups undertaken in the Christchurch area in New Zealand (2010–2012). Christchurch has a tertiary hospital and four primary maternity units. The survey was completed by 82% of the 702 study participants, who were well, pregnant women booked to give birth in one of these places. All women received midwifery-led continuity of care, regardless of their intended or actual birthplace. Results: Almost all the respondents perceived themselves as the main birthplace decision-makers. Accessing a ‘specialist facility’ was the most important factor for the tertiary hospital group. The primary unit group identified several factors, including ‘closeness to home’, ‘ease of access’, the ‘atmosphere’ of the unit and avoidance of ‘unnecessary intervention’ as important. Both groups believed their chosen birthplace was the right and ‘safe’ place for them. The concept of ‘safety’ was integral and based on the participants’ differing perception of safety in childbirth. Conclusions: Birthplace is a profoundly important aspect of women’s experience of childbirth. This is the first published study reporting New Zealand women’s perspectives on their birthplace decision-making. The groups’ responses expressed different ideologies about childbirth. The tertiary hospital group identified with the ‘medical model’ of birth, and the primary unit group identified with the ‘midwifery model’ of birth. Research evidence affirming the ‘clinical safety’ of primary units addresses only one aspect of the beliefs influencing women’s birthplace decision-making. In order for more women to give birth at a primary unit other aspects of women’s beliefs need addressing, and much wider socio-political change is required.

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  • Mobilisation of recalcitrant soil nutrient fractions supports foliar nitrogen to phosphorus homeostasis in a seabird soil

    Hawke, D.; Condron, L.M. (2014)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    Background and aims: Although the nutrient enrichment literature emphasises anthropogenic sources, seabirds deposit large quantities of marine detritus at breeding and roosting sites. Little is known of the chemical fractions and plant availability of seabird soil nutrients and their relationship to nutrient limitation patterns. Methods: Nutrients in mineral soil from a breeding colony of burrowing seabirds were progressively depleted by growing radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) separately in small pots over 4–10 months. Soil from destructively sampled pots was analysed using a version of the Hedley fractionation scheme; foliage was analysed for C, N and δ15N using isotope ratio mass spectrometry, and for P using microwave assisted digestion and ICP-OES. Results: Foliar C:N and δ15N increased with plant mass for both species, but N:P remained constant within plants of each species. As total soil P was progressively depleted, concentrations of bicarbonate-extractable soil P were maintained. This occurred mainly by depletion of non-labile inorganic P forms, thus demonstrating potential mobilisation of all refractory P (as defined by our chemical fractionation method) into plants growing at the seabird site. The increasing foliar δ15N was consistent with the progressive mobilisation of more highly recycled forms of N. Conclusions: We infer a species-specific stoichiometric homeostasis for N and P in plants grown in seabird soil, facilitated by mobilisation of recalcitrant forms of soil N and P.

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  • The progress to digital television in New Zealand: an update

    Norris, P. (2010)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    This article was written for the prestigious International Journal of Digital Television (I am a member of the Editorial Board of this journal). One of the primary aims of the journal is to monitor the progress of the digital revolution worldwide - there are considerable differences in approach and timing between countries. The article surveyed the statistics relating to digital penetration in New Zealand - somewhere between 61 and 70 percent. More significantly it also examined several key issues at the intersection of the digital transition and public broadcasting (broadcasting not driven by commercial or ratings imperatives). Such issues include the National Government's decision to remove the Charter from TVNZ, thus rendering it wholly commercial, and the prospects for survival of TVNZ's two digital commercial-free channels. The article provided a timely analysis of the environment in which the digital transition was proceeding, and a discussion of the key issues that would affect the transition.

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  • Groundwater biofilm dynamics grown in situ along a nutrient gradient

    Williamson, W.; Close, M.; Leonard, M.; Webber, J.; Lin, S. (2012)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    This paper describes the in situ response of groundwater biofilms in an alluvial gravel aquifer system on the Canterbury Plains, New Zealand. Biofilms were developed on aquifer gravel, encased in fine mesh bags and suspended in protective columns in monitoring wells for at least 20 weeks. Four sites were selected in the same groundwater system where previous analyses indicated a gradient of increasing nitrate down the hydraulic gradient from Sites 1 to 4. Measurements during the current study classified the groundwater as oligotrophic. Biofilm responses to the nutrient gradients were assessed using bioassays, with biomass determined using protein and cellular and nucleic acid staining and biofilm activity using enzyme assays for lipid, carbohydrate, phosphate metabolism, and cell viability. In general, biofilm activity decreased as nitrate levels increased from Sites 1 to 4, with the opposite relationship for carbon and phosphorus concentrations. These results showed that the groundwater system supported biofilm growth and that the upper catchment supported efficient and productive biofilms (high ratio of activity per unit biomass).

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  • Optimal handlebar position for track cyclists

    Underwood, L.; Jermy, M. (2013)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    Wind tunnel tests were carried out on seven male and seven female track cyclists and the drag measured for their current favoured racing position and for different handlebar height and separation combinations deviating from their current favoured position. The handlebars were raised or lowered using spacers on the stem, and the elbow pads were placed wider apart or closer together using the adjustment slots on the pads. The degree to which adjustments were made was dependent on the equipment used, as not all handlebars had the same amount of adjustment. The drag area was calculated from the measured drag force and the results for drag area plotted for each athlete in each position to identify the optimal handlebar position for each athlete. The results showed that the handlebar height had a greater influence on the drag area compared to handlebar separation, but that there was a high degree of variability between athletes as to the optimal handlebar position.

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  • Would the real Freeview please stand up?

    Given, J.; Norris, P. (2010)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    Freeview is the survival strategy for free-to-view TV in the digital age in the United Kingdom, New Zealand and Australia. It is mix of marketing, services and technology, and of defensive and offensive elements. The mix is different in different places: In the UK, where the concept was launched in 2002, digital terrestrial television (DTT) became Freeview, now the most popular form of digital TV. Freeview represented a fresh strategy to relaunch DTT after the failure of the first model. In New Zealand, where DTT started in 2008, DTT is Freeview, but Freeview was a satellite service first, appealing mainly to those with poor analogue reception. The concept was imported from the UK as the proven way to make DTT work, and deployed from the outset by broadcasters with government backing. In Australia, as this article was finalized in August 2009, Freeview is still mainly a marketing campaign rather than a TV service. Broadcasters have not deployed it enthusiastically to launch the medium, but reluctantly, many years on, as part of the government-mandated push to digital switchover. This article explores the origins and development of these three Freeviews. It provides an unusual case study of a related, though different, set of products marketed under the same name in different countries. It also speculates about their future as television morphs into new shapes, especially encouraged by the growth of high definition, hard-drive-recording and broadband-connected receivers. Identifying both similarities and differences across the three Freeviews, the authors conclude that although Freeview is helping to make it possible to switch off analogue services and free up spectrum for other purposes in all three countries, the national differences defy reduction to a single definition. Freeview, like television itself, is different in these different places and is changing over time.

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  • Accumulation rates of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus in petrel colony soil: Adams Island, New Zealand subantarctic

    Hawke, D. J. (2010)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    Previous research establishing low levels of nutrient retention in petrel colony soils was based on a single soil profile with a single radiocarbon date. Because of the ecological implications of the wide dispersion of nutrients implied by low nutrient retention, replication of the original study is necessary. Four profiles (0-75 cm) 50 m apart were excavated in a mixed species petrel colony on Adams Island (Auckland Islands group) and inventories of C, N, and P determined. Radiocarbon analyses were carried out at three depths in one of the profiles, to see if accumulation rates were consistent. Accumulation rates based on the 2σ calibrated radiocarbon age over the 0-67.5 cm depth interval (0.123-0.134 kg C m-2 yr-1, 3.99-4.35×10-3 kg N m-2 yr-1, 9.05-9.87×10-5 kg P m-2 yr-1) agreed with rates calculated over the 0-52.5 cm depth interval (0.114-0.272 kg C m-2 yr-1, 3.99-9.52×10-3 kg N m-2 yr-1, 9.53-22.7×10-5 kg P m-2 yr-1); elemental inventories were consistent across all profiles. The radiocarbon date at the third depth interval (0-37.5 cm) gave a calendar age range that was too broad for meaningful accumulation rates to be calculated. While accumulation rates were approximately double the previously reported rates obtained from Taukihepa/Big South Cape (Rakiura/Stewart Island), the proportions of gross N and P input retained by colony soil were still extremely low. The higher accumulation rates reported in the present study can be explained by the colder climate and lower leaf litter quality associated with forest on Adams Island.

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  • Review: Nozaki, War memory, nationalism and education in postwar Japan, 1945-2007: The Japanese history textbook controversy and Ienaga Saburo’s court challenges

    Nishino, R. (2010)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

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  • Writing about the spiritual side of grieving

    Arnold, S. (2010)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    The Collins Dictionary defines ‘spirit’ as ‘the force or principle of life that animates the body of living things’. ‘Spiritus’ is the Latin word for spirit and also means breath. A bereaved parent in Finkbeiner’s study (1998: 238) says, ‘If children are part of parents they are not arms or legs, but bones and breath.’ Rudolph Steiner (1973) believed that during the first seven years of life, a child shares its mother’s spiritual energy in the same way it shared her blood in the womb. I would add to that by saying that in my own experience, and in the experience of many bereaved parents, the spiritual connections with one’s child do not end with the death of that child. Although much has been written about the mental, emotional and physical aspects of grieving, discussion of the fourth aspect of the quadrant, the spiritual, is discouraged in western society, where spiritual experiences of the bereaved are accounted for as part of the psychology of grief. This paper examines the spiritual side of grieving and the challenges of writing about it in a creative writing PhD. It draws on research about after-death communication and near-death experiences that aim to determine whether human consciousness survives death. It also reflects on my own writing which argues that the bereaved need not accept the pathologising of their experiences.

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  • Virtualization in practice: Implementing active directory sites

    Correia, E. (2012)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    Virtualization has the potential to revolutionise the way networking is taught in higher learning institutions. This article outlines, through the use of a case study, the way in which VMware Workstation and VMware ESX Server are used so that each student in the class runs his or her own set of seven virtual servers, including a Linux router. The Linux router connects virtual networks within the context of student physical machines to one another as well as a lecturer virtual server, which runs on an ESX server. In this way, a class of twenty two students can together run an enterprise-like network comprising of some 177 servers and implement Microsoft Active Directory sites and associated services in order to optimize a specific scenario-based replication topology.

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  • The New Zealand earthquakes and the role of schools in engaging children in emotional processing of disaster experiences

    Gawith, E. (2014)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    The earthquakes that rocked the city of Christchurch and surrounding districts in Canterbury, New Zealand, were to take their toll on families, schools and communities. The places that had once represented safety and security for most children were literally and figuratively turned upside down. Rather than reinforce the trauma and continue to frame children as passive victims, the study reported here aimed to help children reframe their experiences through active engagement in participatory research projects. This article reports on three schools drawn from a UNESCO-funded project in which schools recorded their earthquake stories. While children were the centre of each of the school’s earthquake stories, schools engaged children to different extents in their chosen projects. These three schools exemplify different places along a continuum of children’s engagement in research on their own experiences. In one school, children, families, teachers and the principal all contributed to an illustrated book of their experiences. In another school, children created a series of mosaic panels to record the community’s story before, during and after the earthquakes. In the third school, children became documentary makers and interviewed other children about their earthquake experiences. In all cases, children found their projects positive and helpful activities, enabling them to put their experiences into a broader context. This article argues that schools have an important role to play in providing emotional processing activities which help children gain perspective and distance as part of their recovery from large-scale disaster events.

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  • Closing the circle: how ecologists can prepare their own quality control material to increase confidence in stable isotope data

    Hawke, D.J.; Ni, X.; Cheng, C.; Shigemi, N. (2013)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    1. Stable isotope analysis (SIA) is widely used in ecology but is usually performed by specialist facilities. Consequently, the reliability of SIA data depends completely on the facility’s quality systems unless ecologists take steps themselves. Although widely recommended, practical advice on how to do this is lacking. 2. Here, we outline preparation of 150 vials of an in-house quality control material (QCM) based on air-dried soil as an exemplar and describe methods of data analysis applicable to any QCM matrix. Homogeneity testing of the candidate material involves duplicate analysis of 10 randomly chosen vials, aCochran test for outliers and 1-way ANOVA. Given that many ecologists find SIA expensive, we propose that an ecologist preparing a soil QCM pretest for homogeneity using a simple colorimetric analysis of a soil quantity (bicarbonate-extractable P) sensitive to inhomogeneity. 3. Once pretest homogeneity has been established, homogeneity under SIA can be tested. We obtained a 1-way ANOVA P value of 0824 in our laboratory pretest, then 0782 (d13C) and 0125 (d15N). QCM stability should also be confirmed. 4. Submission of each batch of samples for SIA should be accompanied by a vial of the QCM, labelled as a normal sample. Control charting of the results then allows detection of within-batch issues encompassing any component of the analytical process (transport to the laboratory, sample preparation and subsampling, sample analysis, results calculation and reporting) and assessment of long-term analytical control. Any issue thus identified can form the basis of a conversation with the SIA laboratory about the affected batch of samples.

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  • The New Zealand/Aotearoa Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative implementation journey: Piki Ake Te Tihi - Strive for excellence

    Martis, R.; Stufkens, J. (2013)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    The Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) was launched by the World Health Organization and United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund in 1991 following the Innocenti Declaration of 1990, of which New Zealand/Aotearoa was a signatory. After a number of unsuccessful attempts to implement BFHI by breastfeeding advocates, the New Zealand Breastfeeding Authority (NZBA) was established in 1999. Successful BFHI implementation was achieved through a number of factors, including the establishment of a national body (NZBA) with oversight of BFHI facility implementation and auditing, Ma¯ori and consumer participation at all levels, the recertification requirements for midwives of breastfeeding education by the Midwifery Council, and maternity facilities having paid BFHI coordinators. Once the NZBA was established, BFHI accreditation of maternity facilities had a rapid rise from 0% in 2000 to 96.1% in 2011 (74 of 77 facilities). Data collected over this period shows a 28.8-percentage-point increase of exclusive breastfeeding at discharge from maternity facilitates between 2001 (55.6%) and 2011 (84.4%). Future strategies focus on having all relevant community providers achieve Baby-Friendly Community Initiative accreditation and on the NZBA’s lobbying the government for initiatives that support, promote, and protect breastfeeding.

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  • Chemistry in Canterbury: 1986 - 2010

    Edmonds, M.; Robinson, W.; Saunders, D. (2011)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    The most significant constant in the 25 years since 1985 would have to be the ongoing appointments of well qualified, ambitious, experienced academic staff in the Department of Chemistry. Financial constraints have seen the number of established positions shrink from 23 to 18 at the same time as chemistry has spilled well beyond its historical subdivisions. Teaching the current, discernable, main stream topics in the traditional areas of organic, inorganic and physical chemistry is, consequently, that much more demanding. University teachers have research interests in areas that demand proficiency in new knowledge, much of which did not exist 25 years ago.

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  • Robust forests of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes chemically assembled on carbon substrates

    Garrett, D. J.; Flavel, B. S.; Shapter, J. G.; Baronian, K. H. R.; Downard, A. J. (2010)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    Forests of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) have been chemically assembled on carbon surfaces. The structures show excellent stability over a wide potential range and are resistant to degradation from sonication in acid, base, and organic solvent. Acid-treated single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) were assembled on amineterminated tether layers covalently attached to pyrolyzed photoresist films. Tether layers were electrografted to the carbon substrate by reduction of the p-aminobenzenediazonium cation and oxidation of ethylenediamine. The aminemodified surfaces were incubated with cut SWCNTs in the presence of N,N0-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC), giving forests of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs). The SWCNT assemblies were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and electrochemistry. Under conditions where the tether layers slow electron transfer between solution-based redox probes and the underlying electrode, the assembly of VACNTs on the tether layer dramatically increases the electron-transfer rate at the surface. The grafting procedure, and hence the preparation of VACNTs, is applicable to a wide range of materials including metals and semiconductors.

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  • Understanding nursing scope of practice: A qualitative study

    Schluter, J.; Seaton, P.; Chaboyer, W. (2011)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    Background: The past decade has seen increased patient acuity and shortened lengths of stays in acute care hospitals resulting in an intensification of the work undertaken by nursing staff in hospitals. This has ultimately led to a reconsideration of how nursing staff manage their work. Aim: The aim of this study was to understand how medical and surgical nurses from two Australian hospitals conceive their scope of practice in response to the available grade and skill mix of nurses and availability of unlicensed health care workers and other health care professionals. By exploring these meanings, this study aimed to build an understanding of how nursing work patterns were shifting in the face of changing patient acuity, patient profiles and nursing skill mix. Method: A constructivist methodology, using critical incident technique (CIT) was used to explore nurses’ role and scope of practice. Twenty nurses, 16 registered nurses (RNs) and four enrolled nurses (ENs), discussed significant events during which they perceived they were undertaking either patient care activities they should be undertaking, or activities that should have either been delegated or undertaken by a higher level of care provider. Findings: Five themes emerged from the data: (1) good nurses work in proximity to patients providing total patient care; (2) safeguarding patients; (3) picking up the slack to ensure patient safety; (4) developing teamwork strategies; and (5) privileging patients without mental illness or cognitive impairment. A pattern woven throughout these themes was the idea of negotiation. RNs were struggling with the notions that direct patient care was sometimes not the best use of their time, and delegation did not equate with laziness. Conclusion Negotiation has become a fundamental aspect of nursing practice given the variety of nursing care providers currently employed in acute care settings. Negotiation has allowed nurses to redefine appropriate nurse–patient proximity, promote patient safety and find innovative ways of working in nursing teams.

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