239 results for Lincoln University, Report

  • Networks of support for Māori mental health: The response and recovery of Tangata Whaiora through the Ōtautahi earthquakes

    Lambert, Simon J.

    Report
    Lincoln University

    This report presents the experiences of Tangata Whaiora (Mental health clients) through the disastrous earthquakes that struck Otautahi/Christchurch in 2010-11. It further analysis these experience to how show the social networks these individuals, their whānau, supporting staff respond and recover to a significant urban disaster. The disaster challenged the mental health of those individuals who are impacted and the operations of organisations and networks that support and care for the mentally ill. How individuals and their families navigate a post-disaster landscape provides an unfortunate but unique opportunity to analyse how these support networks respond to severe disruption. Tangata Whaiora possess experiences of micro-scale personal and family disasters and were not necessarily shocked by the loss of normality in Ōtautahi as a result of the earthquakes. The organic provision of clear leadership, outstanding commitment by staff, and ongoing personal and institutional dedication in the very trying circumstances of working in a post-disaster landscape all contributed to Te Awa o te Ora’s notable response to the disaster.

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  • Interest groups, vested interests, and the myth of apolitical administration : the politics of land tenure reform on the South Island of New Zealand

    Brower, Ann L.

    Report
    Lincoln University

    This report explores the political history, property rights, and administrative politics of the land tenure reform process to ask why the Crown has paid farmers millions of dollars to convert land from leasehold to freehold. Since 1992, runholders have received collectively 58% (or 165,446 hectares) of the reformed pastoral estate as fee-simple, and $15.5 million. The report documents the results of research in the South Island of New Zealand during Fulbright grant year 2004-05. Land tenure reform is a process of dividing up the Crown pastoral estate into freehold and public conservation land. The pastoral estate constitutes about one-tenth of NZ's landmass. The Crown holds all 2.4 million hectares of the pastoral estate; and it has alienated, or leased out, certain use rights to the lessees. Now the Crown is in the process of purchasing pastoral and occupation use rights and land improvements back from the lessee, on the hectares shifting into DOC custody. And the lessees are in the process of purchasing a whole bundle of Crown-held use rights on the hectares passing to freehold. This Crown-held bundle of use rights includes subdivision, condominium construction, ski field development, viticulture, safari park development, and automobile tyre testing centre development. The Crown-held bundle even includes such mundane use rights as planting grass seeds without prior consent of the Commissioner of Crown Lands. Chapter 2 deconstructs the numerical results - hectares and dollars - of the land reform policy endeavour so far, and reveals that these numbers are contested. Quite simply, it depends on what you count and how you count them. And those methodological counting decisions, while appearing dry and clinical, most certainly are not. Numbers are the stuff of public policy, and decisions on how to count them are the stuff of politics. Further, the number of hectares is misleading, as it is use rights being exchanged here, not the hectares themselves. Chapter 3, "Interest Groups, Property Rights, and States' Rights: The Sagebrush Rebellion and New Zealand Land Tenure Reform", examines the political history of South Island public grazing land, from first establishment of pastoral licenses in 1856 to the 1998 passage of legislation governing the disestablishment of the pastoral lease system. It takes a comparative perspective, using the Sagebrush Rebellion launched by ranchers in the American West as a lens. It concludes that NZ farmers' push for freehold succeeded while the American ranchers' campaign failed, for three reasons: 1) property rights arrangements in NZ pastoral leases allow lessees to exclude recreationists and other trespassers, while not in the US; 2) the lack of legally-sanctioned reliable recreation access and conservation provisions in the leases led NZ's most prominent conservation and recreation advocacy groups to join the farmers' campaign for land tenure reform, while similar US groups opposed the Sagebrush Rebellion; 3) NZ farmers were able to use administrative and institutional momentum from the state sector reforms of the 1980s in their campaign for reform. Next chapter 4, "Trading Sticks with the Crown: Redistributing Property Rights to Effect Land Use Change" explores the current distribution and redistribution of property rights in the Crown pastoral estate, in order to examine the merits of using property rights as a tool to create land use change. It deconstructs property rights arrangements in pastoral leases into their constituent parts and finds that there is some uncertainty surrounding the relationship between the lessee-held exclusive occupation right and the Crown-held non-pastoral use rights. It concludes that this uncertainty is a matter to be addressed by the Courts, not by government contractors or even government officials. Finally, it offers alternative policy tools to achieve the desired changes in land use with an eye to reducing the cost to the government. The last chapter, "Who is sticking up for the Crown? The myth of apolitical administration in New Zealand land tenure reform" evaluates the results of land reform on the national scale by looking at the administrative politics within the process managed by Land Information New Zealand (LINZ). It observes that the numerical results of tenure review are strongly biased in favour of the farmer, with the farmers receiving 58% of the land as freehold, fee simple private property, and receiving millions of dollars in "equalization payments". It concludes that LINZ's subscription to the myth of apolitical administration is leading the agency that represents the Crown's vested interest in the land to take a position of neutrality in negotiations instead of one of advocacy. LINZ relies on a functional split between policy and operations, which in turn relies on the oldest trick in the book of public administration - the politics-administration dichotomy. These two models share a common goal - avoiding agency capture in policy implementation - and administrative tool - neutrality. But in this case, striving for neutrality is neutralizing the Crown's vested interest in the land. LINZ cannot be neutral and advocate for the Crown's interest at the same time. Thus over-reliance on the myth of apolitical administration is leading to a result that out-captures agency capture theories of interest group politics. This report does not paint a rosy picture of land tenure reform. It concludes that the myth of apolitical administration supercedes interest group politics and property rights, and leads the Crown to take a neutral stance in the face of powerful special interests motivated to diversify land use, be it for venison farming, viticulture, or lifestyle blocks. It is impossible to remove politics from inherently political decisions such as redistributing valuable resources. And it can be a dangerous endeavour. In this case, striving for neutrality in order to achieve a fair, unbiased, and uncaptured result is doomed to fail on all counts, no matter how well-intentioned the attempt. The Crown is asserting neither its property rights nor its bargaining powers. Instead, the Crown's position of neutrality leads it to give away valuable property rights and pay constituents to take it. In short, the myth of apolitical administration makes the Crown complicit giving away freehold title to New Zealand's iconic high country, and paying the lease-holders to take it. To sum up, the politics of land tenure reform remain win-win as long as the Crown agrees to lose. This is not an indictment of LINZ. I have no data to support a claim that the agency's attempts at neutrality are anything but honest, competent, and well-intentioned. But placing "neutral" and "vested interest" in the same task description will not work. One will lose. In this case, it is the vested interest, the Crown, and ultimately the NZ people.

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  • Total value of irrigation land in Canterbury

    Saunders, Caroline; Saunders, John

    Report
    Lincoln University

    The purpose of this report is to provide CDC with the ability to estimate the total benefits for Canterbury and New Zealand from irrigation scenarios under the implementation of the Canterbury Water Strategy. This report describes a series of assumptions which under pin a model for valuing irrigation. The model is built allowing different prices, uptake rates, irrigated area and different land uses of irrigated land, to be defined. The prices valuing land use are informed from both international and national data sources and use the Lincoln Trade and Environment Model (LTEM) to allow the possibility of different international policy market scenarios to be modelled. Using these sources the model assigns values to different land uses under irrigation, and projects price trends until to 2031. The model gives final outputs in total revenue and employment effects from 2014 to 2031. This includes the direct, indirect and induced effects by using the Canterbury Economic Development Model. The results presented here are based on a five year rate of uptake and predicted land uses of irrigated area as 58 per cent dairy, 18 per cent irrigated sheep and beef, 20 per cent arable and 3 per cent high-value arable. Additionally irrigated land in all scenarios is assumed to have been previously utilised for dryland sheep and beef farms.

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  • Complementary pathways to sustainability

    Hunt, Lesley M.

    Report
    Lincoln University

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  • Causal mapping of ARGOS dairy farms and comparisons to sheep/beef farms

    Fairweather, John R.; Hunt, Lesley M.; Rosin, C.; Campbell, H.

    Report
    Lincoln University

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  • An analysis of Zespri's 2003 Organic Kiwifruit Database: factors affecting production

    Hunt, Lesley M.; Fairweather, John R.

    Report
    Lincoln University

    A database of many variables collected by Zespri from their organic kiwifruit growers and packhouses has been used to find any factors that might enhance the production of larger fruit or higher production volumes. The Zespri database for the 2002-2003 growing season, containing information on 185 organic Hayward Green and 35 organic Hort16A orchards was analysed to produce summaries of variables such as the percentages and production levels of fruit in each size over all orchards. These variables were also related to the spray regimes used for mineral oil and Bt spray and the geographical location. As the data were not taken from controlled and designed scientific experiments, the results demonstrating relationships between spraying regimes and location and production variables do not show cause and effect, but should be taken as indications of what might be happening in these orchards. The database makes many links about the enhancement of production by a consideration of spraying regimes and geographical location, and there are many more ways in which the data could be used to suggest future areas worthy of further exploration and research.

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  • The influence of perceptions of New Zealand identity on attitudes to biotechnology

    Hunt, Lesley M.; Fairweather, John R.

    Report
    Lincoln University

    Attitudes to specific biotechnologies may be linked to certain beliefs or perceptions individuals have about their identity as New Zealanders. Ten statements about New Zealand identity were included in a nationwide survey on public attitudes to biotechnology, carried out in 2003. This report considers the links that were found in this survey between New Zealand identity characteristics and biotechnology attitudes.

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  • 50 years of the AERU : an examination and summary of past research

    Driver, Tim; Greer, Glen

    Report
    Lincoln University

    The AERU at Lincoln University celebrates its 50th jubilee in August 2012. The fortunes of the AERU have fluctuated during the last fifty years, but it has continued to fulfil the role for which it was established; to research issues of importance to New Zealand’s agricultural sector and to the national economy. Research themes have reflected the interests and expertise of the Unit’s ten Directors and of the many staff members, associates and visitors who have contributed to its research achievements. Today the AERU undertakes a diverse range of economic, market and sociological research for an equally diverse range of New Zealand and international clients. This chronicle describes the influences on AERU research, the nature of its research, and the people who have been involved with AERU research during the last fifty years.

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  • The representativeness of ARGOS panels and between panel comparisons

    Fairweather, John R.; Hunt, Lesley M.; Cook, Andrew J.; Rosin, C.; Campbell, H.

    Report
    Lincoln University

    The core of the ARGOS research design is a longitudinal panel study. Panels of 12 farms were selected to represent conventional, integrated and organic management for the sheep/beef sector, Kiwigreen, gold and organic management for the kiwifruit sector, and conventional and organic management for the dairy sector. The research involves gathering data on these farms in order to assess the nature of production from environmental, economic and social points of view and the design rests on testing the null hypothesis that there is no difference between management systems. Farms in the panels were generally typical of their sectors in terms of obvious characteristics such as size, level of production etc. Farms from a range of geographies and with different levels of intensity of production were chosen in order to achieve results that would be applicable to a broad range of farms. Behind this design is the assumption that the panels are reasonably representative of the sectors to which they belong. The analysis presented in this report tests this assumption. Survey data from both the panels and the sectors are used in order to make comparisons on a number of dimensions of farming.

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  • New Zealand farmer and grower attitude and opinion survey: kiwifruit sector

    Fairweather, John R.; Hunt, Lesley M.; Cook, Andrew J.; Rosin, C.; Benge, J.; Campbell, H.

    Report
    Lincoln University

    The specific research objective addressed in this report is to assess the kiwifruit sector on a number of topical dimensions. In addition, a related objective is to assess how these dimensions may vary by management system (gold, green and organic). The core of the ARGOS research design is a longitudinal panel study. Panels of 12 farms were selected to represent conventional, integrated and organic management for the sheep/beef sector, green, gold (both employing IPM practices according to ZESPRI’s plant protection programmes) and organic management for the kiwifruit sector, and conventional and organic management for the dairy sector. The research involves gathering data on these farms in order to assess the nature of production from environmental, economic and social points of view and the design rests on testing the null hypothesis that there is no difference between management systems. Farms in the panels were generally typical of their sectors in terms of obvious characteristics such as size, level of production etc. Farms from a range of geographies and with different levels of intensity of production were chosen in order to achieve results that would be applicable to a broad range of farms.

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  • Understanding sheep / beef farm management using causal mapping: development and application of a two-stage approach

    Fairweather, John R.; Hunt, Lesley M.; Rosin, C.; Campbell, H.; Lucock, David L.

    Report
    Lincoln University

    Causal mapping was used to document how the participating sheep/beef farmers described and explained the factors involved in their farming systems, broadly defined to include economic, social and environmental factors. Participants identified which factors in the 41 provided were important to the management and performance of their farms and to link these on a map. The overall group map shows that at the core of the map are personal (farmer decision maker and satisfaction) and production factors surrounded by soil, environmental, climatic, family and cost factors. True to the family farm structure of much of New Zealand farming, the map shows the closely integrated role of family in the farming system. And the map is not insular since there are connections extending outwards including other people and related factors especially the marketing or processing organisation along with customers, advisors and sources of information. There is a strong production orientation in the map with some of the strongest connections from farmer decision maker to fertiliser and soil fertility health and to production. However, the environment is also important, reflected in farm environmental health and farm environment as a place to live. The sources of satisfaction (production, farmer decision maker, farm environment as a place to live and family needs) are quite varied and reflect the broad mix of factors at the core of the map.

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  • New Zealand farmers and wetlands

    McLeod, C.; Hunt, Lesley M.; Rosin, C.; Fairweather, John R.; Cook, Andrew J.; Campbell, H.

    Report
    Lincoln University

    This research focuses on how New Zealand farmers approach the management of wetlands and waterways on their farms, and was funded by a Fish & Game New Zealand Research Scholarship, in association with the Agriculture Research Group On Sustainability (ARGOS). The goal of the research was to explore farmers' perceptions of wetlands and waterways on their land and to discover what barriers may impact upon their strategies to protect or develop these areas. As little social research is available in this area, this study sought to gather enough data to provide an overview of farming management practices with regard to wetlands and waterways, and to establish some useful parameters for future research in this area. The research in this report incorporates the results from a section of questions about wetlands and waterways sent out to random samples of farmers in all main sectors of primary production as part of a larger quantitative survey looking at sustainability on farms. This report also includes results from qualitative research based on tape-recorded interviews with 36 sheep/beef farmers and 19 dairy farmers.

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  • The economic benefits of the possum control area programme

    Greer, Glen

    Report
    Lincoln University

    The Possum Control Area (PCA) programme operated by the Hawke's Bay Regional Council under the Regional Pest Management Strategy (RPMS) is a subsidised ""selfhelp"" scheme for possum control in areas where 75 percent of landowners support formation of a PCA. All landowners within the area are bound by the conditions of the programme with respect to maintenance control once the PCA is established, while the HBRC is responsible for the initial knockdown operation. This study was commissioned into the economic impacts of the programme on the farming operations of its farmer stakeholders and their views on the operation and management of the programme. The study involved a review of the literature on the impacts of the possum in New Zealand, a series of interviews and focus groups with PCA farmers during November 2005, and a postal survey of all PCA members in early 2006.

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  • Environmental beliefs and farm practices of New Zealand organic, conventional and GE intending farmers

    Fairweather, John R.; Campbell, H.; Tomlinson, C.; Cook, Andrew J.

    Report
    Lincoln University

    The main objective of this report was to deepen our understanding of the different types of farmers and growers in New Zealand primary production with respect to novel technologies. It provides supplementary analysis of data from an AERU survey of 656 farmers and growers published in 2000 (Cook et al., 2000). The report develops a profile of three types of farmers and growers, namely: organic farmers, conventional farmers and GE intending farmers. In addition, it describes beliefs about nature, environmental values, reports of actual farming practices and the perceived consequences of each practice. Throughout it draws attention to how responses differ for the three farmer types. The results on environmental values showed that, generally, there was a consistent pattern of organic farmers having environmental values which accorded equal moral weight to all life forms, emphasised co-operation with nature and acknowledged that nature has intrinsic values independent of human valuation. Conventional farmers and GE intending farmers also have sensitivity to the environment, but not to the same degree. The key difference was not that different farmer types adhered to different attitudes to the environment, but that strength of the belief was significantly stronger for the organic farmers. The results on the perceived influence of consumer demand on farming practices indicated that organic farmers were more influenced by the perceived demands of consumers, especially concerning environmental practices and the reduced use of chemicals. The results relating to farming practices are consistent with the results on stated environmental values. The discussion focuses on the sizes of each group, how they can best be approached, and considers policy issues relating to sustainable agriculture.

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  • There are audits, and there are audits : response of New Zealand kiwifruit orchardists to the implementation of supermarket initiated audit schemes

    Rosin, C.; Hunt, Lesley M.; Campbell, H.; Fairweather, John R.

    Report
    Lincoln University

    New Zealand’s kiwifruit industry is strongly focused on its commitments to producing a high quality product that meets the increasing demands of its main export markets. This report examines the recent introduction of two programmes designed to meet this goal – a retailer driven audit scheme (EurepGAP) and a fruit quality incentive plan (Taste ZESPRI) – from the perspective of the ARGOS research framework that seeks to assess and enhance the social, economic and environmental sustainability of the sector. The report draws insight from the response of the 36 orcharding households (with equal representation of Hayward, organic Hayward, and Hort 16A management systems) participating in the ARGOS project. Each of the households was involved in a semi-structured, qualitative interview designed to elicit their understandings of and response to constraints on orcharding practice. This report focuses specifically on those constraints associated with participation in the kiwifruit industry, of which EurepGAP and Taste Zespri were most frequently identified. Comparison of the orchardists’ responses to each programme provides insight to the use of such tools in order to promote both fruit qualities as well as socially and environmentally responsible orchard management.

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  • Becoming the audited : response of New Zealand sheep/beef farmers to the introduction of supermarket initiated audit schemes

    Rosin, C.; Hunt, Lesley M.; Campbell, H.; Fairweather, John R.

    Report
    Lincoln University

    The primary objective of the ARGOS project is the transdisciplinary examination of the condition of sustainable agriculture in New Zealand (including environmental, economic and social aspects). In pursuit of this objective to date, considerable effort has been dedicated to assessing the comparative sustainability or resilience of designated management panels in three branches of the New Zealand agricultural sector (dairy, kiwifruit and sheep/beef). For this purpose, farms of comparable size and similar location were assigned panel membership as determined by an individual farmer’s compliance (or lack thereof) with existing market audit schemes which – to varying degrees – regulate farm management practice. By sector, the panels are comprised of conventional and organic methods of dairy farming, integrated pest management (Hayward, green, and Hort 16a, gold) and organic (Hayward) methods of kiwifruit production, and conventional, integrated and organic methods of sheep and beef farming. Due to the distinct nature of practices associated with each panel, differences in the assessed ecological, economic and social features of the participating farms and farm households offer the potential to distinguish the relative sustainability of systems based on these practices.

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  • Results from a survey of organic kiwifruit growers: problems and practices that affect production

    Cook, Andrew J.; Hunt, Lesley M.; Fairweather, John R.

    Report
    Lincoln University

    This is a report of an investigation of the practices and problems of organic kiwifruit production. These are examined to better understand factors related to productivity with the general aim of improving productivity levels. The investigation is based on the analysis of a survey of organic kiwifruit growers. The research utilised data that was gathered by survey using a self-completed questionnaire. Relevant data was also sourced from a comprehensive database maintained by Zespri. The survey gained 80 respondents from a possible 220 growers. The questionnaire contained a range of questions investigating the topic areas of crop protection, orchard management, advice and decision-making and strategies for the future. The data was subjected to statistical analysis to explore relationships between items and measures of productivity. The research has given direction to areas of further work so as to generate cogent findings and has identified factors involved in organic kiwifruit production that either positively or negatively impact upon production.

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  • Analysis of kiwifruit orchard financial performance, including covariates

    Kaye Blake, W.; Campbell, Rachel; Greer, Glen

    Report
    Lincoln University

    The ARGOS project has collected financial data from panels of kiwifruit orchards over several years. The Economics team of the project has conducted analysis of the data to investigate differences amongst the orchards arising from their management systems. The results suggested that organic and conventional orchards had differences in some revenue and expense categories, but these differences netted out when the financial aggregates were calculated. As a result, bottom-line numbers like Effective Orchard Surplus were statistically similar for organic and conventional orchards (Greer et al, 2008 and Saunders et al, 2009). Following inter-disciplinary discussion of these results and consultation with end-users, the authors undertook the analysis reported here. The focus was on three issues: (1) How robust was the overall finding to different model specifications? (2)What factors were affecting financial aggregates, if management system was not? (3) How confident could stakeholders be in the results, given the design of the project? The present research built on the earlier work by incorporating a number of factors identified by the ARGOS team that could affect financial performance. These factors were then included in statistical analyses to determine their contribution to financial performance. The analysis thereby produced answers to the three questions above.

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  • Rural population and farm labour change

    Mulet Marquis, S.; Fairweather, John R.

    Report
    Lincoln University

    The first part of this report examines some changes in New Zealand rural population since 1881 and more recent demographic characteristics. It shows that during the twentieth century, the proportion of people living in rural areas has dramatically decreased. The rural population has kept some distinctive characteristics and it differs from the urban population notably by having a higher proportion of children and a lower proportion of young adults and elderly people. Employment opportunities in urban areas and better availability of care facilities for older people can be considered as the main factors attracting people in these age categories away from rural areas. It has to be noted that at the same time, rural areas are also attracting important numbers of new inhabitants, which can probably be explained by the growing popularity of lifestyle blocks. The second part of the report concerns farm labour change. While the absolute numbers of agriculture and fishery workers in New Zealand have not followed an overall trend of decrease, their proportion in total labour force has been falling over the last decades. The profile of agricultural workers has also undergone changes, with notably an increase in highly qualified workers and a decrease in the numbers of workers with no qualification. Just like in the national population, changes have been observed as well in the ethnic composition of the farm labour force over time. To conclude, some elements concerning the labour market dynamics are examined. These show that the agricultural sector has the highest worker turnover rate, while the average hourly earnings in this industry remain less than the average in the total population.

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  • Characteristics of smallholdings in New Zealand : results from a nationwide survey

    Cook, Andrew J.; Fairweather, John R.

    Report
    Lincoln University

    This research investigated land use and the social and environmental effects of smallholding. The research was designed to provide a comprehensive understanding of smallholders and smallholdings by means of a nationwide survey. To conduct the survey a sample of 3,934 cases was randomly selected from the smallholding population of 0.04 to 40 hectares in size. The survey derived 947 usable responses with a revised response rate of 28 per cent. Analysis of the survey data was undertaken using three categories of smallholder. This analysis showed some differences between the lifestyler, hobby/smallfarmer and farmer/horticulturalist. There were noticeable differences, for example, in size, number of years of residence and amount of farm experience. However, there were no differences in terms of engagement in productive activities such as livestock and plant production. In further analysis it was found that almost all smallholders intend to plant trees for landscaping or commercial purposes. However, the analysis also showed that smallholders do not voluntarily engage in environmental monitoring and environmentally friendly practices to the same extent as other farmers and growers. In addition, the use of, and intentions to use, organic methods were not as prevalent as that for other farmers and growers. Nevertheless, it was also found that smallholders valued the merits of country life including peace and quiet and clean air. In discussion of the results emphasis is given to production and it is shown that while there appears to be high levels of production on some of the smallholdings the result is skewed by a small number of smallholders with high production income, while a sizable proportion did not report any income. Lack of difference between self declared lifestylers and other smallholders is discussed in terms of the common assumption that lifestylers engage less in farming activities. A discussion of environmental impacts predicts a 'greening' of the landscape due to smallholders' intending to plant various tree varieties.

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