146 results for The University of Auckland Library, Brown, Gavin

  • Student self-assessment

    Brown, Gavin; Harris, LR (2013)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Student self-assessment

    Brown, Gavin; Harris, LR (2013-01-01)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Using Multi-group Confirmatory Factor Analysis to Evaluate Cross-Cultural Research

    Brown, Gavin; Harris, LR (2015-02)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Latent Curve Modeling to Understand Achievement Emotions

    Brown, Gavin (2016-02-22)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    Source paper: Peterson, E. R., Brown, G. T. L., & Jun, M. C. (2015). Achievement emotions in higher education: A diary study exploring emotions across an assessment event. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 42, 82-96. doi: 10.1016/j.cedpsych.2015.05.002

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  • Macro and micro-cultural effects on Hong Kong and mainland Chinese university student conceptions of assessment

    Brown, Gavin; Wang, Z (2015)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Investigating Senior Management Views of the Graduate Profile: Are we Assessing these Attributes?

    Grays, M; Brown, Gavin (2015)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Assessment Tools for Teaching and Learning (asTTle)-using simultaneous linear programming to give teachers tests that they want

    Brown, Gavin (2015-04)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Contrasting Teacher's Espoused and Enacted Classroom Assessment: Exploring Hong Kong Chinese Teachers??? Conceptions of Assessment

    Hui, SKF; Brown, Gavin (2010)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    A new survey instrument on Teachers Conceptions of Assessment in Chinese contexts has been developed and validated with confirmatory factor analysis of responses from Hong Kong and South China primary and secondary school teachers. The factor model identifies four main conceptions (i.e., ???irrelevant???, ???accountability???, ???improvement???, and ???examination???) with the latter three being multifaceted. This paper reports an exploratory study designed to explain the purposes and uses for a self-selected sample of classroom assessment tasks of four primary school curriculum leaders in Hong Kong Chinese medium schools. A combination of methods ??? qualitative interviewing and self-scoring of their confidence to the use of these assessment tasks in achieving different conceptions ??? was used. Results indicated although ???improvement??? was often quoted as the reason to why the selected assessment tasks facilitate students??? learning, their thought of having the tasks to meet the functions of ???accountability??? and ???examination??? is still unyielding. The work reported here will contribute to gaining an understanding of the relationship between assessment policy and practice in the Chinese context and how Hong Kong???s ???assessment for learning??? policy is conveyed to the classrooms in such a context.

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  • Level of schooling effects on student conceptions of assessment: The impact of high-stakes assessments on secondary students??? beliefs

    Brown, Gavin; Harris, R (2011)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    Student beliefs about assessment appear to vary according to the level of schooling they are enrolled in, with high school students being more negative about assessment. The Students Conceptions of Assessment version 6 (SCoA-VI) inventory elicits attitudes towards four beliefs (assessment improves teaching and learning; assessment measures external factors; assessment has affective impact/benefit; and assessment is irrelevant). Using multi-group confirmatory factor analysis, SCoA-VI responses of elementary school students (n=100) and high school students (n=134) revealed statistically significant mean score differences. The older students agreed less with improvement, affect/benefit, and external factors conceptions and more with the irrelevance conception. Hence, this study provides further evidence that level of schooling has a significant effect on student conceptions of assessment.

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  • New Zealand and Louisiana Practicing Teachers' Conceptions of Feedback: Impact of Assessment of Learning Versus Assessment for Learning Policies?

    Brown, Gavin; Harris, R; O'Quin, C; Lane, K (2011)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    Teacher beliefs about feedback matter since they are responsible for its implementation in classrooms. This paper compares the conceptions of feedback of practicing teachers from two very different jurisdictions (Louisiana, USA, n=308; New Zealand, n=518). Responses to a common research inventory were modelled independently but multi-group confirmatory factor analysis produced inadmissible solutions for both models. Joint factor analysis produced a five-factor solution, which was inadmissible for the Louisiana teachers. Inter-correlations around feedback as teacher-grading exceeded 1.00 for Louisiana teachers; whereas, New Zealand teachers had correlations close to zero for this factor. While both groups of teachers endorsed the notion of feedback for improved learning, differences appear related to contrasting assessment policy frameworks (i.e., high-stakes in Louisiana, low-stakes in New Zealand).

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  • Teacher's enacted curriculum: understanding teacher beliefs and practices of classroom assessment.

    Brown, Gavin; Harris, L (2010)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    This paper examines the relationship between teacher conceptions of assessment and the curriculum content and cognitive demand of their classroom assessment practices, working from the assumption that what is assessed should reflect the teacher???s understanding of assessment. In this exploratory study, a volunteer sample of New Zealand teachers (n=9) provided 32 selfselected samples of assessments they used in the subject English and indicated their purposes and uses as well as their conceptions of assessment. Each assessment was rated for its content and cognitive demand using the American Surveys of Enacted Curriculum (SEC) project taxonomy. There were no statistically significant relationships between teacher beliefs about assessment and their enacted practices. The study found that in the main, the assessments required low levels of cognitive demand, focusing on memory, recall, explaining, and following procedures rather than analysis and evaluation. Curriculum and cognitive demand in the assessments varied considerably between teachers. This paper suggests that the SEC taxonomy also needs revisions if it is to be used effectively to code teacher-made assessments, especially those underpinned by the principles of Assessment for Learning.

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  • Teachers' conceptions of assessment: Implications for policy and professional development

    Brown, Gavin (2004)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Teachers' conceptions of assessment can be understood in terms of their agreement or disagreement with four purposes to which assessment may be put, specifically, (a) improvement of teaching and learning, (b) school accountability, (c) student accountability, or (d) treating assessment as irrelevant. A 50???item Teachers' Conceptions of Assessment (COA???III) questionnaire was completed by New Zealand primary school teachers and managers (n=525). The COA???III, based on the four main purpose???defined conceptions of assessment, was analysed with structural equation modelling and showed a close fit of the data to a hierarchical, multi???dimensional model (??2=3217.68; df=1162; RMSEA=.058; TLI=.967). On average, participants agreed with the improvement conceptions and the school accountability conception, while rejecting the view that assessment was irrelevant. However, respondents disagreed that assessment was for student accountability. Improvement, school, and student accountability conceptions were positively correlated. The irrelevance conception was inversely related to the improvement conception and not related to the system accountability conception. Surprisingly, no statistically significant differences were found in mean scale scores for each conception regardless of teacher (age, gender, role, assessment training, or assessment practices) or school (size, location, or socio???economic status) variables. Implications for the use of the COA???III for policy implementation and teacher professional development are discussed.

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  • Iranian university students' conceptions of assessment: Using assessment to self-improve

    Brown, Gavin; Pishghadam, R; Shayesteh Sadafian, S (2014)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Assessment practices in higher education focus on evaluating student learning. Institutions are now expected to provide improvement-oriented assessments that help students to improve their work. Student learning outcomes are enhanced if students understand assessment and respond to it in a self-regulating fashion. Beliefs about assessment have been shown to have adaptive and maladaptive relationships to assessment. The 33-item Students??? Conceptions of Assessment (SCoA) Inventory focuses on four different factors (i.e., improvement, affect, irrelevance, and external attributions). This study translated the SCoA Inventory into Farsi and administered it in one Iranian university (N = 760). Confirmatory factor analysis replicated the multidimensional and hierarchical structure of the SCoA Inventory with good fit. Students agreed most with the conceptions that assessment improved learning and teaching, that assessment evaluated schools, and that it was bad for learning. These results appear to reflect a self-regulating response to the high-stakes consequences of examinations and are consistent with the uses of assessment in Iran.

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  • What supervisors expect of education masters students before they engage in supervised research: a Delphi study

    Brown, Gavin (2014)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    What education students need to know and be able to do prior to engaging in independent research is contested. This paper reports a Delphi study of registered supervisors in one faculty of education in a research intensive university in New Zealand. After one round of data collection from supervisors, they rated 212 expectations aggregated into ten themes. Highly valued expectations were in search, speaking, writing and thinking skills as well as self-regulation ability and supervisor characteristics. Forty expectations were identified by three administrators as being highly suited to teaching in a research methods course but the correlation to the value given by supervisors was close to zero. This study illustrates the challenges facing the preparation of students for independent research in the face of methodological diversity.

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  • Students' conceptions of assessment: Links to outcomes.

    Brown, Gavin; Hirschfeld, GHF (2008)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Students conceive of assessment in at least four major ways (i.e., assessment makes students accountable; assessment is irrelevant because it is bad or unfair; assessment improves the quality of learning; and assessment is enjoyable). A study in New Zealand of 3469 secondary school students??? conceptions of assessment used a self???report inventory and scores from a standardised curriculum???based assessment of reading comprehension. Four inter???correlated conceptions based on 11 items were found with good psychometric properties. A path???model linking the four correlated conceptions with student achievement in reading, while taking into account student ethnicity, student sex, and student year, had good psychometric properties. The conception that assessment makes students accountable loaded positively on achievement while the three other conceptions (i.e., assessment makes schools accountable, assessment is enjoyable, and assessment is ignored) had negative loadings on achievement. These findings are consistent with self???regulation and formative assessment theories, such that students who conceive of assessment as a means of taking responsibility for their learning (i.e., assessment makes me accountable) will demonstrate increased educational outcomes.

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  • Learning: Styles or strategies?

    Brown, Gavin (2000)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Postulates the existence of different learning styles, or ways of approaching new material by students, to which teachers can adjust their teaching. Outlines the view that learning strategies are more effective in raising student achievement.

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  • Unintended Consequences of using Tests to Improve Learning: How Improvement-Oriented Resources

    Brown, Gavin; Harris, L (2009)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Over the past decade, the New Zealand government has created a set of resources to support teachers??? use of assessment for learning. These include Assessment Tools for Teaching and Learning (asTTle), a software program enabling teachers to create personalized but standardized tests for diagnostic purposes, and Assess to Learn (AtoL), an intensive professional development program. These resources were expected to increase teacher agreement that improvement is the major purpose of assessment. Instead, a 2008 sample of teachers completing the Teacher Conceptions of Assessment questionnaire showed significantly higher agreement that assessment is about school accountability than participants in previous national surveys. Unlike previous surveys, the correlation between school accountability and improvement conceptions was not statistically significant. However, as only the improvement conception predicted the practices teachers used to define assessment (?? = .32), it appears that these teachers still saw many of the practices they used in the classroom (e.g. oral and interactive assessments) as improvement-oriented. Interviews with twenty-six of the surveyed teachers identified that while a few saw the new resources as contributing to improvement and accountability purposes, a larger group failed to make that connection. This second group seemed to be unable to accept that tests, an assessment genre traditionally associated with school and student accountability, could be meaningfully used for improvement at the classroom level. These data show that schools and individuals mediate the implementation of any policy initiative and can therefore cause it to have a range of often unintended consequences. In light of this, the thinking of teachers and other educational stakeholders should be taken into account when enacting policy changes.

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  • Tensions between knowledge transmission and student-focused teaching approaches to assessment purposes: Helping students improve through transmission

    Chen, J; Brown, Gavin (2016)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    This study surveyed 1064 Chinese school teachers??? approaches to teaching and conceptions of assessment, and examined their inter-relationship using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling. Three approaches to teaching (i.e. Knowledge Transmission, Student-Focused, and Examination Preparation) and six conceptions of assessment (i.e. Student Development, Teaching Improvement, Examination, Control, School Accountability, and Irrelevance) were identified. Teachers indicated they used Student-Focused most frequently and this positively predicted the assessment purposes of Student Development and Teaching Improvement, while loading negatively on Control, School Accountability, and Irrelevance. The Knowledge Transmission teaching approach, in contrast, positively predicted the assessment purposes of Examination, School Accountability, Control, Student Development, and Teaching Improvement. Thus, despite a predominantly student-focused approach to teaching, knowledge transmission was seen as a teaching approach that contributed positively to student learning. Possible explanations for this anomalous result are discussed.

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  • The future of self-assessment in classroom practice: Reframing self-assessment as a core competency

    Brown, Gavin; Harris, LR (2014)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Formative assessment policies argue that student self-assessment of work products and processes is useful for raising academic performance. This view draws on self-regulation of learning theories about setting targets and evaluating progress against criteria as a basis for meta-cognitively informed improvement of learning outcomes. However, the reliability of assessment is necessary for the validity of assessment interpretations. Research into psychological processes underlying the human ability to self-evaluate work raises serious doubts about the quality of students??? judgments. It has been shown that novices (i.e., students) tend to lack sufficient knowledge by which to evaluate their own work appropriately and, when possessing that knowledge, they are likely not to make use of it. Additionally, psychological safety factors indicate that self-assessment can be compromised by interpersonal relations present in classroom environments. Furthermore, since progress in many educational domains is relatively ill-defined, it is difficult for learners, let alone instructors, to validly evaluate progress or status. A recent review of studies in elementary and secondary schooling (K-12) found that the correlation between self-ratings and teacher ratings, between self-estimates of performance and actual test scores, and between student and teacher rubric-based judgments tended to be positive, ranging from weak to moderate (i.e., values ranging from r ??? .20 to .80), with few studies reporting correlations r > .60. However, these values were not consistent across student experience and academic proficiency, with much less accuracy seen with younger and less proficient students. This paper argues that, instead of treating student self-assessment as an assessment method, a more pedagogical approach is needed that treats self-assessment as an important student competence or skill. As such self-evaluation needs a developmentally appropriate curriculum that is developed incrementally over time through consistent, scaffolded training and practice. Hence, to improve student skills in self-assessment, research must examine how the underlying skills required for self-assessment map onto student cognitive capabilities and the task characteristics of the work students are likely to encounter as they progress through schooling. This progression (like those developed for other key competencies like literacy, numeracy, and critical thinking) would help teachers consistently implement developmentally appropriate versions of self-assessment, giving students opportunities to develop these life-long skills.

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  • Assessing instructional leadership: A longitudinal study of new principals

    Brown, Gavin; Chai, C (2012)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Purpose ??? The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Self Assessment of Leadership of Teaching and Learning (SALTAL) inventory, in conditions of repeated administration. Design/methodology/approach ??? In 2006 and 2007, nearly all of New Zealand's newly-appointed school principals participated in an 18 month induction program (First Time Principals). The SALTAL self-report was administered in three waves (i.e. before FTP, after two residential courses, and at the end of the FTP) to two cohorts. This voluntary survey was completed all three times by 55 per cent (n=86) and 44 per cent (n=85) of 2006 and 2007 participants respectively. Multi-group confirmatory factor analysis evaluated the stability of the SALTAL factor structure for each of the six administrations. Longitudinal curve modeling evaluated the linear effect of time on SALTAL responses. Findings ??? Responses to SALTAL were found to be statistically equivalent across all six administrations. The longitudinal model was statistically invariant between cohorts. Initial scores were inversely correlated with changes over time. Increased time had a significant effect on SALTAL scores. Originality/value ??? The paper shows that the SALTAL has demonstrable stability in eliciting response in repeated administration and is useful for studying the impact of leadership development programs.

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