1,639 results for Lincoln University, Thesis

  • Segment reporting in Hong Kong listed firms : an empirical assessment of IFRS no.8

    Li Yuanyuan

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    IFRS 8 and its counterpart HKFRS 8 supersedes IAS 14 and HKAS 14 in 2006 to upgrade segment information disclosure that is increasingly becoming important financial information in investment decision making. This study attempts to document the quantity and usefulness of segment information disclosure by Hong Kong listed firms as a consequence of implementing HKFRS 8. The study employs the value relevance of accounting information theory as a measure of usefulness of segment disclosure where segmental data are analysed by the portfolio return approach and regression analysis. Purposive sampling method is used to obtain samples from Hong Kong listed firms. The study results indicate that implementation of HKIFRS 8 has not improved the quantity of segment information, but improved the usefulness of segment information disclosed by Hong Kong listed firms. This is because the “management approach” under HKIFRS 8 leads to segment disclosure reflecting the real financial position of firms.

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  • Some aspects of the relationship between agriculture and the national economy : with special reference to labour

    Ross, B. J.

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    The interdependence of industry and agriculture in a modern economy is everywhere freely acknowledged, but New Zealand probably provides one of the most dramatic illustrations of the complementary nature of this relationship. In addition to the dependence of agriculture on manufacturing which is normal in advanced countries, many of New Zealand’s manufacturing industries are indirectly dependent on agriculture for their raw materials. Most raw materials have to be imported, and as agricultural products make up ninety per cent of the goods exported in exchange, a high level of agricultural production is essential if manufacturing output is to be maintained or increased. In view of this, a study of some aspects of the relationship between agriculture and industry in New Zealand is likely to prove of the greatest interest. It is intended in this present study to examine particularly those aspects concerned with labour enquiring into the size of the agricultural labour force in relation to the total labour force, and examining the relative incomes of agricultural and non-agricultural sections of the community. The work of Fisher, Clark, Ojala and others has shown that in those countries now considered economically advanced economic progress has been associated with a relative decline in the proportion of the labour force employed in agriculture, and a relative decline also in the importance of agriculture in the economy, measured in terms of the proportion of national income produced by agriculture. This work, and the discussion which arose from it, will be studied in a review of the literature in Chapter. I, while a quantitative study of New Zealand population and labour statistics will be carried out in Chapter III. The income generated by New Zealand agriculture will be compared with the national income in Chapter IV, in an attempt to discover whether economic progress in New Zealand has been associated with any change in the relative contribution of agriculture to the community’s total economic welfare. It has been shown by Bellerby and his co-workers that agricultural incomes have, in most of the countries studied, shown a long term tendency to be at a level far below non-agricultural incomes, although New Zealand is mentioned as an exception in the respect. This work will be considered in the review of literature, and in Chapter V the New Zealand data in this field will be examined. In Chapter VI an attempt will be made to draw the data together to see how the New Zealand results compare with those obtained by Clark, Bellerby and the others, and how they fit in with the general conclusions reached by these workers. Some suggestions for further work in this field in New Zealand will also be offered.

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  • Characterisation of rhizobia associated with New Zealand native legumes (Fabaceae) and a study of nitrogen assimilation in Sophora microphylla

    Tan, Heng Wee

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    Many legume species have the capacity to fix atmospheric N₂ via symbiotic bacteria (generally termed “rhizobia”) in root nodules and this can give them an advantage under low soil N conditions if other factors are favourable for growth. There are four genera of native legumes, on the main New Zealand (NZ) islands. These are the closely related Carmichaelia, Clianthus and Montigena in the Carmichaelinae clade, tribe Galegeae, and Sophora, within the tribe Sophoreae: all are capable of nodulation. Little work has been done on the genotypic characterisation and host-range specificity of the rhizobia associated with NZ native legumes. Moreover, the ability of native legumes to assimilate soil N in comparison with their N₂ fixation has not been assessed. The primary objectives of this research were to 1) more fully characterise the rhizobia associated with the four genera of NZ native legumes, including their ability to cross nodulate different species and 2) assess the ability of Sophora microphylla to assimilate soil N in comparison with its N₂ fixation. Gene sequencing results indicated that the bacterial strains isolated from NZ native legumes growing in natural ecosystems in the current and previous studies were of the genus Mesorhizobium. Generally, the Carmichaelinae and Sophora species were nodulated by two separate groups of Mesorhizobium strains. Ten strains isolated from the Carmichaelinae showed 16S rRNA and nifH similar to the M. huakuii type strain, but had variable recA and glnII genes, novel nodA and nodC genes and the seven strains tested could produce functional nodules over a range of Carmichaelinae species but did not nodulate Sophora species. Forty eight strains isolated from Sophora spp. showed 16S rRNA similar to the M. ciceri or M. amorphae type strains, variable recA, glnII and rpoB genes and novel and specific nifH, nodA and nodC genes which were different from those of the Carmichaelinae strains. Twenty one Sophora strains tested were able to produce functional nodules on a range of Sophora spp. but none nodulated C. australis. However, eighteen of the twenty one strains produced functional nodules on Cl. puniceus. These results indicate that, in general, the ability of different rhizobial strains to produce functional nodules on NZ native legumes is likely to be dependent on specific symbiosis genes. Clianthus puniceus appears to be more promiscuous in rhizobial host than the other NZ native legumes species tested. Generally, strains isolated from NZ native Sophora spp. from the same field site grouped together in relation to their “housekeeping” gene sequences and ERIC-PRC fingerprinting banding patterns. Most strains were able to grow at pH 3 – pH 11 but only one showed phosphorus solubilisation ability and none showed siderophore production. The strains showed differences in their ability to promote the growth of S. microphylla under glasshouse conditions. DNA-DNA hybridisation tests indicated that strains isolated from New Zealand native Sophora spp. are of several new Mesorhizobium species. The ability of S. microphylla to utilise soil NO₃⁻ and NH₄⁺ in comparison with its N₂ fixation was assessed under glasshouse conditions. N₂ fixing (nodulated) plants showed substantially greater growth and tissue N content than those relying solely on NH₄NO₃, NO₃⁻ or NH₄⁺ up to the equivalent of 200 kg N ha⁻¹ and N limitation is likely to have been the major cause of reduced growth of non-N₂ fixing (non-nodulated) plants. NO₃⁻ levels were negligible in plant tissues regardless of NO₃⁻ supply, indicating that virtually all NO₃⁻ taken up was assimilated. Thus, there appears to be a limitation on the amount of NO₃⁻ that S. microphylla can take up. However, it is possible that S. microphylla could not access NO₃⁻ in the potting mix and further work is required using different substrate and more regular NO₃⁻ applications to confirm this. Plants showed NH₄⁺ toxicity symptoms at 25 kg NH₄⁺-N ha⁻¹ and above. Nitrate reductase activity was not detected in roots or leaves of mature S. microphylla in the field: all plants were nodulated. Overall, the two major findings of this research are 1) NZ native legumes are nodulated by diverse and novel Mesorhizobium species and 2) S. microphylla seedlings have limited ability to utilise soil inorganic N. Important future work based on the results obtained in this research is discussed.

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  • A time varying study of water view premiums in relation to residential house prices

    Plimmer, Christopher

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    In contrast to the large body of research that exists on the impact of water view premiums of on the value of residential properties there are relatively few studies that look at how these premiums vary over time. A Water view premium has a significant impact on a residential property's value as indentified in previous studies and therefore understanding the way in which the water view premium behaves over time is of major importance and has significant implications for residential property valuation. This study aims to better understand the behavioural patterns of the water view premiums over time and determine if there are any linkages between market cycles by comparing the movements of the water view premium to the market index and another leading study that looks at water view premiums over time. This study analyses 3842 residential property sales from 4 similar Auckland suburbs for the period from 2005 to 2013. The sales are analysed using hedonic linear regression models with dummy variables for the presence of water views to isolate the water view coefficient for each of the years. The movements of the water view premium is then compared against a market index for the same period and the results also compared against another similar study from an earlier period. The results indicate a strong behavioural pattern between the correlation of the market growth and water view premium growth. A pattern emerges that suggests that for a short time after a market has recovered from a period of major negative growth (a market crash), the water view premium has a period of dramatic positive growth that is greater than the growth of the market. This pattern is also evident when comparing the results to the earlier study.

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  • Effectiveness of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) in addressing development-induced disasters: a comparison of the EIA processes of Sri Lanka and New Zealand

    Hapuarachchi, Arosh Buddika

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    There is an on-going exponential increase in development-induced disasters globally, especially in low and middle-income countries. This upward trend in the occurrence of development-induced disasters challenges sustainable development efforts. It has been generally accepted that instruments such as an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) reduce disaster risks of development projects. The Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA) for disaster risk reduction promotes using EIAs to address the disaster risk of development projects. Over 65 percent of the countries that have met the HFA progress-reporting obligation in the 2009-2011 reporting cycle, state that disaster risks of development projects are addressed by implementing EIA. However, the claims that EIA processes effectively address disaster risks have yet to be demonstrated empirically. It is clear that successful implementation of EIA processes also depends on the level of governance quality existing in a particular country. It is suggested that a well-conceived EIA process should reflect many of the elements of good governance principles including transparency, sufficient information flows, accountability, and stakeholder participation. Quality governance, therefore, is considered as having a direct bearing on why impact assessments in some countries are performing better than others. The influence of governance quality on the effectiveness of EIAs can be addressed by comparing the EIA processes of two or more countries with different levels of governance quality. In this research, the effectiveness of the EIA process in addressing development-induced disasters is evaluated by comparing the EIA processes of Sri Lanka and New Zealand. These two countries have quite different governance quality ratings and, therefore, offer a test of the influence of governance characteristics on EIA processes in addressing disaster risks. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the EIA processes of the above countries, a set of evaluation criteria was identified, mostly from existing literature. Eight criteria were specifically developed for this research. Data for the research were collected from in-depth interviews using a semi-structured questionnaire and focus group discussions with interviewees selected on the basis of their role, knowledge and expertise of the EIA process. Documents from both state and non-state actors relevant to the EIA process were also analyzed. Several recently conducted development projects in each country were used as cases to understand how the legislation is used in practice. It is clear that explicit reference to disaster risk is absent in environmental management policies in both Sri Lanka and New Zealand. Even though the New Zealand EIA process has a higher procedural and contextual effectiveness than Sri Lanka, both countries have lower levels of substantive effectiveness. Neither of the two EIA processes is found to be effective in addressing disaster risk because of inadequate policy integration of disaster risk into the environmental legislation that governs the EIA process. The results suggest more specificity is needed in legislative provisions and suggest a review of standard practice in using EIA to address disaster risk. The findings also imply the need to undertake evaluations of EIA systems elsewhere to assess their effectiveness in addressing development-induced disaster risks.

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  • Landscape as tension: exploring the analytical and generative potential of a focus on tension in the landscape

    Blackburne, Kate

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    Current approaches to landscape analysis and design often respond to inhabitant value through processes of layering and categorisation. These strategies are critiqued as being limited in their ability to represent the intricate and complex character of landscape, as well as for their ‘binary’ nature. This thesis considers a potential realignment of the scope to focus on landscape tension – the emblematic relationships which come as a result of contrasting inhabitant values. A focus on landscape tension is considered in response to one particular cultural and geographic setting; the relationship between Farmers and Walkers on Banks Peninsula. First the analytical potential of a focus on tension is questioned, where rather than mapping inhabitant value, we might analyse the sociocultural landscape based upon its most active components – through a focus on tension. This is revealing of both the spatial landscape itself, its inhabitants and the associated person-to-person relationships. Following this the generative potential of a focus on landscape tension is considered, where landscape is designed as tension rather than in response to it. A critique of these outcomes is given illustrating the value of such an approach in a contested setting.

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  • Interpreting the terrain for remembrance

    Hoskins, Anikaaro Isabella Ross

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    This thesis is a theoretical exploration of ‘remembrance’ and its production in the interactions between people/s and the landscape. This exploration takes place in the broad context of post earthquake Christchurch with a focus on public spaces along the Ōtākaro – Avon river corridor. Memory is universal to human beings, yet memories are subjective and culturally organized and produced - the relationship between memory and place therefore operates at individual and collective levels. Design responses that facilitate opportunities to create new memories, and also acknowledge the remembered past of human – landscape relationships are critical for social cohesion and wellbeing. I draw on insights from a range of theoretical sources, including critical interpretive methodologies, to validate subjective individual and group responses to memory and place. Such approaches also allowed me, as the researcher, considerable freedom to apply memory theory through film to illustrate ways we can re-member ourselves to our landscapes. The Ōtākaro-Avon river provided the site through and in which film strategies for remembrance are explored. Foregrounding differences in Māori and settler cultural orientations to memory and landscape, has highlighted the need for landscape design to consider remembrance - those cognitive and unseen dimensions that intertwine people and place. I argue it is our task to make space for such diverse relationships, and to ensure these stories and memories, embodied in landscape can be read through generations. I do not prescribe methods or strategies; rather I have sought to encourage thinking and debate and to suggest approaches through which the possibilities for remembrance may be enhanced.

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  • If we plant the plants do the insects follow? An assessment of indigenous invertebrates in an urban forest remnant and restoration sites in Christchurch

    Ford, Denise Elizabeth

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    Urbanisation has led to substantial loss and fragmentation of natural habitat. Native ecosystems have been detrimentally affected through this habitat loss along with reduction of habitat quality and the introduction of non-native plants and animals. The impact of urbanisation can be reduced by the protection and restoration of remnant habitat along with re-vegetation of suitable areas with indigenous plant species. Through public interest and community group participation urban restoration has increased globally, with the motivation to re-create ecological processes which support native flora and fauna. Successful restoration should restore biological functions and the integrity of ecosystems but this is often only evaluated on the success of establishing native plant cover. The hypothesis of 'if you build it they will come' is seldom tested. This study aims to assess the importance of remnant indigenous habitat to the success of restoration projects and if restoration is achieving the goal of re-creating ecological processes. This aim was accomplished by surveying the biodiversity and abundance of terrestrial invertebrates. They constitute a wide range of functional groups and are major contributors to almost all ecological processes and thus valuable and increasingly used indicators of ecosystem integrity and function. This study repeated one done by Richard Toft in 2003 where invertebrates of the old growth remnant forest of Riccarton Bush, suburban gardens and the restoration site of the Wigram Retention Basin were sampled. Two other restoration sites, Travis Wetland and Styx Mill Reserve, within Christchurch City were also included in the repeated survey of 2013. Results from the 2003 survey showed that Riccarton Bush was well differentiated from the suburban gardens and the restoration site of Wigram Retention Basin. The restoration site was more similar to the suburban gardens than the remnant old growth forest. The repeated survey ten years later in 2013 showed similar results, the restoration site of Wigram Retention Basin was still similar in species richness and abundance to the suburban gardens than Riccarton Bush. The site most similar to Riccarton Bush was an area in Travis Wetland that contained old growth manuka (Leptospermum scoparium). Indications from this study reflect others; the succession of restoration sites to fully functioning ecosystem takes time. The establishment of suitable habitat, the surrounding landscape matrix and dispersal ability impact on the capacity of species to colonize restoration sites. The key to the enhancement of native biodiversity in an urban setting is the restoration and maintenance of remnant vegetation and the success of restoration projects. The findings of this study contribute to the understanding of the requirements needed for the invertebrates to follow the plants and whether some management changes are required to achieve a positive ecosystem outcome.

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  • The Fair Trade and Fair Trade Organic chains for small honey producers in the Tucuman and Santiago del Estero provinces of Northwest Argentina

    Nervi, Agustin

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    Argentina plays a major role in the global honey market as the world’s second largest exporter behind China. About 70% of Argentine beekeepers are small to medium-sized. Consumers from affluent markets are increasingly aware of the processes involved in the production of the food they purchase. These consumers are willing to pay premiums for goods that have socially and environmentally sustainable production methods. Certification protocols such as Fair Trade and Organic give consumers confidence that these requirements are met. However, smallholders find it difficult to access these premiums as they produce small volumes and consequently face high unit compliance, transaction and marketing costs. This qualitative study aims to understand how the Fair Trade and Fair Trade Organic honey supply chains operate in the Tucumán and Santiago del Estero provinces of Northwest Argentina. A case study method and semi-structured interviews is utilised to collect data from key respondents. The analysis follows a pattern matching logic in order to compare patterns identified in the data with those predicted by the literature. A within-case analysis is performed for each case, followed by cross-case comparisons in order to recognise the advantages, disadvantages and constraints for increased smallholder participation in the study chains. The analysis suggests that despite benefits brought by collective action and market access, the Fair Trade and Fair Trade Organic chains did not provide substantial premiums to cover small beekeepers’ compliance, transaction and marketing costs. Information and power asymmetry, biophysical risk, geographical dispersion and institutional problems raised transaction and agency costs within organisations and between producers and buyers preventing long-term, sustainable relationships. This research provides solutions to reduce these costs and improve small beekeepers’ welfare.

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  • Human capital in the banking sector: an exploratory study of Sri Lanka and New Zealand

    Perera, R.A. Ahesha Sajeewani

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    Businesses around the world proclaim their employees as being the corporation’s most valuable resource. The field of human capital (HC) is not a new one and, studies focussing specifically on HC and its importance to organisations have been published in the academic press for several decades (Amit & Zott, 2001; Barney & Wright, 1998; Wernerfelt, 1984). However, despite continuous research attention, HC remains underdeveloped and an under- researched concept (Gambardella, Panico, & Valentini, 2015; Lewis & Heckman, 2006; McDonnell, 2011). Thus, this research contributes and extends the existing knowledge on HC to provide a comprehensive understanding by exploring the following questions: “How does the banking sector define the phrase HC?” Why does the banking sector deem HC and measuring, managing, and reporting on HC to be important?” “What attributes of HC do banks measure, manage, and report?” and” How do HC and measuring, managing, and reporting on human capital information (HCI) in Sri Lanka differ from those practices in New Zealand?” A qualitative case study is employed as a research approach in this study and the banking sector is chosen as the case sector. Data is collected from 10 banks in two countries, Sri Lanka and New Zealand, via conducting interviews, and gathering information from available secondary sources. The coding process resulted in descriptive codes, categories and finally themes, which are used as a basis to build a comprehensive and interesting narrative about HC in the banking sector in a developing country, Sri Lanka and a developed country, New Zealand. This study shows that the term “human capital” is defined by the Sri Lankan banks as “a cluster of competences, diversity, engagement and values of employees” whereas, in the New Zealand context, the term “human capital” was operationalised as “a cluster of competences, values, diversity and knowledge of employees.” This study examined why banks recognised the importance of HC to the banking business, with the Sri Lankan banks in particular revealing that HC has the potential to enhance overall productivity and efficiency, assist adherence to compliance requirements, ensure banks’ survival, achieve sustainable success and enhance business performance. Except for ensuring banks’ survival, other reasons were endorsed by the banks in New Zealand. Banks’ evidence identifies categories of HC information that they measure, manage, and report. In particular for Sri Lanka, nine information categorises were identified: training and career development, resourcing, attrition and retention, compliances, employee relations, employee welfare, diversity and equity information, health and safety, efficiency, and informal information. Confirming the Sri Lankan banks’ measuring, managing, and reporting practice, the New Zealand banks also revealed that they measure, manage, and report all the above information categories except informal information, such as family background, schools attended and parents’ profession. The findings further suggest that the banks in Sri Lanka and New Zealand use these measured, managed, and reported employee information for two main purposes: internal management and external reporting. Overall, findings suggest that although some disparities existed, the importance of having HC and measuring, managing, and reporting on HCI practices in these two countries were homogeneous.

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  • Governance of small sports clubs in New Zealand: existing structures, processes and potential models

    Hill, Simon

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    Sports clubs are one of the dominant sports delivery mechanisms in New Zealand, yet despite this, they have received remarkably little attention in the academic literature. This study aims to fill that gap through a case study investigation of the governance structures and processes used by four small sports clubs in New Zealand. Drawing on a case study approach utilising interviews and documentary evidence, the study found that small sports clubs in New Zealand are mostly governed, managed and operated by a group of dedicated volunteers elected or appointed to the committee by their fellow members. The governance structures that small clubs operate within has evolved from the historical ‘kitchen table’ method of operation to a hybrid model of multiple governance models and ideas. Unexpectedly, the study found that these ideas have in most cases come from the knowledge volunteers bring to the committee table, or borrowed from other clubs that are deemed successful, as opposed to utilising well documented models such as Carver's (2006) Policy Governance Model or Sport New Zealand’s The Nine Steps to Effective Governance (Sport New Zealand, 2014). Both of these resources advocate for a clear separation between governance duties, including the employment of the CEO, strategic planning and decisions over major capital expenses, and management, encompassing day-to-day operations, management of staff, business plans and purchases. However, the data collected suggests that small sports clubs are not resourced to initiate the separation of duties Carver (2006) and Sport New Zealand (2014) suggest, even though volunteer committee members in this research paper range from five to eighteen people. Instead, the clubs appear to have (unknowingly) adopted aspects of alternative models such as Mowbray's (2011) ‘third team’ approach, and Bradshaw's (2009) ‘contingency theory’. The study concludes that although there is increased pressure for clubs to professionalise their practise, there are no appropriate best practise models or methods of governance available to small sports clubs. Despite this, this study demonstrates that clubs have developed potentially successful governance systems.

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  • What is cooking with kererū/kūkupa management in New Zealand? A historical review using tools from Actor Network Theory

    Adkins, Jordan

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    This thesis reviews the history of the management of an endangered New Zealand native bird species. It builds on earlier narratives, especially the social construction-based thesis of Renganathan (2004), periodising the history of management into three key phases, or moments of “translation” in the terminology of Actor-Network Theory (ANT): Maori colonisation around 1300 AD; European colonisation circa 1800 AD, and the post-colonial present. In line with Renganathan’s earlier analysis it is argued that management of Kererū remains contested depending upon differing cultural views and differing locations, populations and habitat health. However, this thesis also deploys key concepts associated with Callon’s “A Sociology of Translation” (1986) to both show the mechanisms and processes that have led to the dominance of particular perspectives at given points in history and to set out three future management scenarios that reflect what could happen if particular actors or actants were to exert pressure or influence on the existing management network. Furthermore, and whereas previously ANT has tended to be applied to technological and engineering domains, the thesis adds to the growing body of natural resource management literature which uses the principles of the theory to shed new light on environmental problems.

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  • Floral resource subsidies for the enhancement of the biological control of aphids in oilseed rape crops

    Varennes, Yann-David

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    Food production is achieved by the interaction of man-made infrastructures with natural ecosystems, the latter providing soil, light, and regulating services, including biological control. However, such natural capital has been put increasingly at risk by modern agricultural practices. For example, the use of insecticide compounds can be harmful to organisms in the soil, the water and the vegetation, including beneficial insects. This thesis investigated how the ecological management of a conventional oilseed rape (OSR) cropping system can enhance the biological control of insect pests by their natural enemies, which could alleviate the use of insecticides. OSR hosts three aphid species, namely, Brevicoryne brassicae (L.), Myzus persicae (Sulzer), and Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach). In New Zealand, these three species are attacked by the parasitic wasp Diaeretiella rapae (McIntosh) [Hymenoptera: Braconidae], which completes its larval development inside an aphid body, and is a free-living organism when adult. In that stage, the wasp only feeds on carbohydrate-rich fluids, e.g. floral nectars and honeydew. Floral resource subsidies consist in the addition of nectar-providing vegetation in the habitat of parasitoids, to enhance their reproductive output, which in turn cascades into decreased pest density. This approach has known successes and failures, and its potential could be increased by a better understanding of its ecological functioning. In the introduction, this thesis lists current knowledge gaps in the ecology of floral subsidies targeted at enhancing the control of pests by parasitoids. In the second chapter, this thesis reports how nectar feeding affects the behaviour of D. rapae. It was observed that feeding on buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) enhanced ca. 40-fold the time spent searching for hosts and greatly reduced the time spent stationary. The consequences of this for the reproduction of the parasitoid, and biocontrol, are discussed. The third chapter addresses the potential competition between pollinators and parasitoids for nectar, when the latter is provided as a floral subsidies. This question is crucial because the potential effect of floral subsidies on biocontrol could be negated by if the provided nectar is consumed by pollinators. A manipulative field experiment indicated that this negative interaction is not existent or weak, although the power of the test was low. A laboratory trial presented in the fourth chapter showed that the longevity of D. rapae fed on OSR or buckwheat nectar was enhanced ca. 3-fold compared to unfed conspecifics. Feeding on M. persicae honeydew and nectar from two candidate floral subsidies enhanced longevity ca. 2-fold, indicating a lower nutritional quality. Two other plants did not cause any longevity enhancement. The value of these results with regard to the understanding of the nutritional ecology of D. rapae is discussed. The food-web of aphids, parasitoids and hyperparasitoids (fourth trophic level) living in OSR crops in New Zealand has not been documented. Understanding the composition and structure of the food-web is important to guide the implementation of floral subsidies. The fifth chapter presents a protocol for the reconstruction of food-webs, based on the molecular analysis of aphid mummies. The further use of this tool for the construction of aphid-based food-webs in general is discussed. The thesis findings are discussed in the context of OSR as an ephemeral, multi-species, spatially complex and dynamic habitat. The concept of “foodscape” is adapted to parasitoids and biological control. In its last section, the discussion integrates ecological and agricultural considerations to suggest the intercropping of a flowering plant in OSR crops.

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  • Water extraction and use of seedling and established dryland lucerne crops

    Sim, Richard E.

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    The main aim of this research was to refine best management practices for dryland lucerne (Medicago sativa L.) crops in relation to crop water extraction. To do this, dryland lucerne was established at Lincoln University, New Zealand in two soils which differed in the plant available water content (PAWC). The low PAWC site (Ashely Dene) had a very stony silt loam soil with ~130 mm of water to 2.3 m. The high PAWC site (Iversen 12) is a deep silt loam soil with ~360 mm of water to 2.3 m. The available water for crop extraction in the establishment year was manipulated by imposing the second treatment, sowing date. This resulted in mean annual dry matter (DM) yields which ranged from 0.4 to 21.5 t DM/ha. A detailed examination of lucerne physiology was undertaken to determine how lucerne extracts water from the soil to explain these yield differences.

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  • Intraspecific differences in the response of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) to drought

    Wilson, Samuel Symes

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) has traditionally been the grass species of choice for most New Zealand regions and is currently an important component of our highest-producing pastures. However perennial ryegrass is drought-sensitive and recent climate change projections for increased drought frequency and intensity in New Zealand have raised industry concern about the limitations of perennial ryegrass, particularly for northern and eastern regions. One possible solution is the introgression of wild-type germplasm that possess morphological and physiological attributes which improve drought tolerance, into high-producing commercial cultivars of perennial ryegrass. However there has been little research on perennial ryegrass in New Zealand that includes morphological and physiological drought response mechanisms. The objective of the current study was to investigate the responses to drought, of two bred perennial ryegrass cultivars; Grasslands Samson and Cropmark Seeds Kai; and two ecotypes, one of Norwegian origin and the other from Tunisia. This research was carried out in a glasshouse at Lincoln University, Canterbury during the winter of 2016. Under favourable conditions, the bred populations out-performed the ecotypes, producing 43% greater shoot biomass over the whole experiment than the ecotypes. The drought treatment reduced the shoot biomass of all populations, resulting in comparable shoot biomass production under drought among the four populations. However the Norwegian ecotype, in relation to its well-watered plants, was reduced by 58% by drought, showing a smaller reduction than Kai (-70%). Leaf DM (dry matter) production and LER (leaf extension rate) were both reduced by drought treatment in all populations. The mean LER and leaf DM production of the Tunisian population under the second drought by -58% and -23% respectively was a smaller reduction than that experienced by Kai (-70% and -64% respectively). The mean LER of the Norwegian population was reduced to the largest degree in the first drought cycle (-85%). The root to shoot DM ratio was increased in Kai, Samson and the Tunisian population under drought and to the greatest degree in the Tunisian population (+88%). However the root to shoot DM ratio of the Norwegian population remained unaffected by the drought treatment. The RWC (relative water content) across all populations was halved by the drought treatment, from a mean RWC of 92% in the well-watered plants to 47% under drought. However, the Norwegian population was able to maintain a greater RWC (60%) than that of Kai in the drought treatment (35%). The solute potential was reduced by drought in Kai (-145%), Samson (-139%) and the Tunisian population (-92%), but was unchanged in the population from Norway, indicating that it did not osmotically adjust. There were no differences in the chlorophyll concentration or leaf temperature between the four populations under drought. The Tunisian population was the only endophyte-infected population of the four. Taken together, this study identified intraspecific differences in key morphological and physiological drought responses of perennial ryegrass. The ecotypes showed signs of early drought tolerance, in contrast to the bred populations. Furthermore, there were differences in the drought tolerance strategies between the ecotypes, where the Norwegian population reduced leaf growth and preserved resources, and the Tunisian population increased its root to shoot DM ratio and was able to maintain LER to a greater extent than the other populations under drought as a result. The presence of endophyte in the Tunisian population likely contributed to its drought tolerance strategy. These findings provide functional information that can be used in future breeding initiatives towards improving drought tolerance in perennial ryegrass.

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  • Landscape architecture and big data: it’s crunch time

    Royds, Don

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    Big data is growing in volume, variety and velocity. It is becoming more available as open data due to rise in prominence and significance, along with an increase in government policies and inter-governmental agreements such as The Open Data Charter. Big data, if used as part of the design process by landscape architects, has the potential to broaden and inform site understanding. However, working with big data and analysing the diverse range of datasets is currently the main challenge. It is unclear whether the appropriate tools are available in landscape architecture to analyse and work with big data at present. Through a literature review, a critique and a matrix evaluation, a clearer understanding of the current tools used in data analysis approaches are presented. Three data analysis approaches are applied to a case study site (Waitangi Park, Wellington, New Zealand). The case study reveals that landscape architecture does not currently have the tools to work with big data and that there is a clear gap between analysing geospatial data and non-spatial data. The implications are that if landscape architecture is to take full advantage of working with big data, better tools and data analysis approaches need to be developed.

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  • Journey of an accounting software company from desktop to online

    Benbow, Pamela

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    The purpose of this research was to explore experiences of an accounting software company (CRS Software Limited) as it transformed its application from a desktop version to online. A case study approach was taken and semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight employees. Additional data on CRS Software Limited is found from publicly available information including press releases, videos, company web site, customer testimonials and program help files Three key components of the journey were identified. The first is the use of a modern web based application offering advantages such as accessibility, data sharing, increased security, Software as a Service, program updates and automated backups. Concerns include data security, reliance on internet and data ownership. The second key component is the software company, experiencing challenges as it develops and supports cloud computing. These are addressed through business strategy and operational changes. The customer is the final component, and the move to accounting applications in the cloud is dependent on their perspective on change: a willingness to embrace technology, or a reluctance for change. The three components are discussed independently, yet aspects of them inter-relate with each other. This study contributes to the body of knowledge for a current issue faced by many accounting software developers, and their customers. Observations of CRS Software Limited’s journey are transferable to other accounting software developers, local and international and other computing applications.

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  • Molecular genetic analysis of IGF1 in Romney sheep and its role in growth

    Ellis, Olivia Margaret

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    In an effort to improve livestock breeding, recent focus has been on using marker-assisted selection (MAS) to increase the accuracy of the choices made in selecting breeding stock. MAS may increase the annual rate of genetic gain in livestock by as much as 15-30%. Traits that determine the economic value of livestock are of primary concern in livestock breeding. Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 (IGF-1: also known as somatomedin C) affects young animal growth and a range of other anabolic processes in adults from a number of species, but little is known about its role in sheep. Variation in the IGF-1 gene (IGF1) has also been reported in other animal species, but once again little is known about ovine IGF1 variation. Using a polymerase chain reaction – single strand conformational polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) approach, 50 New Zealand (NZ) Romney rams were investigated to ascertain whether variation existed in two regions (an exon 2 fragment and an exon 3 fragment) of ovine IGF1. Two PCR-SSCP banding-patterns were discovered for each region, with one or a combination of two banding patterns detected for each sheep. For each region, these patterns were named A and B, and upon sequencing a unique DNA sequence was identified. 150 lambs (obtained from the NZ Romney Progeny Test; 2007-present), that were the progeny of a single ram that produced lambs over two seasons (2007 and 2009) were investigated for the association analysis. Phenotypic data for growth and carcass traits were available for these lambs and statistical analyses (Minitab v17) were performed using stepwise regression to assess the effect of the presence or absence of the IGF1 variants on the various lamb phenotypes. In these analyses the presence of the exon 2 IGF1 A variant was associated (P = 0.049) with increased birth weight in the 2007 lambs, although this effect did not persist in the 2009 lambs, or when the data from both years was combined. For the 2009 lambs, the presence of exon 2 A was associated (P = 0.017) with an increased growth rate from birth to tailing and this effect persisted (P = 0.035) when the 2007 and 2009 lamb data was combined. Trends (0.05 < P < 0.2) were observed between the presence of exon 2 A and increased tailing weight and growth from birth to weaning in the 2009 lambs and these trends persisted when the data from the 2007 and 2009 lambs was combined. No effects were observed for the exon 3 genotypes in 2007, but in 2009, there was a trend for AA to be associated with increased tailing weight and weaning weight, with the tailing weight effect persisting when both years’ data was combined. Overall these results suggest that variation in IGF1 could be of value as a genetic marker to complement genetic evaluations for early growth in sheep.

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  • Influence of farm dairy effluent ammonium concentrations on soil N2O emissions

    Johnston, Tony

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    Nitrous oxide (N₂O) is a potent greenhouse gas (GHG) and the single-most ozone (O₃) depleting substance. Agriculture is the dominant source of anthropogenic N₂O emissions globally, and especially in New Zealand. Urine, synthetic nitrogen (N) fertiliser and farm dairy effluent (FDE) are the main sources of N₂O emissions from agricultural soils in New Zealand. Urine and synthetic N fertiliser have received considerable research attention to minimise their contribution to soil N₂O emissions due to the high N loadings and greater emission factors (EF) of these inputs. However, as the land application of Farm Dairy Effluent (FDE) is a less significant contributor to New Zealand’s overall N₂O emissions profile, research on this N-input is limited. The mass of FDE applied to land increased from, 18kt in 1990 to 39kt in 2013, and a recent increase in popularity of herd homes will further increase the mass of FDE produced. Thus, FDE requires further research. Limited data is available on the EF’s from the land application of FDE. In addition, an analysis of the literature suggests the NH₄⁺-N concentration of FDE is highly variable. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of FDE NH₄⁺-N concentration on soil N₂O emissions. A 35-day field trial was conducted, where 10 mm of FDE was applied to pasture at NH₄⁺-N concentrations of either 90, 150, 200, 300 or 400 mg NH4⁺-N L-1. The 150 and 400 mg NH₄⁺-N L-1 treatments contained 15N to monitor the fate of FDE NH₄⁺-N. N₂O gas samples were taken daily for the first week, then every 2-3 days for the remainder of the trial. Soil inorganic-N pools were monitored every 7 days. Pasture production was measured on days 19 and 35. Peak N₂O emissions occurred within 24 hrs of applying the FDE. The highest N₂O emisions were produced in the 400 mg NH4⁺-N L⁻¹ treatment averaging 65 kg N₂O ha⁻¹ day⁻¹. FDE treatments produced significantly more than the control until day 7. Emission factors ranged from 0.18 to 0.32 percent of total N applied, significantly less than the 1% currently used to calculate New Zealands GHG inventory. The emission period was relatively short due to low soil nitrate concentrations, and/or relatively dry soil conditions. Ammonium concentration is a key driver of N₂O emissions. Cumulative soil N₂O emissions increased linearly with FDE NH₄⁺-N concentration, however, it is likely this relationship may change in soils with a higher moisture content. Therefore, the use of a single relationship between the two variables for all environmental situations may not be possible. Further studies that analyse the influence of NH₄⁺-N concentrations on soil N₂O emissions, in a range of typical environments, are required to fully understand this relationship.

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  • The effects of winter forage crop grazing of hillslopes on soil erosion in South Otago

    Penny, Veronica May

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    Agricultural development has lead to deforestation, intensification and increased erosion worldwide. In New Zealand, increasing cow numbers has led to greater demand for forage crops to feed stock off-farm in winter. Expansion of dairying on flat land has pushed wintering systems on to rolling to steep land, particularly in the Southland and South Otago regions. While the impacts of forage crop grazing on soil compaction and overland flow of sediment and nutrients has been studied, there has been no previous work done on the direct influence of this farming practice on soil transport. This study used a novel technique to quantify the volume of soil transported downslope beneath the hooves of cows that were grazing kale over the 2015 winter period. Steel ball bearings were buried in the soil prior to grazing, and the distance they had moved was determined after winter, and used to infer soil transport. A linear relationship was found between soil transport flux and slope gradient of up to 0.25 m m-1, with stock track formation on steeper slopes causing greater spatial variability of soil transport rates and non systematic dependence of soil transport hillslope gradient; further research is required to describe this relationship. The steep slope of the relationship for gradients <0.25 indicates that rapid downslope transport occurs relative to gradient under forage crop grazing. This soil transport results in erosion on convex sites, at rates that exceed soil production rates, leading to unsustainable soil loss in these areas. Soil transport under conventional cultivation was also determined in this study, using the same methodology. No linear relationship was found between transport rates and gradient. However, despite the lack of relationship, downslope soil transport rates under cultivation exceeded those under cow grazing, indicating that significant soil transport results from this practice. The combination of soil transport under grazing and cultivation allows the impact of the forage crop grazing system as a whole to be understood.

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