319 results for Lincoln University, Working or discussion paper

  • Theories of Urban Land Use and their Application to the Christchurch Property Market

    McDonagh, J.

    Working or discussion paper
    Lincoln University

    Contrary to popular opinion, our cities are not primarily formed by the actions of local body politicians or town planners, but rather it is the aggregate activity of property developers of all types, that ultimately determine the form a city will take. Multiple, and often conflicting factors influence developers decisions and therefore ultimately influence the land use distribution within a city. These factors can generally be categorised as: demographic, economic, sociological, legal and political. Of these demographic, economic and sociological factors tend to drive demand. Economic factors again are employed as the decision making tools choosing between various alternatives. Whereas the legal and political factors will establish the framework within which the development takes place and will attempt to influence, for the benefit of society in general, the direction of that development. The interrelationship of factors under the previous five headings is extremely complex and one factor cannot be adequately viewed in isolation from the others. One "holistic" technique that can be used to analyse this interaction, is to study historic urban land use throughout the world in an attempt to see if any consistent patterns of development have occurred. If such urban land use patterns can be determined, and by deduction, their causes identified, this will help in predicting the future shape of cities in a similar set of circumstances. In this essay the main theories that seek to explain city land use patterns will be analysed and critiqued followed by an attempt to relate these theories to the existing situation in Christchurch. From this, predictions will be made regarding where future growth will occur in Christchurch for the different types of real estate usage.

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  • Credit accessibility and small and medium sized enterprises growth in Vietnam

    Nguyen, Nhung; Gan, Christopher; Hu, Baiding

    Working or discussion paper
    Lincoln University

    Small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) have been highly conducive to economic development in Vietnam. SMEs are a mean of income generation, job creation, poverty reduction, and government revenue contribution, etc. However, SMEs have lagged far behind other business sectors in terms of performance. It is claimed that one of the major reasons is their inability to access credits. This study empirically tests the impact of access to different sources of financing on SMEs’ growth. Primary data was obtained from a survey of 487 SMEs in Hanoi in June 2013. The empirical models include Ordinary Least Square (OLS) estimation and Heckman Two Stage Procedure model to account for endogeneity issue. The models reject the claim that the inability to access credit adversely affects SMEs growth. The result is consistent in both OLS model and the Heckman Two Stage Procedure model. Furthermore, the results from the Heckman Two Stage Procedure model indicated that there is a remarkable difference in the growing pattern of externally and internally financed group. The fastest growing SMEs are those who did not borrow externally and their growth strategy relies on the owner’s human capital (i.e. young and well‐educated), direct export and network developed with customers. On the other hand, the SMEs group that obtained external finance grows faster as their enterprise size increases and they keep financial records.

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  • Credit constraints and impact on farm household welfare: evidence from Vietnam's north central coast region

    Tran, M. C.; Gan, Christopher; Hu, Baiding

    Working or discussion paper
    Lincoln University

    This study aims at identifying factors affecting formal credit constraint status of rural farm households in Vietnam’s North Central Coast region (NCC). Using the Direct Elicitation method (DEM), we consider both internal and external credit rationing. Empirical evidences confirm the importance of household head’s age, gender and education to household’s likelihood of being credit constrained. In addition, households who have advantages of farm land size, labour resources and non‐farm income are less likely to be credit constrained. Poor households are observed to remain restricted by formal credit institutions. Results from the endogenous switching regression model suggest that credit constraints have negative impact on household’s consumption per capita and informal credit can act as a substitute to mitigate the influence of formal credit constraints.

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  • Battle of the nations: consumer perceptions of wine origins

    Forbes, S. L.

    Working or discussion paper
    Lincoln University

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine whether purchasers identify a wine’s country of origin and what their perceptions are of products originating from various wine producing nations. Design/methodology/approach: An interviewer‐administered questionnaire was used to examine the views of 399 consumers as they made actual purchase decisions inside stores in New Zealand, Australia, the United Kingdom and the United States. Findings: The results indicate that the majority of consumers can identify the origin of the wine they purchase (83%). In addition, the perceptions of wine that consumers hold do vary based upon a wine’s country of origin. Practical implications: These results suggest that country of origin perceptions differ across wine producing nations and that these differences are likely to be associated with a financial cost or benefit to wine producers. Originality/value: Few previous country of origin studies have asked consumers, at the time of purchase, if they can identify the origin of the product they have chosen. This study adds to current knowledge by providing evidence that wine purchasers are likely to know the origin of the wine they purchase and that their perceptions of these origins will indeed vary.

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  • Wine purchasing: Planned or unplanned behaviour

    Forbes, Sharon L.

    Working or discussion paper
    Lincoln University

    This exploratory research examines the planned and unplanned wine purchasing behaviour of consumers across four nations and identifies the factors that influence whether wine is a planned or unplanned purchase. A structured questionnaire and intercept interview technique were used to obtain information from 399 respondents inside supermarkets, liquor stores and specialty wine stores in New Zealand, Australia, the United Kingdom and the United States. The findings reveal that a majority of consumers do plan to purchase wine before they enter a store. Discounted prices and bottle or label designs were more important to those consumers who made unplanned wine purchases. Factors such as wine knowledge, wine involvement and various demographic characteristics were found to have no significant influence on the proportion of planned to unplanned wine purchasing behaviour. This research suggests to marketers that discount pricing is a strategy that can lead consumers to making unplanned wine purchase decisions.

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  • Efficiency and productivity change in the banking industry: empirical evidence from New Zealand banks

    Adgei‐Frimpong, K.; Gan, Christopher; Ying, L.; Cohen, D.

    Working or discussion paper
    Lincoln University

    This paper examines the New Zealand banking industry’s efficiency and productivity changes during the period 2007‐2011, a period dominated by the US subprime mortgage crisis. Data envelopment analysis (DEA) is used to identify the technical efficiency frontier (static in nature). The DEA‐based Malmquist productivity index is used to further analyse the Malmquist components to account for dynamic shifts in the efficiency frontier. Findings indicate that New Zealand retail banks generally have high levels of efficiency. This suggests that the banks wasted relatively less of their input resources over the period under study. In addition, the results suggest that a large part of overall technical inefficiency of retail banks could be attributed to scale inefficiency rather than pure technical inefficiency. Furthermore, the results indicate that New Zealand banks experienced a modest productivity growth rate over the 2007 to 2011 period. This increase is mainly attributed to technological progress, since the average efficiency change declined, thus generating a negative impact on the total productivity growth. This decline appeared to be a result of the decreasing rate in both scale efficiency change and pure technical efficiency change.

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  • Summary financial reports : review of international guidelines and literature : NZ evidence and issues

    Laswad, Fawzi; Weil, Sidney H.; Clark, Murray B.

    Working or discussion paper
    Lincoln University

    Although there are no professional guidelines or statutory regulations that permit or guide the presentation of summarised financial reports in New Zealand, a number of NZ companies provide such reports to their shareholders as alternatives for the comprehensive GAAP-based financial reports. Developments in other countries suggest that it is likely that increasing numbers of NZ companies may choose to follow this trend. It has been suggested that summary financial reports would lead to cost savings and improving communication with shareholders. However, the evidence from the literature is not conclusive that these objectives have been achieved by the publication of such reports. In this article, we review the guidelines and literature relating to summary financial reports in other countries, evaluate the content of summarised financial reports provided by New Zealand companies, and identify issues relating to the preparation of such statements.

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  • Student perceptions of the pedagogical features of a computer-aided learning program in introductory accounting

    Weil, Sidney H.; Clark, Murray B.; Wegner, T.

    Working or discussion paper
    Lincoln University

    Computer usage in accounting education is increasing, with computer-aided learning (CAL) packages becoming readily available. A consequent challenge facing accounting educators is to ensure that the increased use of computers occurs in a way that maximises its contribution to student learning. Some studies have examined whether CAL packages produce performance benefits for students. Few studies, however, have investigated the pedagogical features of these packages.This study identifies such features and measures student perceptions about the features used in a particular package, and their perceived value in meeting stated educational outcomes. Data was gathered by way of a questionnaire, and the responses analysed using the Analytic Hierarchy Process. The results indicate that the package was regarded as a highly beneficial learning resource, with the content and available support mechanisms rated as the two most useful pedagogical features.

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  • Does tenure review in New Zealand’s South Island give rise to rents?

    Brower, Ann L.; Meguire, P.

    Working or discussion paper
    Lincoln University

    Under “tenure review,” a New Zealand pastoral lessee surrenders part of his leasehold toconservation and acquires a freehold interest in the remainder. 28 new freeholders paid the Crown$6.9 million for freehold rights to 101,752ha, then sold 46% of that land for $135.7 million. Wemodel tenure review as a sequential real option – first to acquire freehold, then to subdivide andsell all or part of their new freeholds. We find little evidence that the Crown accounted for theseoption values when negotiating tenure review, and conclude that the capital gains enjoyed byformer lessees are rents.

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  • Homeownership in urban China: An empirical study of the Housing Provident Fund

    Wang, W.; Gan, C.; Li, Z.; Tran, M.

    Working or discussion paper
    Lincoln University

    The relentless effort of the government to control rising house prices in urban China have differential impacts on the various segments of the population due to their differential demand for homeownership. Hence, it is important for the government to have a better understanding of the underlying demand for homeownership, especially with respect to the different demographic variables and accessibility to loans and housing providence funds (HPF), in order to provide a more comprehensive strategy and to address some of the equity issues that may arise from these countermeasures. To this effect, this paper develop and estimate a binary logit model of homeownership and accessibility to HPF loans using a variety of demographic variables. Our findings document that high school graduates are less likely to own a house while people with longer duration of employment and households who are married and with children are more likely to own a house. The results also show that gender, marital status, education level, high annual income and duration of employment are significantly related to HPF loan use for homeownership. JEL Classification: G10, G20, G21

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  • An empirical investigation of credit card users in China

    Gan, C.; Dong, W.; Hu, B.; Tran, M. C.

    Working or discussion paper
    Lincoln University

    Since the first credit card issued by the Bank of China in 1985, the domestic banks has issued 140 million credit cards in 2008, and by the end of 2011, the total number of credit cards issued reached 285 million, an increase of 24.3% from 2010. Further, 79.41% of the consumers have more than 3 credit cards, 35.12% have only one credit card while 1.35% have more than 10 credit cards. The total transaction reached 756 million RMB, which was 47.95% higher than the transaction volume in 2010. The number of the domestic credit card merchants has increased at the end of 2011 and the number of domestic acceptance merchants reached 3.18 million, a 45.68% increase compared to 2010 (Peng, 2012). This paper seeks to investigate the factors that influence consumers’ decision to use credit cards and level of credit card limit. In particular, this research seeks to determine which consumers’ characteristics have the greatest influence on the respondents’ decision to have a credit card. For example, as the age increases, does the probability of consumer to holding a credit card decrease? The results show convenience, interest rate, application process, size of household, reward program, marital status, credit limit and age impact the respondent’s likelihood of owning a credit card. Further, the results show the number of credit card, credit card use duration, monthly spending, and bachelor degree are statistically significant and positively related to different levels of credit limit.

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  • Existence advertising, price competition, and asymmetric market structure

    Eaton, B. C.; MacDonald, Ian A.; Meriluoto, L.

    Working or discussion paper
    Lincoln University

    We examine a two stage duopoly game in which firms advertise their existence to consumers in stage 1 and compete in prices in stage 2. Whenever the advertising technology generates positive overlap in customer bases the equilibrium for the stage 1 game is asymmetric in that one firm chooses to remain small in comparison to its competitor. For a specific random advertising technology we show that one firm will always be half as large as the other. No equilibrium in pure price strategies exists in the stage 2 game and as long as there is some overlap in customer bases the mixed strategy equilibrium is far from the Bertrand equilibrium.

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  • Spam: solutions and their problems

    Eaton, B.; MacDonald, Ian A.; Meriluoto, L.

    Working or discussion paper
    Lincoln University

    We analyze the success of filtering as a solution to the spam problem when used alone or concurrently with sender and/or receiver pricing. We find that filters alone may exacerbate the spam problem if the spammer attempts to evade them by sending multiple variants of the message to each consumer. Sender and receiver prices can effectively reduce or eliminating spam, either on their own or when used together with filtering. Finally, we discuss the implications for social welfare of using the different spam controls.

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  • Research rationale for the economic objective, ARGOS

    Saunders, Caroline M.; Emanuelsson, M.

    Working or discussion paper
    Lincoln University

    The primary interest of an economist is the allocation of scarce resources to satisfy infinite“wants”, and several theories on how this can be done has been developed. The mostprominent and well known of these theories are Marxism and the neo-classical approach.The dominating theme in the post war economics has been financial growth and until the1960’s, environmental concerns were of secondary importance. From then and onwards, agrowing awareness of the social and environmental costs of financial growth has fuelled anongoing debate and contributed to approaches in economics that explicitly recognises socialand environmental aspects of the economic context.Also these “new” theories differ in the way they propose society should go about allocatingour scarce resources to different uses. However, in our opinion, they share a commonobjective, i.e. to maximize societies welfare, with welfare very broadly defined, definitelyincluding such things as clean air and nice views as well as financial aspects.

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  • Social dimensions of sustainable agriculture: a rationale for social research in ARGOS

    Campbell, H.; Fairweather, John R.; Hunt, Lesley M.; McLeod, C.; Rosin, C.

    Working or discussion paper
    Lincoln University

    As the rationale for the social research objective within ARGOS, this documentprovides a preliminary discussion of the theoretical and methodological approachbeing taken by the social researchers in the project. As such, it articulates the ‘socialcorner’ of the research and details the approaches and issues that we consider centralto a social scientific analysis of agricultural sustainability.

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  • Economic analysis of issues surrounding commercial release of GM food products in New Zealand

    Saunders, Caroline M.; Cagatay, Selim

    Working or discussion paper
    Lincoln University

    This paper concentrates upon the market impact of commercially releasing current generation genetically modified (GM) food and food production in New Zealand (NZ). It evaluates the producer benefits of growing GM food and consumer attitudes towards GM food. Current commercially released GM products affect the type of production rather than the nature of the product itself and include herbicide resistant soybean and canola as well as insect resistant corn. Evidence of producer benefits from growing GM products is mixed, with some reports of increases in producer returns. However, there has been a definite shift in consumer preference away from GM food. This is seen both in the development of price premiums for GM-free food; trade diversion away from GM sources to GM-free sources, particularly in the Japanese market; and the positioning of key retail outlets in Europe as GM-free. However, issues remain as to how preferences will develop and whether current trends are short term or not. Of relevance to NZ is what would impact be of different preferences and impact of GM technology on key commodities for NZ. Therefore in this paper the impact of GM food on producers, consumers and trade in NZ is simulated under various scenarios using the LTEM (Lincoln Trade and Environment Model). The model simulates, against various assumptions of proportions of GM/GM-free production, the impact of various scenarios relating to preference for or against GM production. The results from this preliminary analysis show that the greatest positive impact on NZ income is the GM-free strategy where it is assumed such markets as the EU and Japan have a large switch in preference away from GM food, followed by a 20 percent preference for GM-free. In conclusion the analysis shows that the preferred option for NZ would be to delay the commercial release of GM food until the extent of the negative consumer attitude can be seen and the producer benefits become more apparent. This would enable NZ to position itself as being GM-free and obtain current price premiums and preferential market access.

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  • Proceedings of the Rural Economy and Society Section of the Sociological Association of Aotearoa (N.Z.)

    Fairweather, John R.

    Working or discussion paper
    Lincoln University

    This Discussion Paper records the 14 papers presented in the Rural Economy and Society Section of the Sociological Association of Aotearoa (New Zealand) held at Lincoln University 7-9 December, 1990. The papers cover development issues, rural history, contemporary research and issues relating to the discipline of rural sociology in New Zealand. The development paper examines landownership in Northern England and the tensions surrounding different land uses. The history papers examine the impacts of transport technology, long term trends in agriculture exports, and Shelley's activities in rural education in Canterbury. The contemporary research papers, while wide ranging, include common themes such as how farm people have responded to the economic downturn in recent years by seeking off farm income. Another focus is the rural community with one paper examining local politics and another paper examining public drinking. The disciplinary papers look back at our rural research and then examine prospects and priorities for research in future. This discussion paper includes the full text of the following papers: Olivia Wilson, Landownership and rural development in Britain: a case study of the North Pennines (extended extract); James Watson, Rural New Zealand and the second industrial revolution; Neville Bennet, Cycles and booms in New Zealand agriculture exports (abstract only); Box, car and ace: Shelley in rural Canterbury, 1920-1936; Valerie Walton, Women's economic contribution to the farm; Margaret Begg, Dairy farm women; Richard Le Heron, Mike Roche, Tom Johnston and Susan Bowler, Pluriactivity in New Zealand's agro-commodity chains; Ian Gray, Issues and non-issues in rural local politics; Alison Loveridge, Formal qualifications and farm employees: does getting school certificate really help people become farm owners?; John Fairweather and Hugh Campbell, Public drinking and social organisation in Methven and MT. Somers; Ian Carter and Alison Loveridge, The strange absence of New Zealand rural sociology; Trevor Showdon, Rural sociology in New Zealand: dimensions; interdisciplinary intersections, institutional settings and future research.

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  • Covenants as a policy mechanism for providing conservation of natural features : survey of QEII covenantees in Canterbury

    Saunders, Caroline M.

    Working or discussion paper
    Lincoln University

    Conservation covenants have received scant attention internationally as a tool for providing conservation. This paper examines their use in New Zealand where they have been almost the sole policy measure in protecting land under private ownership. Under these covenants landowners or managers surrender some of their property rights in perpetuity in return for little if any compensation. The motivation for this is important in understanding their applicability to other situations. A survey of covenantees in the Canterbury region of New Zealand did highlight a high proportion had entered the covenant for altruistic reasons the main attraction being protection in perpetuity. Whilst the covenanted land was managed less intensively three quarters had alternative uses mainly development and forestry implying a not insignificant positive opportunity cost for covenantees. However on the commercially managed holdings the covenanted land was only a small part. The survey highlights the fact that landowners or managers are more willing to providing conservation than may be expected given an appropriate mechanism. Conservation covenants may therefore have wider appeal especially where there are limited resources. They are suited best to areas of land which are small proportions of commercial holdings; uncontroversial and well defined management prescriptions which are static; little active management; and little conflict between the conservation and other objectives for the land.

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  • The specification of property rights and compensation payments for conservation : an application of Bromley’s model of property rights

    Saunders, Caroline M.

    Working or discussion paper
    Lincoln University

    Bromley developed a model of property rights which used agricultural land to illustrate how those with existing property rights had the advantage over those with emerging and competing demands, Bromley (1991) and Bromley and Hodge (1990). This is in contrast to the Coase model where there is no difference in outcome whoever held the initial property right, Coarse (1960). This paper, using property rights relating to agricultural land use as an example, reviews the Bromley model of property rights and shows how this helps to explain some of the differences in compensation paid for environmental enhancement under two schemes with differing specifications of property rights.

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  • The importance of pre-commitment in international environmental agreements

    MacDonald, Ian A.

    Working or discussion paper
    Lincoln University

    In the face of transboundary pollution externalities, cooperation in regulatory efforts between countries is required to move the economy towards the efficient outcome. Existing research in this field concludes that such cooperation is unlikely to occur because of the free rider problem. This paper introduces the institution of international treaties and shows that a cooperative outcome supported by a treaty is sustainable. One effective treaty structure requires countries to reduce their pollution levels by a common percentage from the non cooperative benchmark level, but only if all countries sign it. Under such a teaty arrangement, welfare improvements are generally significant.

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