21,119 results for 2000, Journal article

  • Employee fairness perceptions of performance appraisal: a Saint Lucian case study

    Narcisse, Sharon; Harcourt, Mark (2008)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    This research identifies the essential factors which influence employees' fairness perceptions of their performance appraisals, and determines the applicability of these factors to the experiences of employees in a Saint Lucian public service organization. Fairness perceptions are of three main types. First, distributive justice refers to the perceived fairness of an actual appraisal rating. Second, procedural justice refers to the perceived fairness of procedures used to determine the appraisal rating. Third, interactional justice refers to the perceived fairness of the rater's interpersonal treatment of the ratee during the appraisal process. A qualitative case study method was used to gain a rich understanding of employee perceptions of the fairness of their performance appraisals. Data were obtained from both completed appraisal forms and interviews with 20 knowledgeable employees. All interviews were transcribed and assessed using a thematic analysis. Overall, results show that distributive, procedural, and interactional justice factors identified in the existing literature influence employee perceptions of fairness in their appraisals. Results suggest that employees also consider four additional justice factors, as yet not formally recognized in the justice literature, one distributive – the consistency in reward distribution – and three procedural – appraisal frequency, job relevant criteria, and rater and ratee training.

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  • Sport development and physical activity promotion: An integrated model to enhance collaboration and understanding

    Rowe, Katie; Shilbury, David; Ferkins, Dr Lesley; Hinckson, Erica (2013)

    Journal article
    Unitec

    As inactivity and obesity levels continue to rise, calls are being made for sport development action to be further directed towards capitalising on the value of community participation for health and social benefits. This paper seeks to highlight a current disconnect between physical activity and sport management research, and identify opportunities for collaboration. To date, the sport management literature has predominantly focused on sport as a form of entertainment with spectatorship outcomes, where professional codes are a commonly used setting of research inquiry. There has been less focus on organisational issues related to participation in sport and recreation. This is identified as a gap, given the current push towards increasing focus on sport and recreation promotion for community wellbeing. The present paper sought to examine physical activity and sport management research, to identify commonalities and potential for integration and co-operation. The outcome of this review is a conceptual framework, integrating socio-ecological models, taken from physical activity research, and sport development concepts derived from sport management theory. The proposed conceptual framework seeks to provide sport management researchers with direction in their efforts to promote participation in sport, recreation and physically active leisure domains, particularly for community wellbeing purposes. Furthermore, such direction may also enhance the capacity of researchers to capitalise on opportunities for collaboration and integration across domains of inquiry.

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  • Sport governance encounters: Insights from lived experiences

    Shilbury, David; Ferkins, Dr Lesley; Smythe, Liz (2013)

    Journal article
    Unitec

    This study explored sport governance practice from the lived experience of one informant spanning a 30-year period in the governance of two sport organisations (basketball and cricket). Hermeneutic phenomenology, the methodological framework used for this study, seeks to grasp the everyday world, and draw insight and meaning from it. The method involves a series of in-depth interviews with one research participant, supplemented by document analysis. Interviews were analysed using an interpretative process which blended the world views of both the participant and researchers. The participant lived through an era of increasing professionalisation within sport. His narrative, which tapped into his governance expertise at state, national and international levels, provides insights into the transition from an amateur to a commercial culture, referred to in this paper as ‘two worlds colliding’. From this narrative, three related themes were identified and labelled, ‘volunteer and cultural encounters’; ‘structural encounters’; and ‘adversarial encounters’. In drawing on hermeneutic philosophy, and highlighting that which has been hidden from view, direction for future research and practice within the sport governance domain is offered. These directions invite scholars to think about future sport governance research as it relates to federated structures and how collaborative governance theory can sharpen the focus in this domain.

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  • Climate change and Generation Zero : analysing the 50/50 campaign : a communication for social change approach

    Noronha, Sandra (2013)

    Journal article
    Unitec

    Climate change does not respect national boundaries or distinguish between big and small polluters. It is one of the truly global problems humanity faces today. In spite of this, there is reluctance to believe in the existence of climate change even though the scientific consensus is that human influence bears much of the responsibility

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  • A comparative approach to determining the growth of productivity of the New Zealand construction industry

    Abbott, Malcolm; Carson, Chris (2013)

    Journal article
    Unitec

    In recent years there has been increasing interest in the productivity and efficiency of the construction industry in New Zealand. In part this interest has manifested itself in the increased use of numerous statistical techniques to determine the productivity and efficiency of the industry. These efforts have, however, some degree of controversy. The purpose of this paper is, therefore, threefold. First it summarises the key structural findings that have been determined from past research into the construction industry in New Zealand. Secondly it makes some comparisons between the construction industry’s productivity in New Zealand with that of the six states of Australia. Finally it also considers potential areas for potential future research.

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  • How principals manage ethnocultural diversity: learnings from three countries

    Billot, J; Goddard, JT; Cranston, N (2013-11-07)

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    Global movements of people are resulting in increasingly diverse societies and principals are encountering more complex and challenging school communities. This paper presents the results of a tri-national study that sought to identify how principals manage ethnocultural diversity in schools in New Zealand, Australia and Canada. The research context of the three cities is provided by describing their ethnocultural diversity, relevant literature is examined and the research methodology discussed. Two major themes of the study findings are identified. Firstly, there appear to be similarities in the ethnocultural diversity evident in contemporary high schools in all three locations and how principals identified the effect of such diversity on their school. The second identifies similarities in how principals perceived and managed the resultant challenges in the three ethnoculturally diverse locations. Implications and conclusions from the findings are discussed, with suggestions for further research in this domain.

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  • Lost in translation: aligning strategies for research

    Billot, JM; Codling, A (2013-11-07)

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    In New Zealand, the funding of higher education research has been influenced by revised policy-driven imperatives. Amidst the institutional reactions to newer criteria for governmental funding, individual academics are being asked to increase their productivity in order for their employing institution to access public funding. For this to occur, these three essential stakeholders, namely the government, the institution and the individual academic, need to have a reasonable understanding of one another’s core research objectives, and reasonable alignment of the strategies they employ to achieve them. This alignment of effort is not without challenges, for inevitably ambiguity occurs when interactions are not effectively dovetailed and clearly communicated. In addition, individual academics may perceive a lack of support within an environment of increased pressure to perform. Ambivalence as one form of disengagement may result as staff resort to behaviours that contest institutional powers over their changing roles and responsibilities. We contend that in order to address these challenges, there needs to be further reflection on how the efforts of all parties can be better aligned and collaboratively integrated. While our point of reference for this paper is New Zealand, similar issues are evident in higher education institutions internationally and so strategies for overcoming them can be applicable across varied contexts.

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  • Fully automated VLBI analysis with c5++ for ultra-rapid determination of UT1

    Hobiger, T; Otsubo, T; Sekido, M; Gotoh, T; Kubooka, T; Takiguchi, H (2012-04-23)

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    VLBI is the only space-geodetic technique which gives direct access to the Earth's phase of rotation, i.e. universal time UT1. Beside multi-baseline sessions, regular single baseline VLBI experiments are scheduled in order to provide estimates of UT1 for the international space community. Although the turn-around time of such sessions is usually much shorter and results are available within one day after the data were recorded, lower latency of UT1 results is still requested. Based on the experience gained over the last two years, an automated analysis procedure was established. The main goal was to realize fully unattended operation and robust estimation of UT1. Our new analysis software, named c5++, is capable of interfacing directly with the correlator output, carries out all processing stages without human interaction and provides the results for the scientific community or dedicated space applications. Moreover, the concept of ultra-rapid VLBI sessions can be extended to include further well-distributed stations, in order to obtain the polar motion parameters with the same latency and provide an up-to-date complete set of Earth orientation parameters for navigation of space and satellite missions.

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  • VLBI measurements for frequency transfer

    Takiguchi, H; Koyama, Y; Ichikawa, R; Gotoh, T; Ishii, A; Hobiger, T; Hosokawa, M (2012-04-23)

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    We carried out the intercomparison experiment between VLBI and GPS to show that VLBI can measure the correct time difference. We produced an artificial delay change by stretching the Coaxial Phase Shifter which was inserted in the path of the reference signal from Hydrogen maser to the Kashima 11m antenna. Concerning the artificial changes, VLBI and the nominal value of Coaxial Phase Shifter show good agreement, i. e. less than 10ps. Thus it is concluded that the geodetic VLBI technique can measure the time differences correctly.

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  • Achieving transmission fairness in distributed medium access wireless mesh networks: design challenges, guidelines and future directions

    Undugodage, SP; Sarkar, NI (2013-07-02)

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    Wireless mesh networking gained an international interest over the years as a result to high recognition in the wireless industry as a cost effective, scalable, wider coverage and capacity capable wireless technology. The contention based distributed medium access in wireless networks has advanced not only in supporting the quality of multimedia but also achieving high throughput and to minimize packet delay overheads in legacy systems. Unfortunately, the impact of such enhancement has not been fully justified with mesh network environments yet. The medium access frames are required to be contended over multi-hops to overcome the challenges of improving overall system performance through concurrent transmissions. The goal of this paper is to discuss the issues and challenges of transmission fairness and the effect of concurrent transmission on system performance. To mitigate transmission fairness issues, we review existing open literature on mesh networking and provide guidelines for better system design and deployment. Finally, we conclude the paper with future research directions. This study may help network designer and planner to overcome the remaining challenging issues in the design and deployment of WMNs worldwide.

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  • Market timing ability and mutual funds: a heterogeneous agent approach

    Frijns, B; Gilbert, A; Zwinkels, RCJ (2013-10-25)

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    This paper proposes a novel approach to determine whether mutual funds time the market. The proposed approach builds on a heterogeneous agent model, where investors switch between cash and stocks depending on a certain switching rule. This represents a more flexible, intuitive, and parsimonious approach. The traditional market timing models are essentially a special case of our model with contemporaneous switching rule. Applying this model to a sample of 400 US equity mutual funds, we find that 41.5% of the funds in our sample have negative market timing skills and only 3.25% positive skills. 20% of funds apply a forward:looking approach in deciding on market timing, and 13.75% a backward looking approach. We also note that market timing differs considerably over fund styles.

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  • Why do financial literacy programmes fail?

    Frijns, BPM; Gilbert, A; Tourani-Rad, A (2013-10-25)

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    Numerous studies have found a positive relationship between financial literacy and financial experience. Typically, this relationship is interpreted as being a causal relationship, i.e. an increase in financial literacy leads to better financial decision making. However, a simple relationship cannot be interpreted in a causal way. In this paper, we show evidence for a causal relationship running the opposite way, i.e. people with more financial experience seem to acquire more financial knowledge and become more financially literate. This finding has important implications as it suggests that programmes targeted at improving financial literacy could be more effective if they incorporate experiential components.

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  • The ethics of predictive risk modelling in the Aotearoa/New Zealand child welfare context: child abuse prevention or neo-liberal tool?

    Keddell, Emily (2014-07-28)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    The current White Paper on Vulnerable Children before the Aotearoa/New Zealand (A/NZ) parliament proposes changes that will significantly reconstruct the child welfare systems in this country, including the use of a predictive risk model (PRM). This article explores the ethics of this strategy in a child welfare context. Tensions exist, including significant ethical problems such as the use of information without consent, breaches of privacy and stigmatisation, without clear evidence of the benefits outweighing these costs. Broader implicit assumptions about the causes of child abuse and risk and their intersections with the wider discursive, political and systems design contexts are also discussed. Drawing on Houston et. al. (2010) this paper highlights the potential for a PRM to contribute to a neo-liberal agenda that individualises social problems, reifies risk and abuse, and narrowly prescribes service provision. However, with reference to child welfare and child protection orientations, the paper suggests ways the model could be used in a more ethical manner.

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  • Efficiency of the New Zealand annual catch entitlement market

    Stewart, James; Leaver, Jonathan (2015-05)

    Journal article
    Unitec

    Balancing catch with annual catch entitlement (ACE) is crucial both for the financial viability of fishers and for the efficient operation of the New Zealand quota management system (QMS). This study examines the information channels that are used by fishers to search for ACE availability, and notes how these channels differ between large and small fishers. Special attention is given to the viability of small independent fishers whose participation in the fishery is dependent on their acquiring ACE in the open ACE market. An ACE market survey along with extensive consultation captured the views of fishers, fish processors, and quota brokers. These sources provide valuable insights into the day-to-day operation of the ACE market. They suggest that while elements of market power are evident in the ACE market there are also characteristics of an efficient market.

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  • Current singularities at finitely compressible three-dimensional magnetic null points

    Pontin, D.I.; Craig, Ian J.D. (2005)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    The formation of current singularities at line-tied two- and three-dimensional (2D and 3D, respectively) magnetic null points in a nonresistive magnetohydrodynamic environment is explored. It is shown that, despite the different separatrix structures of 2D and 3D null points, current singularities may be initiated in a formally equivalent manner. This is true no matter whether the collapse is triggered by flux imbalance within closed, line-tied null points or driven by externally imposed velocity fields in open, incompressible geometries. A Lagrangian numerical code is used to investigate the finite amplitude perturbations that lead to singular current sheets in collapsing 2D and 3D null points. The form of the singular current distribution is analyzed as a function of the spatial anisotropy of the null point, and the effects of finite gas pressure are quantified. It is pointed out that the pressure force, while never stopping the formation of the singularity, significantly alters the morphology of the current distribution as well as dramatically weakening its strength. The impact of these findings on 2D and 3D magnetic reconnection models is discussed.

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  • Managing curriculum change and 'ontological uncertainty' in tertiary education

    Keesing-Styles, Linda; Nash, Simon; Ayres, Robert (2013-11-13)

    Journal article
    Unitec

    Curriculum reform at institutional level is a challenging endeavour. Those charged with leading this process will encounter both enthusiasm and multiple obstacles to teacher engagement including the particularly complex issue of confronting existing teacher identities. At Unitec Institute of Technology (Unitec), the ‘Living Curriculum’ initiative focused on whole-of-institution curriculum renewal and, in the process, acknowledged and addressed teacher beliefs and practices that variously supported and contested both the initiative itself and the professional development offerings that accompanied it. The related research project identified factors and processes that unsettle teachers, rendering them ‘insecure’, and strategies that have proven effective in supporting teachers through significant change in conceptions of curriculum, teaching and learning.

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  • Intentionalism, Intentionality and Reporting Beliefs

    Mitrovic, Branko (2009)

    Journal article
    Unitec

    The dominant view of twentieth century analytic philosophy has been that all thinking is always in a language; that languages are vehicles of thought. In recent decades, however, the opposite view, that languages merely serve to express language-­‐independent thought-­‐contents or propositions, has been more widely accepted. The debate has a direct equivalent in the philosophy of history: when historians report the beliefs of historical figures, do they report the sentences or propositions that these historical figures believed to be true or false? In this paper I argue in favor of the latter, intentionalist, view. My arguments mostly center on the problems with translations that are likely to arise when a historian reports the beliefs of historical figures who expressed them in languages other than the one in which the historian is writing. In discussing these problems the paper presents an application of John Searle’s theory of intentionality on the philosophy of history. The debate between the view that all thinking is verbal and always in a language and the view that human beings think independently of any language (using their languages merely in order to express their thoughts) has had an extensive history in the philosophy of language for the past hundred years. It also has numerous implications for the philosophy of history, where the problem can be stated in general terms as the question of whether a historian, when reporting the beliefs of historical figures, reports the thought-­‐contents (conceived as independent of the language in which they were articulated) or the sentences that these people believed to be true or false. Among English-­‐speaking historians of philosophy, the latter view was promoted by Arthur Danto, the former by Quentin Skinner and Mark Bevir. Both positions are reflected in specific problems of history-­‐writing, such as, for instance, the question whether and how a historian can report the beliefs of historical figures who articulated them in languages different from the language in which the historian is writing. Both positions also fundamentally rely on the assumption that it is possible and legitimate to provide translations of sentences from one language to another when reporting the beliefs of historical figures; but, as we shall see, they are not on equal footing when it comes to explaining what counts as a legitimate translation. This paper explores the implications that these two views on the role of language in human thinking have for the philosophy of history. It will show that the view that all human thinking is verbal is not compatible with some fundamental and standard practices of history-­‐writing. Thus, the paper can be seen as a contribution to the debate about intentionalism in history-­‐writing. It argues in favor of the intentionalist approach by introducing new arguments derived from the philosophy of language, while at the same time proposing a formulation of the intentionalist position that relies on John Searle’s philosophical elaboration on the concept of intentionality.

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  • Panoptic reality : a review of Citizenfour

    Tunnicliffe, Craig (2015-05-01)

    Journal article
    Unitec

    Movies, and perhaps more importantly documentary movies, need to be separated into good documentaries and important documentaries. Citizenfour would then fall squarely in this second category, and require viewing for its import rather than its simulation. Citizenfour documents the days preceding and during the release of information gained by Edward Snowden, which exposed the depth of surveillance activities conducted by the NSA and other security agencies. Directed by Laura Poitras and reporting by Glenn Greenwald, the film documents the process of information release, the technological capability of the spying agencies, and the person (Snowden) behind the release of this information. ...This film and its subject matter are important. They highlight the reality of information accessibility, the surveillance that is currently occurring, the scope and depth of this activity, and government’s complicity in this activity. Jeremy Bentham described a perfect prison where those who thought they were being watched modified their behaviour accordingly. Snowden, facilitated by Poitras and Greenwald, demonstrates in Citizenfour that this prison has already been built, and is present every time we log on to a computer system. For those involved in social change, a risk is that the threat of observation may change behaviour. This needs to be resisted.

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  • A Report on the Community Development Conference 2015

    Stansfield, John; Masih, Abishhek (2015-05-01)

    Journal article
    Unitec

    The Community Development Conference 2015 was an effort by the Department of Social Practice at Unitec and Community Development practitioners to bring together practitioners, academics and students to share their knowledge, research and stories about community development. Thirty-­‐five completed feedback forms were received - summary included.

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  • Suburban interventions : understanding the values of place and belonging through collaboration

    Woodruffe, Paul; Unitec Institute of Technology. The everyday collective laboratory (2012-05-23)

    Journal article
    Unitec

    How can a socially defined project facilitate meaningful knowledge transfer between community, corporate and institution? In order to address this question, this paper focuses on an ongoing live project in suburban Auckland New Zealand begun in 2010, undertaken by a post-graduate student and researcher collective. The collective currently creates subtle interventions sited within local cyberspace, and through this current project will employ impermanent and small-scale design to advocate for a series of neglected and disputed sites. It explores the impact and value the presence of artists and designers working within local communities can have, and “champions the role of the artist in the development of the public realm, and their intuitive response to spaces, places, people and wildlife” (Wood 2009, p.26). The significance of this project is that it promotes a collaborative and multidisciplinary methodology that works with community groups to advocate to corporate entities for a wider social and environmental awareness of specific sites. This paper aims to explain the processes and findings of the project to date through both its successes and failures. It also proposes the possibility of the methodology being transferred to undergraduate and post-graduate study as a tool to promote multi-disciplined collaborate project briefs that focus on community well being ... One of the most important findings from the first project in Memorial Avenue was the fact that the local residents had a complete aversion to what they perceived as a “design” proposition. The notion of a designer coming into their neighbourhood with a plan to place a design into or onto the landscape without their request was unacceptable to them. So the document prepared for the heritage walkway proposal contained nothing that could be called landscape design for construction, and it was vital that no sense of urgency or externally driven timetables were introduced to the process, and that the document was seen as a gift and a celebration of their landscape, culture and heritage instead of a plan and an agenda for development.

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