5,178 results for Lincoln University

  • Soil pH and aluminium toxicity challenges in high country

    Moir, J.

    Extension Activity
    Lincoln University

    Soil pH is a critical issue in high country and is strongly related to levels of soil exchangeable Al.

    View record details
  • The effect of oxidative damage on the calpain proteases in cultured ovine lens

    Morton, J. D.; Sanderson, J.; Lee, H. Y. Y.; Robertson, L. J. G.; Gately, K.

    Conference Contribution - Unpublished
    Lincoln University

    In cataracts the lens of the eye becomes opaque. This can be caused by many different factors and can develop in a number of ways. Although the exact mechanism is unknown, many of the cortical cataracts display raised levels of calcium and increased proteolysis of the major lens proteins, the crystallins. This has lead several groups to investigate the possible involvement of the calcium-dependent proteases or calpains in cataracts. A line of sheep at Lincoln University inherits cataracts and provides an opportunity to investigate the role of calpain in cataract formation.

    View record details
  • Do texture and organic matter content affect C & N dynamics in soils exposed to dry/wet cycles?

    Harrison-Kirk, Tina; Beare, M.; Condron, Leo M.

    Conference Contribution - Published
    Lincoln University

    Previous studies have reported both enhanced and reduced C and N cycling when soils of different compositions are exposed to repeated wet/dry cycles. The factors that determine the different responses are poorly understood. The objectives of this study were to determine how soil texture and organic matter content affect short-term C and N dynamics and the production of CO₂ and N₂O over a series drying and rewetting cycles, and then to use CO₂ and N₂O produced at constant moisture contents to calculate production during dry/wet cycles and compare this to actual production.

    View record details
  • Segment reporting in Hong Kong listed firms : an empirical assessment of IFRS no.8

    Li Yuanyuan

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    IFRS 8 and its counterpart HKFRS 8 supersedes IAS 14 and HKAS 14 in 2006 to upgrade segment information disclosure that is increasingly becoming important financial information in investment decision making. This study attempts to document the quantity and usefulness of segment information disclosure by Hong Kong listed firms as a consequence of implementing HKFRS 8. The study employs the value relevance of accounting information theory as a measure of usefulness of segment disclosure where segmental data are analysed by the portfolio return approach and regression analysis. Purposive sampling method is used to obtain samples from Hong Kong listed firms. The study results indicate that implementation of HKIFRS 8 has not improved the quantity of segment information, but improved the usefulness of segment information disclosed by Hong Kong listed firms. This is because the “management approach” under HKIFRS 8 leads to segment disclosure reflecting the real financial position of firms.

    View record details
  • Theories of Urban Land Use and their Application to the Christchurch Property Market

    McDonagh, J.

    Working or discussion paper
    Lincoln University

    Contrary to popular opinion, our cities are not primarily formed by the actions of local body politicians or town planners, but rather it is the aggregate activity of property developers of all types, that ultimately determine the form a city will take. Multiple, and often conflicting factors influence developers decisions and therefore ultimately influence the land use distribution within a city. These factors can generally be categorised as: demographic, economic, sociological, legal and political. Of these demographic, economic and sociological factors tend to drive demand. Economic factors again are employed as the decision making tools choosing between various alternatives. Whereas the legal and political factors will establish the framework within which the development takes place and will attempt to influence, for the benefit of society in general, the direction of that development. The interrelationship of factors under the previous five headings is extremely complex and one factor cannot be adequately viewed in isolation from the others. One "holistic" technique that can be used to analyse this interaction, is to study historic urban land use throughout the world in an attempt to see if any consistent patterns of development have occurred. If such urban land use patterns can be determined, and by deduction, their causes identified, this will help in predicting the future shape of cities in a similar set of circumstances. In this essay the main theories that seek to explain city land use patterns will be analysed and critiqued followed by an attempt to relate these theories to the existing situation in Christchurch. From this, predictions will be made regarding where future growth will occur in Christchurch for the different types of real estate usage.

    View record details
  • Heritage interpretation in New Zealand: Research informing practice in changing times

    Espiner, S. R.

    Conference Contribution - Unpublished
    Lincoln University

    A range of challenges confront the heritage management sector in New Zealand, the result of changes experienced at various scales (global and local) and at different velocities (sudden and gradual). Key among these changes are declining bio-diversity; a growing social ‘disconnect’ with nature; a risk-averse culture; ubiquitous digital technologies; environmental change; and natural disasters. Such ‘changing times’ represent both challenge and opportunity for those working in heritage interpretation, and underscore the need for collaboration between researchers and practitioners to produce meaningful responses to these phenomena and to provide empirical evidence to support the value of the heritage management sector. This paper traverses these themes, drawing on examples of research informing practice in the New Zealand heritage interpretation context.

    View record details
  • Some aspects of the relationship between agriculture and the national economy : with special reference to labour

    Ross, B. J.

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    The interdependence of industry and agriculture in a modern economy is everywhere freely acknowledged, but New Zealand probably provides one of the most dramatic illustrations of the complementary nature of this relationship. In addition to the dependence of agriculture on manufacturing which is normal in advanced countries, many of New Zealand’s manufacturing industries are indirectly dependent on agriculture for their raw materials. Most raw materials have to be imported, and as agricultural products make up ninety per cent of the goods exported in exchange, a high level of agricultural production is essential if manufacturing output is to be maintained or increased. In view of this, a study of some aspects of the relationship between agriculture and industry in New Zealand is likely to prove of the greatest interest. It is intended in this present study to examine particularly those aspects concerned with labour enquiring into the size of the agricultural labour force in relation to the total labour force, and examining the relative incomes of agricultural and non-agricultural sections of the community. The work of Fisher, Clark, Ojala and others has shown that in those countries now considered economically advanced economic progress has been associated with a relative decline in the proportion of the labour force employed in agriculture, and a relative decline also in the importance of agriculture in the economy, measured in terms of the proportion of national income produced by agriculture. This work, and the discussion which arose from it, will be studied in a review of the literature in Chapter. I, while a quantitative study of New Zealand population and labour statistics will be carried out in Chapter III. The income generated by New Zealand agriculture will be compared with the national income in Chapter IV, in an attempt to discover whether economic progress in New Zealand has been associated with any change in the relative contribution of agriculture to the community’s total economic welfare. It has been shown by Bellerby and his co-workers that agricultural incomes have, in most of the countries studied, shown a long term tendency to be at a level far below non-agricultural incomes, although New Zealand is mentioned as an exception in the respect. This work will be considered in the review of literature, and in Chapter V the New Zealand data in this field will be examined. In Chapter VI an attempt will be made to draw the data together to see how the New Zealand results compare with those obtained by Clark, Bellerby and the others, and how they fit in with the general conclusions reached by these workers. Some suggestions for further work in this field in New Zealand will also be offered.

    View record details
  • Characterisation of rhizobia associated with New Zealand native legumes (Fabaceae) and a study of nitrogen assimilation in Sophora microphylla

    Tan, Heng Wee

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    Many legume species have the capacity to fix atmospheric N₂ via symbiotic bacteria (generally termed “rhizobia”) in root nodules and this can give them an advantage under low soil N conditions if other factors are favourable for growth. There are four genera of native legumes, on the main New Zealand (NZ) islands. These are the closely related Carmichaelia, Clianthus and Montigena in the Carmichaelinae clade, tribe Galegeae, and Sophora, within the tribe Sophoreae: all are capable of nodulation. Little work has been done on the genotypic characterisation and host-range specificity of the rhizobia associated with NZ native legumes. Moreover, the ability of native legumes to assimilate soil N in comparison with their N₂ fixation has not been assessed. The primary objectives of this research were to 1) more fully characterise the rhizobia associated with the four genera of NZ native legumes, including their ability to cross nodulate different species and 2) assess the ability of Sophora microphylla to assimilate soil N in comparison with its N₂ fixation. Gene sequencing results indicated that the bacterial strains isolated from NZ native legumes growing in natural ecosystems in the current and previous studies were of the genus Mesorhizobium. Generally, the Carmichaelinae and Sophora species were nodulated by two separate groups of Mesorhizobium strains. Ten strains isolated from the Carmichaelinae showed 16S rRNA and nifH similar to the M. huakuii type strain, but had variable recA and glnII genes, novel nodA and nodC genes and the seven strains tested could produce functional nodules over a range of Carmichaelinae species but did not nodulate Sophora species. Forty eight strains isolated from Sophora spp. showed 16S rRNA similar to the M. ciceri or M. amorphae type strains, variable recA, glnII and rpoB genes and novel and specific nifH, nodA and nodC genes which were different from those of the Carmichaelinae strains. Twenty one Sophora strains tested were able to produce functional nodules on a range of Sophora spp. but none nodulated C. australis. However, eighteen of the twenty one strains produced functional nodules on Cl. puniceus. These results indicate that, in general, the ability of different rhizobial strains to produce functional nodules on NZ native legumes is likely to be dependent on specific symbiosis genes. Clianthus puniceus appears to be more promiscuous in rhizobial host than the other NZ native legumes species tested. Generally, strains isolated from NZ native Sophora spp. from the same field site grouped together in relation to their “housekeeping” gene sequences and ERIC-PRC fingerprinting banding patterns. Most strains were able to grow at pH 3 – pH 11 but only one showed phosphorus solubilisation ability and none showed siderophore production. The strains showed differences in their ability to promote the growth of S. microphylla under glasshouse conditions. DNA-DNA hybridisation tests indicated that strains isolated from New Zealand native Sophora spp. are of several new Mesorhizobium species. The ability of S. microphylla to utilise soil NO₃⁻ and NH₄⁺ in comparison with its N₂ fixation was assessed under glasshouse conditions. N₂ fixing (nodulated) plants showed substantially greater growth and tissue N content than those relying solely on NH₄NO₃, NO₃⁻ or NH₄⁺ up to the equivalent of 200 kg N ha⁻¹ and N limitation is likely to have been the major cause of reduced growth of non-N₂ fixing (non-nodulated) plants. NO₃⁻ levels were negligible in plant tissues regardless of NO₃⁻ supply, indicating that virtually all NO₃⁻ taken up was assimilated. Thus, there appears to be a limitation on the amount of NO₃⁻ that S. microphylla can take up. However, it is possible that S. microphylla could not access NO₃⁻ in the potting mix and further work is required using different substrate and more regular NO₃⁻ applications to confirm this. Plants showed NH₄⁺ toxicity symptoms at 25 kg NH₄⁺-N ha⁻¹ and above. Nitrate reductase activity was not detected in roots or leaves of mature S. microphylla in the field: all plants were nodulated. Overall, the two major findings of this research are 1) NZ native legumes are nodulated by diverse and novel Mesorhizobium species and 2) S. microphylla seedlings have limited ability to utilise soil inorganic N. Important future work based on the results obtained in this research is discussed.

    View record details
  • Fatty Acid Profiles of New Zealand-Grown and Imported Pine Nuts

    Vanhanen, L. P.; Savage, G. P.; Hider, R.

    Conference Contribution - Unpublished
    Lincoln University

    Pine nuts (Pinus spp.) are becoming more popular in New Zealand cuisine and so their availability has increased. They have a unique taste because they contain high levels of unsaturated fatty acids . They are an excellent source of dietary fatty acids, such as linoleic and oleic acids. Pine nuts are either locally-grown or imported and informal reports suggest that each cultivar has a very different taste because of the different patterns of fatty acids found in each of the cultivars.

    View record details
  • A time varying study of water view premiums in relation to residential house prices

    Plimmer, Christopher

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    In contrast to the large body of research that exists on the impact of water view premiums of on the value of residential properties there are relatively few studies that look at how these premiums vary over time. A Water view premium has a significant impact on a residential property's value as indentified in previous studies and therefore understanding the way in which the water view premium behaves over time is of major importance and has significant implications for residential property valuation. This study aims to better understand the behavioural patterns of the water view premiums over time and determine if there are any linkages between market cycles by comparing the movements of the water view premium to the market index and another leading study that looks at water view premiums over time. This study analyses 3842 residential property sales from 4 similar Auckland suburbs for the period from 2005 to 2013. The sales are analysed using hedonic linear regression models with dummy variables for the presence of water views to isolate the water view coefficient for each of the years. The movements of the water view premium is then compared against a market index for the same period and the results also compared against another similar study from an earlier period. The results indicate a strong behavioural pattern between the correlation of the market growth and water view premium growth. A pattern emerges that suggests that for a short time after a market has recovered from a period of major negative growth (a market crash), the water view premium has a period of dramatic positive growth that is greater than the growth of the market. This pattern is also evident when comparing the results to the earlier study.

    View record details
  • What's your game? Heterogeneity amongst New Zealand hunters

    Kerr, G. N.; Abell, W.

    Conference Contribution - Published
    Lincoln University

    The introduction of the New Zealand Game Animal Council in 2014 heralds a new era for New Zealand big game management. Now that management of game animals to enhance benefits from susutained use is possible, it is important to understand who values game resources and the attributies than enhance benefits from their use. Choice experiements uisng a pivot design around actual travel distance identified salience of hunt-related attributes for recreational hunters of Himalayan tahr (Jemlahicus Hemitragus) and Sika deer (Cervus Nippon). The choice experiments successfully used travel distance as the numeraire of value to overcome resistance to the commodification of hunting. Results show the high value of recretional hunting, and identifiy disparate preferences both within and between species. Understanding heterogeneity offers important insights into managing hunting experiences to enhance their value for recreational hunters.

    View record details
  • Current status of biological control of Cirsium arvense in New Zealand

    Cripps, M.; Bourdot, G.; Fowler, S.; Edwards, G.

    Conference Contribution - Unpublished
    Lincoln University

    Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop. (Californian, Canada or creeping thistle) is an exotic perennial herb that successfully established in New Zealand (NZ) approximately 130 years ago, and is now considered one of the worst invasive weeds in NZ arable and pastoral systems. Two insects, Cassida rubiginosa and Ceratapion onopordi, were recently released for classical biological control. Studies carried out from 2006 to 2009 in both the native (Europe) and introduced (NZ) ranges of the plant aimed to quantify C. arvense growth characteristics and assess incidence of the specialised rust pathogen, Puccinia punctiformis, in regions with and without the supposed pathogen vector, C. onopordi. In permanent field plots natural enemies were excluded with insecticides and fungicides, and compared with controls. The impact of C. rubiginosa was also assessed under different pasture competition scenarios. The survey data indicate that C. arvense expresses similar growth characteristics in both ranges, and that incidence of the rust pathogen is similar in both ranges, regardless of the presence of C. onopordi. The data suggest that the overall suite of natural enemies is capable of exerting some regulating influence on the plant in its native range, but that the released biocontrol agents will not likely have a significant impact on this weed in NZ.

    View record details
  • Coming of age: Towards best practice in women's artistic gymnastics

    Kerr, R.; Barker-Ruchti, N.; Schubring, A.; Cervin, G.; Nunomura, M.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    Since the performances of famous gymnasts such as Olga Korbut and Nadia Comaneci in the 1970s, women's artistic gymnastics (WAG) has been characterised as a problematic child sport. Numerous studies have identified medical and psychological issues associated with competing at a high level at a young age, such as stunted growth, bone deformity and distorted body image. However, recently there have been several gymnasts appearing at the highest international level of considerably older age, the most famous being Oksana Chusovitina who has competed at a remarkable six Olympic Games including the London Olympics at age 37. To date, while there has been extensive research on the problems experienced by younger gymnasts, there has been no research examining older gymnasts and the effects of seeing 'older' bodies on the gymnastics competition floor. This research proposes to remedy this deficiency through a study of the experiences of older gymnasts and the factors that have led to the prolonging of their careers, together with an examination of how the existence of older gymnasts affects the perception of the sport. The three specific research objectives are. 1) to identify the factors that have contributed to gymnasts͛ prolonging their athletic careers, 2) to gain understanding as to whether the older age of some gymnasts has affected the perceptions held and practices employed by relevant stakeholders (especially coaches and officials) and 3) to identify ways through which the change in age can be employed to transform WAG so that stakeholders (gymnasts, coaches, officials) and importantly, its social image, can benefit.

    View record details
  • Public perceptions of the state of the NZ environment - how do peoples' realities stack up to the scientific realities?

    Hughey, K.

    Extension Activity
    Lincoln University

    View record details
  • Biodiversity and the Hanmer connection - opportunities for multiple win-wins!

    Hughey, K.

    Extension Activity
    Lincoln University

    View record details
  • Water quantity and quality issues in Canterbury water

    Hughey, Kenneth F. D.

    Conference item
    Lincoln University

    Oral presentation slides based on a talk given to the NZIA&HS, Lincoln University, 2014: (Having your cake and eating it too: balancing different land uses and their impacts (Or: Having your river & swimming in it too)). Paper to the ‘Canterbury Water –Are we doing enough?’ public forum; Southern Environment Trust, Hagley Oval Function Lounge, 18th March 2015.

    View record details
  • Effectiveness of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) in addressing development-induced disasters: a comparison of the EIA processes of Sri Lanka and New Zealand

    Hapuarachchi, Arosh Buddika

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    There is an on-going exponential increase in development-induced disasters globally, especially in low and middle-income countries. This upward trend in the occurrence of development-induced disasters challenges sustainable development efforts. It has been generally accepted that instruments such as an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) reduce disaster risks of development projects. The Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA) for disaster risk reduction promotes using EIAs to address the disaster risk of development projects. Over 65 percent of the countries that have met the HFA progress-reporting obligation in the 2009-2011 reporting cycle, state that disaster risks of development projects are addressed by implementing EIA. However, the claims that EIA processes effectively address disaster risks have yet to be demonstrated empirically. It is clear that successful implementation of EIA processes also depends on the level of governance quality existing in a particular country. It is suggested that a well-conceived EIA process should reflect many of the elements of good governance principles including transparency, sufficient information flows, accountability, and stakeholder participation. Quality governance, therefore, is considered as having a direct bearing on why impact assessments in some countries are performing better than others. The influence of governance quality on the effectiveness of EIAs can be addressed by comparing the EIA processes of two or more countries with different levels of governance quality. In this research, the effectiveness of the EIA process in addressing development-induced disasters is evaluated by comparing the EIA processes of Sri Lanka and New Zealand. These two countries have quite different governance quality ratings and, therefore, offer a test of the influence of governance characteristics on EIA processes in addressing disaster risks. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the EIA processes of the above countries, a set of evaluation criteria was identified, mostly from existing literature. Eight criteria were specifically developed for this research. Data for the research were collected from in-depth interviews using a semi-structured questionnaire and focus group discussions with interviewees selected on the basis of their role, knowledge and expertise of the EIA process. Documents from both state and non-state actors relevant to the EIA process were also analyzed. Several recently conducted development projects in each country were used as cases to understand how the legislation is used in practice. It is clear that explicit reference to disaster risk is absent in environmental management policies in both Sri Lanka and New Zealand. Even though the New Zealand EIA process has a higher procedural and contextual effectiveness than Sri Lanka, both countries have lower levels of substantive effectiveness. Neither of the two EIA processes is found to be effective in addressing disaster risk because of inadequate policy integration of disaster risk into the environmental legislation that governs the EIA process. The results suggest more specificity is needed in legislative provisions and suggest a review of standard practice in using EIA to address disaster risk. The findings also imply the need to undertake evaluations of EIA systems elsewhere to assess their effectiveness in addressing development-induced disaster risks.

    View record details
  • Evaluation of parameter uncertainties in nonlinear regression using Microsoft Excel Spreadsheet

    Hu, W.; Xie, J.; Chau, Henry; Si, B. C.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    Background Nonlinear relationships are common in the environmental discipline. Spreadsheet packages such as Microsoft Excel come with an add-on for nonlinear regression, but parameter uncertainty estimates are not yet available. The purpose of this paper is to use Monte Carlo and bootstrap methods to estimate nonlinear parameter uncertainties with a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet. As an example, uncertainties of two parameters (α and n) for a soil water retention curve are estimated. Results The fitted parameters generally do not follow a normal distribution. Except for the upper limit of α using the bootstrap method, the lower and upper limits of α and n obtained by these two methods are slightly greater than those obtained using the SigmaPlot software which linearlizes the nonlinear model. Conclusions Since the linearization method is based on the assumption of normal distribution of parameter values, the Monte Carlo and bootstrap methods may be preferred to the linearization method.

    View record details
  • Landscape as tension: exploring the analytical and generative potential of a focus on tension in the landscape

    Blackburne, Kate

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    Current approaches to landscape analysis and design often respond to inhabitant value through processes of layering and categorisation. These strategies are critiqued as being limited in their ability to represent the intricate and complex character of landscape, as well as for their ‘binary’ nature. This thesis considers a potential realignment of the scope to focus on landscape tension – the emblematic relationships which come as a result of contrasting inhabitant values. A focus on landscape tension is considered in response to one particular cultural and geographic setting; the relationship between Farmers and Walkers on Banks Peninsula. First the analytical potential of a focus on tension is questioned, where rather than mapping inhabitant value, we might analyse the sociocultural landscape based upon its most active components – through a focus on tension. This is revealing of both the spatial landscape itself, its inhabitants and the associated person-to-person relationships. Following this the generative potential of a focus on landscape tension is considered, where landscape is designed as tension rather than in response to it. A critique of these outcomes is given illustrating the value of such an approach in a contested setting.

    View record details
  • Interpreting the terrain for remembrance

    Hoskins, Anikaaro Isabella Ross

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    This thesis is a theoretical exploration of ‘remembrance’ and its production in the interactions between people/s and the landscape. This exploration takes place in the broad context of post earthquake Christchurch with a focus on public spaces along the Ōtākaro – Avon river corridor. Memory is universal to human beings, yet memories are subjective and culturally organized and produced - the relationship between memory and place therefore operates at individual and collective levels. Design responses that facilitate opportunities to create new memories, and also acknowledge the remembered past of human – landscape relationships are critical for social cohesion and wellbeing. I draw on insights from a range of theoretical sources, including critical interpretive methodologies, to validate subjective individual and group responses to memory and place. Such approaches also allowed me, as the researcher, considerable freedom to apply memory theory through film to illustrate ways we can re-member ourselves to our landscapes. The Ōtākaro-Avon river provided the site through and in which film strategies for remembrance are explored. Foregrounding differences in Māori and settler cultural orientations to memory and landscape, has highlighted the need for landscape design to consider remembrance - those cognitive and unseen dimensions that intertwine people and place. I argue it is our task to make space for such diverse relationships, and to ensure these stories and memories, embodied in landscape can be read through generations. I do not prescribe methods or strategies; rather I have sought to encourage thinking and debate and to suggest approaches through which the possibilities for remembrance may be enhanced.

    View record details