2,744 results for Auckland University of Technology, Thesis

  • Geospatial process modelling for land use cover change

    Nti, Isaac Kwadwo (2013-11-29)

    Doctoral thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Human activities and effects of global warming are increasingly changing the physical landscape. In view of this researchers have developed models to investigate the cause and effect of such variations. Most of these models were developed for specific locations with spatial variables causing change for that location. Also the application areas of these models are mainly binary transitions, not complex models which involve multiple transitions, for example deforestation models which deal with the transition from forest lands to non-forest areas and urban growth transition from non-urban areas to urban. Moreover these land simulation models are closed models because spatial variables cannot be introduced or removed, rather modellers can only modify the coefficients of the fixed variables. Closed models have significant limitations largely because geospatial variables that cause change in a locality may differ from one another. Thus with closed models the modellers are unable to measure and test the significance of variables before their inclusion. This work investigated existing land use cover change (LUCC) models and aimed to find a geospatial workflow process modelling approach for LUCC so that the influence of geospatial variables in LUCC could be measured and tested before inclusion. The derived geospatial workflow process was implemented in DINAMICA EGO, an open generic LUCC modelling environment. For the initial calibration phase of the process the Weight of Evidence (WoE) method was used to measure the influence of spatial variables in LUCC and also to determine the variables significance. A Genetic Algorithm was used to enhance the WoE coefficients and give the best fitness of the coefficients for the model. The model process was then validated using kappa and fuzzy similarity map comparison methods, in order to quantify the similarity between the observed and simulated spatial pattern of LUCC. The performance of the workflow process was successfully evaluated using the Auckland Region of New Zealand and Rondônia State of Brazil as the study areas. The Auckland LUCC model was extended to demonstrate vegetative carbon sequestration scenario. Ten transitions were modelled involving seven Land Use Cover (LUC) classes and a complex dynamic LUCC for Auckland was generated. LUC maps for 1990 and 2000 were used to calibrate the model and 2008 was used to validate the model. The static spatial variables tested were road networks, river networks, slope, elevation, hillshade, reserved lands and soil. The hillshade and soil variables were found to have no significant impact in the LUCC for the Auckland area, therefore they were excluded from the model. If a closed model had been used these insignificant variables would have been included. The calibration phase revealed that wetland and cropland LUC areas in Auckland have not changed between 1990 and 2000. The validated LUCC model of Auckland, served as a foundation for simulating annual LUC maps for advance modelling of Carbon Sequestration by vegetation cover. In order to test the generic nature of the workflow process model a second case study was introduced that had a different data resolution, area extent and fewer LUC transitions. Compared to Auckland, the new Rondônia case study was a simple LUCC model with only one transition, with coarse data resolution (250m) and large area extent. The evaluation of the Rondônia LUCC model also gave good result. It was then concluded that the derived workflow process model is generic and could be applied to any location.

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  • Food waste New Zealand: a case study investigating the food waste phenomenon

    Parr, Harriet (2013-11-29)

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Food waste is an increasing concern for Governments in developed countries and in New Zealand it is estimated that the annual value of household food waste is 750 million dollars. The looming crisis in global food security including food waste has resulted in a detailed report from the United Kingdom’s Institute of Mechanical Engineers, IMechE’s (2013) which concluded that education is critical to help consumers lower their generation of food waste; and that policy changes led by Governments, must be introduced, to tackle this escalating problem. In New Zealand information on food waste is scarce however statistical evidence does show each household discards food valued at 450 dollars annually (Davison, 2011) yet ironically, 270 000 children in New Zealand live in poverty, where many do not have enough food to eat (Collins, 2012). This research aims to investigate the issues of household food waste, from the perspective of consumers, to discover if practical techniques can be applied to alleviate household food waste. Currently, advertising and marketing campaigns to enable consumers to think about their household’s food waste, instigated by Government or educational organisations are nonexistent. Also co-operation with supermarkets and food manufacturers to educate their consumers about the implications of creating food waste which would begin to address some consumer concerns raised in this research is unavailable. As with other issues of sustainability will it be consumer pressure or economic policy makers who will drive information transparency and best practice? Disposal methods, and landfill diversion of food waste was not the focus of the case study. Rather the practical implementation of food waste reduction methods from website information and suggestions was important. Adding to the case study family’s problem was that alternative food waste disposal methods, to divert food waste such as composting, or green waste collection services, were unavailable, in Auckland the service was not provided by Government. A case study methodology was used to underpin this research. The importance of using an in depth case study is highlighted by determining whether or not website information is informative enough to induce household behavioural change. The value of website information is a priority for this research as the thesis tested if informative suggestions from websites could encourage a change in waste behaviour. The relationship between the case study family, website information and amounts of food waste is analysed throughout the project and is vital to inform the research about successful methods of reduction. The outcomes of this study outlined information techniques which the family applied to the experiment. In theory these methods could be used in further research to test another family’s waste calculations. Overall findings from this research revealed that with the correct education, tools and techniques, a household can reduce food waste to a minimum. Connecting waste reduction methods via a virtual knowledge sharing system would provide consumers, producers and Government agencies with the option to create and exchange food waste reduction concerns and techniques.

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  • Object-centric Intelligence: Sensor Network and Thermal Mapping

    Yamani, Naresh (2013-11-29)

    Doctoral thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Quality of product is an important aspect in many commercial organizations where storage and shipment practices are required. Temperature is one of the main parameters that influence quality and temperature treatments of agricultural products therefore require special attention. The temperature variation in a meat chiller has a significant effect on tenderness, color and microbial status of the meat, therefore thermal mapping during the chilling process and during chilled shipment to overseas markets is vital. The literature indicates that deviations of only a few degrees can lead to significant product deterioration. There are several existing methods for thermal mapping: these includes Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), Finite Element Methods (FEM) for examination of the environmental variables in the chiller. These methodologies can work effectively in non real-time. However these methods are quite complex and need high computational overhead when it comes to hard real-time analysis within the context of the process dynamics. The focus of this research work is to develop a method and system towards building an object-centric environment monitoring using collaborative efforts of both wireless sensor networks and artificial neural networks for spatial thermal mapping. Thermal tracking of an object placed anywhere within a predefined space is one of the main objectives here. Sensing data is gathered from restricted sensing points and used for training the Neural Network on the spatial distribution of the temperature at a given time. The solution is based on the development of a generic module that could be used as a basic building block for larger spaces. The Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) perform dynamic learning using the data it collects from the various sensing points within the specific subspace module. The ANN could then be used to facilitate mapping of any other point in the related sub-space. The distribution of the sensors (nodes placement strategy for better coverage) is used as a parameter for evaluating the ability to predict the temperature at any point within the space. This research work exploits the neuro Wireless Sensor Network (nWSN) architecture in steady-state and transient environments. A conceptual model has been designed and built in a simulation environment and also experiments conducted using a test-bed. A Shepard’s algorithm with modified Euclidian distance is used for comparison with an adaptive neural network solution. An algorithm is developed to divide the overall space into subspaces covered by clusters of neighbouring sensing nodes to identify the thermal profiles. Using this approach, a buffering and Query based nWSN Data Processing (QnDP) algorithm is proposed to fulfil the data synchronization. A case study on the meat plants cool storage has been undertaken to demonstrate the best layout and location identification of the sensing nodes that can be attached to the carcasses to record thermal behavior. This research work assessed the viability of using nWSN architecture. It found that the Mean Absolute Error (MAE) at the infrastructural nodes has a variation of less than 0.5C. The resulting MAE is effective when nWSN can be capable of generating similar applications of predictions.

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  • Crossing the borders of play and learning: ethnic Asian-Chinese perspectives on the value and purpose of a play-based early childhood curriculum

    Huang, Ming-Hua (Rita) (2013-11-29)

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    “Learning through play” is an important component of Western early childhood education, and plays a key role in the play-based curriculum in New Zealand (Ministry of Education, 1996; White, O’Malley, Toso, Rockel, Stover, & Ellis, 2007). However, this concept is challenged in New Zealand by Ethnic Asian-Chinese (EAC) immigrant families, who question the educational value of play for young children (Guo, 2006; Li, 2001a; Liao, 2007; Wu, 2003, 2009). For the early childhood education sector in New Zealand, this tension is compounded by the early childhood curriculum, Te Whāriki (Ministry of Education, 1996), because it affirms both the valuing of play and the valuing of diverse cultural perspectives. Further research and discussion of EAC immigrant parental perspectives on play in early childhood education will be essential to addressing this tension. The objective of this research is to investigate EAC parental perspectives on the value and purpose of a play-based early childhood curriculum and to explore the implications for early childhood teachers in order to support the building of effective partnership with immigrant families in New Zealand. This research involved eight EAC immigrant parents who had or currently have at least one child attending a play-based early childhood setting in New Zealand. A qualitative approach was employed to allow EAC parents’ experiences, values and beliefs of a play-based curriculum to be explored and examined in detail. Factors that EAC parents perceive as being most important for children to learn at a play-based early childhood curriculum were explored through interviews with the volunteer participants. Findings from the study revealed that although EAC parents may view learning as distinct from play, they agree that children should have an opportunity to play and expect their children to learn through play. The results of the study contribute to an understanding of the historical and cultural background of EAC parents and how they perceive children’s learning and play. Practical suggestions for pedagogy and future research were also identified.

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  • The effect of stroke rate on performance in flat-water sprint kayaking

    McDonnell, Lisa Kelly (2013-11-29)

    Doctoral thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Stroke rate has been implicated as an important determinant of sprint kayaking performance via correlation analysis. This thesis determined the effect of stroke rate on sprint kayaking performance including: (1) What stroke rates are required to achieve medal winning times?; (2) What are typical self-selected stroke rates of New Zealand paddlers?; (3) Do paddlers respond well to stroke rate feedback?; and (4) What is the effect of increasing stroke rate on performance and technique? Two literature reviews, one quantitative descriptive performance analysis, two quantitative experimental reliability studies, two quantitative experimental biomechanical studies, and one quantitative experimental intervention study were completed. Elite K1 200-m world championship medallists’ average stroke rates ranged 144-168 spm for men and 131-147 spm for women in competition. New Zealand elite paddlers (males and females) typically rated 98-101 spm, but tests were limited to 300-m sprint training at “race pace” and during the last stage of an incremental ergometer test. It was best to assess stroke rates using time-trials. The typical self-selected stroke rates of New Zealand male sub-elite paddlers were 122 ±11 spm during K1 200-m time-trials. While metronome feedback targets were not fully achieved when increasing stroke rate by 5-10 spm, the metronome was effective for increasing stroke rate by 4-5 spm (2.9-4.2%). The stroke rate increase led to a 200-m performance time enhancement of 0.9-1.0% for sub-elite paddlers, where a general trend existed that faster paddlers responded better to the stroke rate increase. Other key variables that indicated better performances were shorter water phase times, aerial phase times, entry sub-phase times and exit sub-phase times. Overall, absolute phase and sub-phase times reported in seconds were more associated with performance than relative phase and sub-phase times. Increasing stroke rate using metronome feedback also caused reductions in water and aerial phase times. Water phase times were reduced primarily by reductions in pull sub-phase times. Pull sub-phase times were not significantly associated with performance, possibly indicating variability in the efficiency of the pull phase between skill levels on-water. Key segmental sequencing variables important for inducing a stroke rate increase between intensities were shorter durations of the pull arm, trunk, and leg actions. Decreasing forward reach was inevitable and decreasing pull arm time was the most important variable for increasing stroke rate, so paddlers should focus on reaching as far forward as possible without hindering their ability to quickly direct the paddle backward. Trunk rotation and leg extension movements increased with intensity and are considered important for performance theoretically for achieving greater paddle tip velocity when the blade enters the water by utilising a greater leg pedalling motion. In conclusion, New Zealand paddlers typically rated well below the recommended stroke rates required to achieve medal winning times in the K1 200-m event. Metronome feedback was effective for eliciting an acute stroke rate increase of 4-5 spm (2.9-4.2%), which led to performance enhancements of 0.9-1.0% in K1 200-m time-trials. Further research is needed to determine the ideal training strategies for making larger increases in stroke rate without losing efficiency in the pull sub-phase.

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  • Perceived and measured health benefits of aqua-based exercise for older adults with osteoarthritis

    Fisken, Alison Lesley (2013-11-29)

    Doctoral thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Ageing is associated with a number of physiological and psychological changes. These include declines in muscle mass, strength, functional ability, and balance, which are associated with increased risk of falling and reduced quality of life. In addition, many older adults have osteoarthritis and the associated symptoms of joint pain and stiffness may exacerbate the age-related changes in physical function. Regular exercise can help offset the age-related declines in muscle strength, functional ability and balance, however many older adults do not regularly exercise. In particular older adults with osteoarthritis tend to have lower levels of physical activity than older adults without osteoarthritis. Aqua-based exercise is recommended for older adults with osteoarthritis due to the properties of water, however relatively few studies have investigated this type of exercise among this population. The first aim of this thesis was to investigate perceived benefits and barriers to participation in aqua-based exercise among older adults with and without osteoarthritis, who regularly engage in this form of exercise. The key perceived benefit for those with osteoarthritis was pain reduction, whilst those without osteoarthritis identified general health and fitness as the primary benefit. Both groups identified social interaction as an important benefit. Cold changing facilities, particularly during winter, was a key potential barrier for both groups. The second study examined perceived barriers and benefits of aqua-based exercise among older adults with osteoarthritis who had tried, but no longer participated in aqua-based exercise. Key barriers were a lack of suitable classes and insufficient instructor knowledge, as well as cold changing facilities and pool temperature. Benefits included the cushioning effect of the water and the ability to move around more freely. The third study was undertaken to gain greater insight into the effect of different types of aqua-based exercise on pain and heart rate response of older adults with osteoarthritis. In addition, participants’ opinions and attitudes towards each exercise mode were explored. Participants tried different types of aqua-based exercise including: hydrotherapy, which is a therapist-supervised programme which takes place in warm water; aqua-jogging, which simulates running in deep water whilst wearing a flotation device; resisted-aqua jogging, which is similar to aqua jogging but utilises resistance equipment to increase drag; aqua-fitness, which involves strength and cardiovascular exercises to music in the shallow end of the pool and resisted aqua-fitness, which is similar to aqua-fitness but resistance equipment is used to increase drag. Pain scores immediately post-exercise decreased for all modes of aqua-exercises. Heart-rate response and rating of perceived exertion was also similar for all aqua-exercise modes. Overall, participants enjoyed the hydrotherapy session most, however the aqua-fitness session (un-resisted) was also enjoyed and identified as an acceptable alternative to hydrotherapy. The final study explored the potential health benefits of a 12-week aqua-fitness intervention for older adults with osteoarthritis. An active control group, who undertook a seated aqua-based exercise session once a week, was used help minimise any effects of social interaction on the outcome measures. Positive physiological outcomes were associated with the aqua-fitness group who improved scores in several functional measures, as well as significantly reducing their fear of falling compared to the control group. The findings of this thesis are relevant for future design of aqua-based exercise interventions aimed at older adults with osteoarthritis. The research undertaken may help to identify and therefore address barriers to this mode of exercise for this population. Furthermore, the findings of this thesis offers some insight into the acute responses to different modes of aqua-based exercise, as well as long longer-term chronic adaptations to an aqua-based exercise programme similar to those which are readily available in the community.

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  • Monitoring training-induced fatigue in snowboard and freeski halfpipe athletes

    Turnbull, Jonathon (2013-11-29)

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Snowboard and freeski halfpipe (HP) are relatively new skill-based high-risk alpine sports which have received very little attention in sport science research. It therefore appears prudent that initial studies first focus gaining a more detailed understanding of the sport. Information on the type and amount of load and consequent fatigue from normal halfpipe training is an important first step and will help coaches to better plan training sessions and adapt to athlete energy states. Such information is also essential for sport scientists to effectively prepare and recover athletes from training and competition. This thesis considers various forms of fatigue measurement and their sensitivity to training load. Ten male and 14 female elite snowboard and freeski HP athletes (21.8±3.3y, and 23.4±4.6y respectively) participated over the course of a 2-week on snow training camp. Immediately prior to on-snow training sessions, subjects’ countermovement jump (CMJ) and level of perceived fatigue (LPF) were recorded as were post-session CMJ and rating of perceived exertion (RPE). A GymAware linear position transducer was used to measure mean power (MP), peak velocity (PV) and jump height (JH). Reliability was established using coefficient of variation, and a repeated-measures generalised estimating equations (GEE) model used to examine relationships between variables within-day and between-day over the course of the camp. No significant relationships were found between subjective and objective variables when compared within-days indicating our variables may not be sensitive to changes in training load and fatigue from a day of HP training. Significant relationships were found between post-session RPE and load measures, and next day’s MP and PV. Specifically, as the subjective variables increased following training, the next day’s objective variables reduced by varying factors. When considering subjective and objective variables in isolation, subjective LPF was found to increase over the course of the 2 week training camp despite rest days, while neither of the pre-session objective CMJ variables exhibited significant trends. CMJ variables tended to increase after a day’s riding. It was concluded that traditional RPE scales used in conjunction with subjective fatigue ratings and/or MP and PV measurement using GymAware LPT can be useful tools to assist coaches and scientists in prescribing training and monitor fatigue over time. Some evidence of overreaching was found in this study and longer term monitoring of these objective and subjective variables may assist in alerting to signs of overtraining. Further research is required to determine methods of monitoring acute effects of fatigue from HP training.

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  • Cross-grouping in mathematics

    Golds, Rosemary

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Improving mathematics teaching in primary schools is an ongoing research focus as achievement comparisons in international studies draws attention to shifting achievement levels and acknowledges that “improving educational outcomes is a vital economic necessity” (Wiliam, 2011, p. 26).‘Cross-grouping’ in primary school mathematics (whereby students are shifted across classes to provide ability grouping within a subject), has become a popular option in some New Zealand primary schools (Years 1-8) over the last few years. This is perhaps an unforeseen consequence of the Numeracy Professional Development Project (NDP) that was offered in more than 95% of New Zealand primary and intermediate schools between 2000 and 2009 (Holton, 2009). My present study has critically examined teacher perception of how (and if) cross-grouping in mathematics impacts upon teacher practice. Research from international studies supports the viewpoint that when ‘streaming’ (in the New Zealand primary school setting, known as ‘cross-grouping’) is adopted, teacher expectations of students are impacted upon and overall student achievement is not improved (Boaler, Wiliam, & Brown, 2000; MacIntyre & Ireson, 2002; Slavin, 1995). At present, there is very little research based in New Zealand schools on cross-grouping. This research may have implications for teaching as inquiry which is considered to be a characteristic of “effective pedagogy (which) requires that teachers inquire into the impact of their teaching on their students” (Ministry of Education, 2007, p. 35). A 2011 report from the Educational Review Office (ERO) (Education Review Office, 2011) suggested that many schools and teachers were still working towards gaining a clear understanding of the intent of teaching as inquiry. A qualitative approach applying an interpretivist paradigm underpinned this study, with a narrative inquiry process utilised which allowed the participants’ viewpoints to be heard. Interviews were conducted with eight teachers working in cross-grouped mathematics classes with students aged between eight and thirteen. Findings from the study revealed that all the teachers were in favour of cross-grouping, despite some teachers having some minor reservations. Some of the perceived benefits of cross-grouping were: it was more effective in meeting the needs of students and teachers, it allowed schools to ensure mathematics was actually taught each day, and it permitted teachers to become more confident in teaching a particular level of mathematics. It was also found that cross-grouping was likely to contribute to a more fixed notion of ability and was likely to have impacts upon teacher and student expectations. In most of the schools, there was little critical analysis undertaken into the reasons for or the validity of cross-grouping which suggests that this would be a useful future focus for school leaders and teachers. Results of the study suggest that questioning some long-held established practices (which are not necessarily evidence based) could be a useful starting point in developing a teaching as inquiry focus within a school. It is expected that this research will reveal ideas regarding the effects of streaming students in mathematics in primary schools and the impacts on flexible and responsive teacher practice. These findings may lead to a larger research project which considers aspects such as student attitude and self-belief or a comparison study which considers developing communities of mathematical inquiry (Ministry of Education, 2012) within some classes.

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  • The role of leadership in the experiences of Asian international students’ hospitality studies

    Dalosa, Diosdado

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    This research explores the experiences of Asian International Students (AIS) who were studying professional cookery at a private training institution after reports (Tan, 2011) indicated that AIS was being described in New Zealand as “a ghetto education destination” by students in order to express their disappointment during their study in New Zealand. The reports concerned the New Zealand export education industry. The Ministry of Education recognised that the sustainability of the New Zealand export education industry rested on educational and social factors including institutional capacity and client satisfaction. This study was undertaken, therefore, to enable deeper insights about issues which occur for AIS. A case study was designed to investigate one particular institution with a focus on the leadership behaviours, and interactions between host educators and students. Eight participants were interviewed. The participants were the institution leader, two tutors, and five AIS. The data obtained were analysed using QSR NVivo software. The study found that AIS’ attitudes about their study experiences are marked by a frustration that the skills they learnt from their host institution did not meet the demands of the hospitality industry. AIS believed that their host institution’s lack of adequate learning facilities prevented them from achieving their learning goal/s. The issues AIS raised in this study could, however, help educational leaders in designing adequate educational resources and facilities appropriate for AIS. In turn, this could influence overall perceptions about the study experiences of AIS in New Zealand.

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  • The effect of paramedic position on external chest compression quality: a simulation study

    Davey, Paul

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is a globally important public health issue that continues to be a significant cause of premature death. The incidence of OHCA treated by Emergency Medical Services (EMS) is around 50 to 55/100,000 per person-years across the US, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. There is significant disparity in the rates of survival to hospital discharge from OHCA. For OHCA treated by EMS this rate can vary as much as 1% to 31%. In order to improve outcomes for cardiac arrests the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR) aims to integrate resuscitation science with real world clinical practice. ILCOR states there is a need to develop a culture of high quality resuscitation using a quality improvement approach. Survival from cardiac arrest is a complex issue with many stakeholders that form the basis of a system of care. ILCOR proposes that individual performance needs to be evaluated so that participants within the system of care are informed and can therefore effectively intervene to improve care Paramedics are the primary treatment providers for OHCA. Recently the resuscitation guidelines, which paramedics use in their practice, have emphasised the performance of quality chest compressions. With this in mind this thesis sought to investigate whether the position of the paramedic performing chest compressions, either from-the-side (FTS) or over-the-head (OTH), influenced the quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). A review literature identified only a few small studies in which OTH CPR was investigated over short durations. There was heterogeneity in the study design, types of participants and quality metrics measured with inconsistencies in the results across the studies. All of the studies identified in the review were manikin studies that used manikin-based technology, such as the Laerdal Skill Reporter (LSR), to measure the quality of CPR. Subsequent to these studies defibrillator technology has evolved and now devices that can measure CPR quality have been integrated into the defibrillator, an example of which is Q-CPR associated with the MRx defibrillator. Such devices enable measurement of CPR quality in both manikin and human studies. The first study (Chapter 3) investigated if the new defibrillator technology could be used to measure CPR quality in a manikin study. This study compared the measurement of CPR quality metrics simultaneously using LSR and Q-CPR, for chest compression performed OTH and FTS. The principle finding of this study was that there is no significant difference in the majority of chest compression quality metrics measured between the LSR and the Q-CPR devices. However, there were significant differences in the measurement of duty cycle and also the depth of compressions between the two devices. The mean difference in the depth of compression was observed to increase with an increasing incidence of leaning. The conclusion was that Q-CPR is a suitable alternative to LSR for measurement of the CPR quality and thus it was used in the main study. The main study compared OTH and FTS CPR quality (performed by 30 paramedics) during two simulated cardiac arrest scenarios, each of approximately 25 minutes duration. There was no significant difference in mean CPR quality between compressions performed OTH or FTS for all metrics measured. We concluded that for two rescuer CPR the composite technique, where the paramedic that is positioned at the head of the manikin performs OTH CPR, is an effective alternative to the traditional method of only performing CPR FTS.

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  • Spiritual vegetarianism: identity in everyday life of Thai non-traditional religious cult members

    Makboon, Boonyalakha

    Doctoral thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    This thesis examines how the participants who are Thai and vegetarians integrate vegetarianism into their lives, and how they produce and maintain their vegetarian identity element. This video-ethnographic study was conducted in Thailand over the course of five months, with particular attention to three participants who are members of non-traditional religious cults in Thailand, where vegetarianism is a normal practice. Utilizing multimodal (inter)action analysis (Norris, 2004, 2011a), I conducted a micro analysis by teasing apart the participants’ real-time interactions, investigating how different modes come to play together to make certain actions possible. The analysis also incorporates other data from observational notes, sociolinguistic interviews and photographs. I discovered that the participants produced a spiritual vegetarian identity element in accordance with their religious belief. The participants produced multiple identity elements, including but not limited to their spiritual vegetarian identity element, at differentiated levels of the participants’ attention/awareness. At the time of the study, my participants did not continuously produce their spiritual vegetarian identity element, and thus a spiritual vegetarian identity was not their most salient identity element. However, I found that vegetarianism plays a significant role in the participants’ lives as they always produced their spiritual vegetarian identity element in connection with other identity elements. This results from the fact that these identity elements were developed within a religious context which was embedded in the historical body (Nishida, 1985) of the participants. Religion has exerted a substantial influence on many aspects of their lives and their resulting identity elements.

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  • The survival of things

    Coveny, Eloise Jayne

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    How might a sonic archiving installation practice produce conditions of history other to orthodox narratives of time? What might a Benjaminian “destructive character” today make of analogue and digital archives for producing uncanny encounters within chips of messianic time? The above dialectical image maps out my research site. At my crossroads stands History proper and historical ambiguity—spoken as ‘I’, my site inscribes difference in archiving things from Victoriana inspired moments, filtered through a girl from Auckland, New Zealand circa 1980s and 1990s (culminating most poignantly in 1994). My installation practice evokes particularly voices materialised through sonic forces aided through photographic, filmic, and recording apparatuses and their representational modalities. These sonic forces material my artistic research practice as a historic figure existing within me as an artist-researcher figuring out (my) different narratives. I employ myself here as a type of destructive (Benjaminian) figure, making radical sonic interventions as historic otherness appear to me to bring to ‘light’ Walter Benjamin’s conceptual historic materialism of time as: the true picture of the past; time at a standstill; moment of danger; ambiguity; dialectical image that is pregnant with tensions; uncanny limits to ourselves. I unpack these radical expressions of time and history—that are marked out above in my dialectical image; my site of research—through the following exegesis. I figure my practice (my self) dangerously between the dominance of orthodox archiving narratives to specify an acute ‘familiar’ moment—say 1994 (1994: Time-space encounters between digital forces and analogue ghosts). I read my project as the dialectical image above and hope that one can better understand this site increasingly throughout the reading of this exegesis. This understanding of time at a [dialectical] standstill is taken from the philosopher Walter Benjamin. This time of arrest is counter to linear time that is often posed as the dominant voice throughout historicism [discourses] (i.e. writing history) that marginalises other voices and other experiences. My practice works within this site of investigation to privilege lost voices that explore a longing for historic authenticity—where the location of authenticity lies in its alterity, in what is distant to the present time and space. Benjamin practices [destructive] lyrical configuration through the modern allegory, which I here explore through my practice in the form of anachronistic spatial configuration (installation) as a method for [sonic] archiving. The anachronistic structuring of my installation tests activate dialectical tensions that speak to us of the hidden voices repressed by the orthodox structure of things; through juxtaposing and rupturing orthodox histories via my relations to things in the world. This has become in part an autobiographical tenor that lyrically composes my exegesis and installation as a methodology. It does this bearing in mind the viewer’s independence, where my own autos is largely heterogeneously fractured into the archival installation final exhibition aiming for uncanny registers that can only be designed by the ‘hand’ of weak messianic power (Benjamin). My sonic forces mapping out the research aims of this installation archiving practice are inspired primarily by the work of Walter Benjamin's concept of Messianic time in relation to historical materialism. My artistic research has focused in on relations of voices through time; voices that have spoken to me throughout (auto)biographical encounters with artefacts; things that continue to return and inhabit me more so than I realise. These things are speaking to me now, here; at a crux moment of a self-splitting between some fantasy autos of my biography, and yet they are shot through with the voices of those philosophers I am engaging and their autos. In this sense, my artistic material and precedence gather around the literary, poetic, and mystical voices of others (people, antiques, commodities, spaces, places, photographs, films and other textual forms of archival material). The images that make up my work emerge from the imagination, now brought to the fore through these textual methodological encounters that inspire my way through. In this sense, my practice appears on the surface to be voiding the proper of art historical practitioner precedence, and yet in this way I have followed an authentic (unorthodox) path that is akin to the destructive character Benjamin evokes. The images of others sit below this surface only to rise uncannily in the strange present that this time evokes. The concept of the uncanny, guided by voices of Martin Heidegger, Sigmund Freud and Walter Benjamin, open up my mystical moments for installing such an encounter of strange time as a survival of things.

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  • Performance analysis of fielding and wicket-keeping in cricket to inform strength and conditioning practice

    MacDonald, Danielle Catherine

    Doctoral thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    The purpose of this thesis was to contribute to the scientific understanding of the performance demands of One Day International (ODI) fielding and wicket-keeping, and to provide recommendations for improving athlete performance, assessment and coach education. Two comprehensive literature reviews of the physical, technical, physiological and tactical components of fielding and wicket-keeping were conducted. Given the gaps identified in the literature reviews, an online mixed method survey of cricket players, coaches and trainers was designed to investigate the performance requirements of the wicket-keeper, close, inner and outer circle fielders. Players and coaches rated agility the most important physical attribute for the wicket-keeper (4.7/5), close fielders (4.6/5), and inner circle fielders (4.8/5). Speed (4.8/5) and agility (4.6/5) were rated most important for outer circle fielders. Coaches raised the issue of the lack of a cricket specific agility test. An emerging theme for all categories was the importance of the mental aspects of the game such as positive attitude and concentration, particularly for the wicket-keeper. To validate the use of video footage for performance analysis a comparison was made between televised and purposefully collected video for event coding. The variables of interest were derived from the literature reviews and corroborated by the survey. The ICC for intra-coder reliability for all but two variables was between 0.88 and 1.00 the exceptions were lateral footwork (step 0.83 and shuffle 0.55) likely due to the subjectivity of defining footwork patterns. The televised footage under-reported the frequency of wicket-keeping activity (≈4.5%), except for lateral footwork, which was under-reported by the purposefully collected video (≈13.5%) due to the movement being perpendicular to the camera view. Even though fielding activity was under-reported (≈4.25) by televised footage, this footage was deemed to be most appropriate, as the collected footage resulted in a field of view that made the finer details of fielding difficult to distinguish. Performance analysis studies on fielding and wicket-keeping were carried out using televised footage from the 2011 ODI World Cup. The majority of the wicket-keepers movements were lateral (75%); primarily repetitive low intensity movements interspersed with explosive movements such as diving and jumping. Wicket-keeping glove-work skills (69%) were the most performed skill activity, the quality of which was quantified using a catching efficiency measure (93%). Close, inner and outer circle fielders had variable involvement in fielding activities. Close fielders were involved in 20% of the fielding activity, the bowler the most (58%) involved. The inner circle fielders were involved in 50% of fielding contacts; of whom cover was the position most involved (21%) Inner circle fielders had to display the greatest range of skills within the field, such as catching from different heights, varied throwing and ground fielding techniques. Outer circle fielders were involved with 30% of the fielding contacts; the outer circle position most involved was long on (14%). Long sprints were the hallmark of outer circle fielding, following the sprint, they often had to perform explosive movements such as a dive or a jump to field the ball; they rarely had the opportunity to stop and position themselves to perform their skill. Additionally, catching (75%,89%, 85%) throwing (0%,12%, 33%) and overall fielding performance (89%,98%,99% ) were quantified using efficiency calculations for close, inner and outer circle fielders respectively. The findings of the literature reviews and studies expanded upon the only previous study to quantify fielding performance, and informed the development of performance profiles of fielding and wicket-keeping. Subsequently recommendations for assessment, training and coaching have been made, which will be integrated into New Zealand Cricket resources. Most notable are suggestions for improving the existing skill and physical testing batteries

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  • Tricksters, technology and spirit: practising place in Aotearoa-New Zealand

    Buxton, Maggie

    Doctoral thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Place is a tricky concept. On the surface it seems a relatively simple notion, yet underneath there are layers of contested meanings. At the same time, places face ‘wicked’ problems – issues difficult to solve by traditional methods and approaches. For these reasons there is a call from across disciplines, for flexibility and creativity in place research. This thesis weaves together technology, art, spirituality and science to create a place practice inspired by tricksters. Tricksters appear in the narratives of most cultures as liminal, paradoxical and indeterminate figures. In this research they have new relevance at a time when the boundaries of life, including the lines between sacred and profane, are no longer clearly defined. They are an inspiration for a new form of place practice which creatively weaves together ubiquitous technologies, indigenous and speculative ontologies, and integral research methodologies. The proposition is that geo-locative mobile technologies can support the work of those who work with spiritual sites, and also support the spirit or spirits of those places, when used within a trickster-inspired place practice. What are the opportunities and issues that arise from this approach? Geo-locative mobile technologies augment physical spaces with digital content and can act as mediators between the self, the physical world, digital worlds and other worlds beyond. Technology is not usually associated with spirit. However, in this research technology paradoxically plays a role in supporting the spirit of place and contributes to a progressive understanding of that term. The place practice that informed this study was situated around three spiritually significant sites: a cemetery, a marae and a public park. Within each case study, a bricolage of inter-, intra-, and transpersonal data collection methods was enacted. Integral philosophies and trickster traits combined to create the unique methodology. This research joins traditionally separate discourses: spirit of place, tricksters, and geo-locative mobile technology. It addresses the need for more creative ways of working in and with place, and raises legal, moral, cultural, and political issues in the use of mobile technologies in indigenous and/or sensitive contexts. Findings demonstrate that mobile technologies can shift perceptions of self and place, make institutional knowledge more accessible, and build connections in the third space where cultures, histories, peoples and realities meet. In these ways the practice supports the spirit of place.

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  • Carl Zeus

    Youngkong, Nattapon

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    This project Carl Zeus (working title) investigates the German Expressionist film movement as an inspiration and a platform from which to develop a contemporary film project. The research focuses on the unique cinematographic and production techniques employed by the filmmakers of this movement. It explores the potential communicability of these cinematic devices. The movement (begun in 1919) emerged from the unique historical circumstances of post-World War One Germany. The works were primarily concerned with the country’s universally destabilized psyche and trauma that prevailed in German society after the war. The project questions the value of these cinematic devices in communicating contemporary issues and the experience of living in the present time. I next explore how to deploy an expressionist mode of cinema into a short film project. To negotiate this question, I produce a short film that deploys the Expressionist mode of cinema through the script, cinematography and mise-en-scene as a method of inquiry.

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  • The experiences of Korean immigrants settling in New Zealand: a process of regaining control

    Kim, Hagyun

    Doctoral thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    The success of all immigrants is significant to the harmony of New Zealand society since the government’s goal is to build an inclusive society. For many Korean immigrants, however, settling in an unfamiliar environment potentially disrupts familiar routines, with deleterious effects on almost all aspects of their well-being. Despite Koreans being the fourth largest group of Asian immigrants, their experiences of settling in this country have been unheard. The purpose of this study is to listen to the voices of Korean immigrants and provide information to the receiving society that will assist with developing ways to make a Korean presence part of the cultural diversity in society. This qualitative, grounded theory study included semi-structured interviews with 25 adult Korean immigrants living in the North Island of New Zealand. Theoretical sampling was used to collect data, which were analysed using methods of constant comparative analysis, conditional matrix and memoing. Through three stages of coding, data were fractured, conceptualised, and integrated to form a substantive grounded theory which has been named; A Process of Regaining Control: A Journey of Valuing Self. Upon arrival, participants confronted circumstances that made realising the anticipated benefits of immigration difficult. They experienced a loss of control in performing previously valued activities. Language barriers and limited social networks, compounded by prejudiced social reception, were associated with their decreased involvement outside the home, leading to fewer options for acquiring knowledge necessary to function autonomously in their new environment. In response, participants worked on Regaining Control by exercising choices over what they do through opting for enacting ‘Korean Ways’ or ‘New Zealand Ways’. They initially sought a culturally familiar environment in which they engaged in activities that involved drawing on previous knowledge and skills. Continuing with accustomed activities utilising ethnic resources provided a pathway to learning about their new surroundings and thus increasing their feeling of mastery in a new country. This experience strengthened participants’ readiness to engage in activities reflective of New Zealand society. The significance of this study is that it discovers that Valuing Self is what the participants wish to accomplish, beyond the scope of mastery in a new environment. Participants continually search for a place whereby they can be accepted and valued as members of society. However, this study reveals that prejudice and discrimination towards immigrants set constraints on engagement in occupations of meaning and choices. Immigrants face socio-environmental restriction when they continue with necessary or meaningful activities, even when they have the ability to execute a particular activity. This finding makes it clear that occupation is inseparable from the societal factors in which it occurs. Further research is necessary to explore societal contexts to enrich knowledge of human occupation and how immigrants’ full participation in civic society can be promoted. Specifically, it is recommended that researchers examine what makes Korean immigrants feel valued as members of society, from the participants’ point of view, in order to assist with the development of the settlement support policy and services that best facilitates their journeys of Valuing Self in New Zealand.

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  • An investigation into estimation and spatial sense as aspects of workplace numeracy: a case study of recycling and refuse operators within a situated learning model

    Kane, Philip John

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    The abilities to estimate and to exercise spatial awareness are important elements of adult numeracy and are embedded in many workplace activities. However, contributions of these elements of numeracy in workplace activities are often overlooked. Although estimation is noticed, spatial awareness in particular seems to be rarely acknowledged (Marr & Hagston, 2007). This research study first investigates the use of these two elements by drawing on the perspective of numeracy as a situated social practice (Lerman, 2006; Street, Baker, & Tomlin, 2008) in a case study of the work of urban recycling and refuse collection operators. Ethnographic approaches such as observing the operators’ roles in their daily collection work and interviewing them are used to determine which strategies and numeracy practices the operators employ. What is seen is that a collection operator’s ability to estimate and use spatial awareness are important contributors to many of the critical decisions that are regularly made by him or her. A second part of the research is an investigation of how these operators have acquired the capabilities to make estimates and to be spatially aware. Although estimation and spatial awareness are established at an early age and then partly fostered in school mathematics themes such as number sense, measurement and geometry, the operators in the main did not recognise a great deal of mathematics in their everyday work. Instead their previous workplace training and experiences of driving and operating heavy equipment appeared to be the main sources of their senses of estimation and spatial awareness. This study demonstrates to trainers and educators they should not assume that these elements of numeracy are common knowledge or even common sense to their staff or students (Sorby, 2003). This study also suggests that estimation and spatial awareness practices which are concealed in workplaces and are probably overlooked, are challenging to assess by traditional measures. Hence trainers and educators need to continue to promote and model estimation practices, and even more deliberately, provide learning opportunities of those relevant components of spatial awareness for learners of any age.

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  • The wretched refuse of your teeming (virtual) shore: Second Life as homeland to the socially isolated

    Sherman, Kevin

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    This mixed methods research explores the attachment that individuals harbour for the virtual world of Second Life by comparing participants with strong feelings of attachment to Second Life with those with weak feelings of attachment. In order to identify these two groups of participants, this research employed an online questionnaire that included actual world national attachment scales and their virtual world counterparts. Based on the results of this questionnaire, these two groups of participants were identified and located and their further participation requested. Once individuals agreed to further participate in this research, the two groups of participants – the primary group comprised of those with strong, multi-dimensional attachment for Second life and the comparison group comprised of those with weak attachment for Second Life – were then interviewed using qualitative, semi-structured interviews. Based upon thematic analysis of the results of the qualitative interviews, it was found that participants who possess strong, multi-dimensional attachment for Second Life tended to be those who can be classified as Socially Isolated or, in other words, unable, for the most part, to experience social interaction in the actual world. Participants who possess weak attachment for Second Life tended to be those who can be classified as Socially Supported or, in other words, possessing, for the most part, the capacity for actual world social interaction. The results of the thematic analysis indicates that across six of seven identified themes, the Socially Isolated participants possessed a much more positive perception of Second Life while the Socially Supported possessed a much more dismissive perception of Second Life, one characterized by ambivalence, derision and/or embarrassment. The research concludes by suggesting that Socially Supported participants are put ill at ease by a virtual world that attempts to replicate the actual world in which they already live while the Socially Isolated are not only untroubled by such a world but they exhibit deep appreciation and attachment for Second Life. In fact, Second Life seems to play a critical role in determining the very quality of their lives; it provides them with many things that the Socially Supported take for granted, including opportunities for socializing and friendship, workplace interaction, recreational activities, and even things as banal as walking down the street, sitting at a bar and dancing with a stranger.

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  • Content based authentication of Visual Cryptography

    Wang, Guangyu

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Visual Cryptography (VC) is perceived and studied as a perfect combination of secret sharing and digital image processing. The basic idea of VC is to split original secret image into several partitions which are also called shares. VC schemes include basic VC, grayscale VC, colour VC and multi-secret VC etc. Despite the security nature of VC in secret sharing, one of the common problems of current application of VC shares is that it lacks authentication. Previous related researches have proven the possibility of VC cheating through different methods. Attackers are able to complete both cheating and modification on VC process without being noticed by VC participants. Currently available authentication schemes for VC are derived from the view of utilizing additional shares and blind authentication. This research analyses effective authentication methods using 2D barcodes and embedding binary codes into VC shares for authentication purpose. A scheme of embedding 2D barcodes into VC shares to prevent cheating will be presented to enhance the use of VC in implementation. The embedding process includes four steps: resolution adaption, image matching and replacement, barcode selection and secret recovery. The aim of this research is to propose a method of embedding 2D barcode into VC shares, thereby strengthening the cheat prevention ability of VC shares by applying the security feature of 2D barcode into VC. As an international standard of reading guidance for the blind people, Braille has been widely used as an effective communication channel. In this thesis, we will also explain Braille encoding and explain how it is applied to handle the authentication problem in VC. Similar to the use of 2D barcode in VC, the utilization of Braille in VC is also attributed to the similarity of structure and construction between Braille cells and VC shares. Even though the research of visual cryptography is based on the combination of image processing and cryptography, knowledge of VC authentication related to digital image processing and cryptography has not been fully utilized in the past years. In this thesis, the analysis of both visual features and cryptographic features of VC will be presented and utilized to assist VC authentication. The visual features of VC in this thesis include moments, histogram, centroid, entropy and Tamura Texture. Compared to those existing methods, the contribution of this research is to propose an authentication scheme of integrate those features with Hash code and digital signature so as to be embedded into VC shares.

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  • Luxury for oneself or luxury for others? Exploring the underlying emotions behind inconspicuous luxury consumption

    Makkar, Marian

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    The field of luxury has been widely examined due to the financial advancement the industry has experienced over the last 10 years. Scholars have studied its antecedents by utilising attitude-behavioural models to discover consumers’ motivations to purchase luxury goods. However, research is scarce in understanding the different kinds of luxury brand signals and consumption involved, specifically the inconspicuous and conspicuous kind. This research focuses on inconspicuous luxury consumption with the aim of deepening insights around what related emotions are involved in this consumption preference, why do they experience them and how do they deal with them. Additionally, this study explores non-financial assets such as cultural capital and social capital and how these may emotionally drive inconspicuous consumers to purchase certain levels of luxury brand signals. Utilising an exploratory and qualitative approach, in-depth interviews with 10 luxury consumers in Dubai with inconspicuous preferences were undergone and thematic analysis was used for analysis and interpretation. Themes uncovered revealed that consumers go through a process of planning their luxury journey by pre-evaluating their choices of luxury conspicuousness. They exercise their active roles in the process and experience the choices they make and finally post-evaluate these choices. Emotions were revealed to have an important role in every part of this process, which dictates their behaviours, moving them on to the next stage of their journey. They experience these emotions because of the non-financial resources (social and/or cultural capital) they deem important to them. As they exercise their consumer choice, they experience positive, negative or mixed experiential emotions depending on whether it met their expectations. If it has, they are then able to enjoy their luxuries because it offers them symbolic schemas that complete their internal and external needs and extensions of themselves. After evaluating their experienced emotions throughout the journey, they begin the cycle once again by choosing inconspicuous luxury brands that positively elevates their emotions. It is interesting to note that inconspicuous luxury consumers demonstrate several characteristics based on their social and cultural capital, which have not been identified before in past literature. This research uncovers six groupings yielding a typology of inconspicuous luxury consumers: fashion influencers, trendsetters, fashion followers, fashion indifferent, cultural conservatives and habitual buyers. They not only desire inconspicuous luxury brands for its aesthetic beauty, functionality and quality but because it asserts their different roles in society. The usefulness of the typology is demonstrated through links to emotions and levels of social and/or cultural capital and its applications to consumption levels of inconspicuous luxury goods (i.e. highly inconspicuous versus lower inconspicuous levels). Findings offer theoretical implications in terms of luxury consumption and brand signalling and a deeper understanding into what can only be described as exploratory insights into the lives of inconspicuous luxury consumers. Further research in this line of work is needed to better uncover how emotions have a powerful role in luxury consumers’ decision-making process. Managerial implications for luxury retail management and communications of the brand are also explained to assist in the conception and development process of future luxury brands and designs to better segment and target different desired markets.

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