209 results for The University of Auckland Library, 1970

  • The Kopon: life and death on the fringes of the New Guinea Highlands

    Jackson, Graham (1975)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    This thesis describes the Kopon of the lower Kaironk Valley, between the Bismarck and Schrader Ranges in Papua New Guinea. I compare the lower Kopon in certain respects with the upper Kopon, living further up the Kaironk Valley, and with the Kalam, living further up still. There are predominantly ethnographic chapters on the economy; groups; kinship; marriage, vital statistics, and migration; social control; supernaturalism; ritual; and taboo. The penultimate chapter discusses ritual, supernaturalism, and taboo, concentrating heavily on the latter, and the final chapter interrelates important aspects of material covered in the body of the thesis. The Kopon garden for the bulk of their food, but hunting and gathering contribute essential protein to the diet. The pig and the dog are domesticated. Settlement is dispersed, with houses handy to garden sites. Households are the largest moderately stable groups, but show some overlapping, and a degree of flux greater than would result from the demands of life cycle changes alone. Gardening groups, which range in size up to the equivalent of three or four households, show a high degree of overlapping and flux. The lower Kopon have a lower population density and a lower incidence of homicide than the upper Kopon or the Kalam, and there is a considerable down valley migration from upper to lower Kopon. Social control is on the basis of equivalence, self interest, and self help, and the only specialist role is that of curer. A higher mortality rate and richer natural resources in the lower than the upper Kaironk Valley plausibly explain much of the above. The high mortality keeps the population density relatively low, and encourages flux and overlapping of groups, both to guard against isolation should death occur, and to adjust to death when it does occur. This militates against the relatively clear-cut boundaries and undivided allegiance which would be to some extent necessary conditions for the existence of larger corporate groups. Superimposed on local flux in the lower Kopon is the down valley migration from the upper Kopon. This is a movement to an area of lower population density, richer resources, and attributable to these, lower rates of killing. Moving down valley to die may be a feature of populations on the fringes of the Highlands. Riebe (1974) has independently related the frequency of Kalam killings to population growth, these having increased in parallel from the mid-19th to the mid-20th century. In the relative absence of other indices of discrimination, the use of taboo as a marker has been developed to a high degree. Beliefs in the supernatural account for the processes of life, growth, healing, illness, and death, and the choice of a supernatural to which to attribute a natural death justifies either repaying the death with a killing, or letting it pass.

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  • Origin of oscillatory convection in a porous medium heated from below

    Horne, R.N.; O'Sullivan, M.J. (1978)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    An open access copy of this article is available and complies with the copyright holder/publisher conditions. In order to investigate the significance of cyclic interaction in the evolution of fluctuating convective flow in a rectangular cell of porous material, the behavior of confined and unconfined flows are compared. In the latter case the constant pressure boundary condition at the top surface does not force the fluid to recirculate around the cell. However, regular oscillatory flow similar to that which occurs in an enclosed cell is still observed. This indicates that the oscillatory flow arises from the instability of the thermal boundary layer on the heated bottom surface. In both cases the frequency of the oscillatory flow is proportional to the Rayleigh number to the power of 3/2.

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  • Unequal mass spinor-spinor Bethe-Salpeter equation

    Brennan, B.J. (1974)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    An open access copy of this article is available and complies with the copyright holder/publisher conditions. Coupled radial equations are derived for the ladder approximation Bethe-Salpeter equation describing a system of two spin-(1/2) particles of unequal masses interacting to form a bound state of total mass zero. The numerical behavior of the coupling parameter ? as a function of the mass ratio is examined for known analytical equal-mass solutions. In addition a perturbation method is employed to investigate the behavior of ? for small values of the exchange mass. Copyright

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  • Studies on the projections of the superior cerebellar peduncle and the rubrothalamic and nigrothalamic projections in the rat, and their relevance to the homologies of the anterior parts of the ventral nucleus of the thalamus in the mammalian brain

    Faull, Richard Lewis Maxwell (1975)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Since there has been no detailed study of the projections of the superior cerebellar peduncle (S.C.P.) with the most recently developed silver impregnation technique - the Fink-Heimer method - such a study has been carried out in the albino rat following complete unilateral destruction of the S.C.P. In order to assist with the interpretation of the thalamic terminations of the S.C.P., studies have also been made of the thalamic projections of the red nucleus and substantia nigra. The results are based on experiments in 56 animals: 22 for the investigation of the Projections of the S.C.P., 12 for the investigation of the rubrothalamic projections, and 22 for the investigation of the nigrothalamic projections. Oblique electrode approaches were devised which enabled the placement of discrete peduncular, rubral or nigral lesions with only the minimum of incidental damage to the surrounding Structures. The rubrothalamic projections were studied by the method of successive degeneration. The animals were generally killed after a survival period of 5 to 7 days and the axon degeneration was demonstrated with the Fink-Heimer silver impregnation technique. To analyse and record the experimental results, the patterns of degeneration were identified with the light microscope and meticulously plotted on diagrams of the brain using a projection system. To gain the fullest possible picture of the fibre projections, experimental material was analysed in coronal, sagittal and horizontal planes. The principal results of this investigation in the rat are as follows: (i) The confirmation of Ramon y Cajal’s (1903) original description that the fibres in the S.C.P. project caudally via ipsilateral and contralateral descending pathways to the pons and medulla and rostrally via a contralateral ascending pathway to the midbrain and diencephalon. (ii) The demonstration: (a) that the ipsilateral descending pathway terminates in the parvocellular reticular formation of the pons and medulla; (b) that the contralateral descending pathway terminates topically in the nucleus reticularis tegmenti pontis, the pontine nuclei and the inferior olive, and also in the magnocellular nuclei of the reticular formation and the nucleus reticularis paramedianus;(c) that the contralateral ascending pathway terminates mainly in the red nucleus in the midbrain and throughout the Vm-V1 complex of the thalamus, and also in various other midbrain, subthalamic and thalamic nuclei. (iii) The demonstration: (a) that the cells of the red nucleus project to the Vm-Vl complex; (b) that the substantia nigra projects by a dorsal tegmental route to Vm and to adjacent parts of the V1 complex in the thalamus, and that the pars compacta of the substantia nigra projects to the striatum. (iv) The identification of the Vm-V1 complex as the homologue in the rat thalamus of the nuclei ventralis lateralis et anterior thalami of the higher primates on the basis of the distribution of cerebellar, rubral and nigral afferents to these nuclei.

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  • Synthetic studies in reduction and rearrangement

    Rewcastle, Gordon William (1978)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    PART ONE SYNTHESIS AND ACID-CATALYSED REARRANGEMENT OF CYCLOPROPANE-1,2-DIOLS A number of cyclopropane-1,2-diyl diacetates have been synthesized by the anhydrous Clemmensen reduction [Zn(Hg)-HCl-organic solvent] of β-diketones and β-ketoaldehydes, and this reaction was found to be a general one for those substrates that did not exist mainly in the enol form. Cyclopropanediol formation does occur with some highly enolized compounds under aqueous conditions but, with the anhydrous system, enol acetate formation or enolic reduction was found to compete with reduction of the diketo form. Acid-catalysed rearrangement of the free diols generally gave α-hydroxy-ketones, or their corresponding αβ-unsaturated enones, with β-hydroxy-ketone formation only being observed with one substrate. A strong preference for methyl ketone formation was observed in all cases and this phenomenon was rationalized by consideration of the apparent relative thermodynamic stabilities of the α-ketol conjugate acids. PART TWO AROMATIZATION OF 2α-HYDROXY[4-13C]CHOLEST-4-EN-3-ONE The aromatization of 2α-hydroxy[4-13C]cholest-4-en-3-one has been found to occur with migration of the labelled carbon to C-10, thereby lending support to previous mechanistic proposals. The aromatization of [4-13C]cholesta-1,4-dien-3-one similarly gave a product with the label at C-10, in agreement with earlier work involving carbon-14 labelling studies. The ease with which these rearrangements could be studied is in marked contrast to earlier work, and the combination of carbon-13 labelling and 13C n.m.r. spectroscopy offers many advantages over the degradative techniques required with carbon-14 labelling. PART THREE CLEMMENSEN REDUCTION OF (5R)-5-HYDROXYHEXAN-2-ONE Previous work in this department suggested that the Clemmensen reduction of γ-substituted ketones involved an intramolecular displacement of the γ-substituent by the carbonyl oxygen atom. However, the reduction of (5R)-5-hydroxyhexan-2-one had given a mixture of hexan-2-ol and cis- and trans-hex-4-en-2-ol, with no inversion of stereochemistry occurring with the saturated isomer. The opposite signs of rotation for the two geometrically isomeric alkenols suggested the possibility of different chiralities, but this was disproved when the 2R-configuration was determined for each alcohol by analysis of the 1H n.m.r. spectra of the esters with (-)-(S)-α-methoxy-α-trifluoromethyl-phenylacetic acid. This result thus invalidates the earlier hypothesis.

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  • Exploitation of geothermal reservoirs

    Krol, Dexter E. (1979)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    This work presents a numerical model for simulating the response of a geothermal reservoir to exploitation. The techniques developed are more efficient and in many ways superior to those of previous investigators. The model is capable of yielding a description of transient mass and heat flow in either a one- or two-dimensional reservoir defined by Cartesian or cylindrical coordinates. The techniques enable simulation of a geothermal flow in all three thermodynamic states – compressed water, two-phase and superheated steam regions – and transitions between these states. The model is able to simulate a geothermal system where the presence of carbon dioxide as a second component influences exploitation response. Results are presented for a range of reservoir states. The effects of different physical parameters are considered. The usefulness of the model for looking at real systems is demonstrated by simulating the development of Wairakei and Broadlands geothermal areas in New Zealand.

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  • Perfumes related to ambergris. (1970)

    Joblin, Keith Noel (1970)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    2-Oxonanoyl oxide (27) has been converted to the 2-hydroxy ether (65) and the 2-oxo ether (66) both of which Possess ambergris-type odours similar to that of the odiferous compound (1). The route which affords the highest yield is via the intermediates (64), (75), (43) and (36), and this gives 23% of the 2-oxo ether (66) and 17% of the hydroxy ether (65) from 2-oxomanoyl oxide. A two-step transformation of manoyl oxide (26) into the Perfume (1) has been achieved by oxidising manoyl oxide with chromium trioxide in acetic acid, and then reducing the resulting lactone (55) directly to its cyclic ether (1). Attempts were made to synthesise new ambergris-type perfumes, and successful preparation of the internal ketal (108) showed that contrary to expectations this ketal is odourless. Comparison of the mass spectra of the lactones (54), (55), (56), and (145), with those of their c8 epimers (57), (58), (59), and (146) respectively, showed that the trans-fused lactones lose carbon dioxide upon electron-impact while the cis-fused isomers do not.

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  • A finite element for the elastic stability analysis of frameworks.

    Davidson, B. J. (1976)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    The elastic and geometric stiffness matrices are developed from 1st principles for a beam-column element which is to be used in the linear elastic stability analysis of frameworks. The element formulation is extensively tested against classical and experimental results for beams, columns, and frames. A practical application of the element is demonstrated by using it to investigate the lateral stability of a number of rigid jointed trusses. The bracing requirements of these trusses are compared with the requirements of the bracing to pinned columns, which are the same size as the compression chord of the trusses, and have either a constant or stepwise parabolic distribution of axial load. It is found for most bracing cases, that the critical load and the bracing requirements for a truss, can be closely estimated from an analysis of a column with a "parabolic" axial load distribution.

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  • Trade unions and the common law in New Zealand

    Harrison, Rodney (1973)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    The purpose of this thesis is to examine and evaluate the present common law relating to trade unions in New Zealand. It is proposed that this examination and evaluation should not be limited to the “black-letter” law, but should take place in the wider social context of how trade union affairs, and industrial relations, are in fact conducted in this country. Where the common law is weighed in this balance and found wanting, it is intended that the possibility of statutory reform be considered.

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  • Technological law : societal control of technology and the potential of the world standards movement

    Hitchcock, Edward (1978)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Over the last three centuries the rapidly increasing influence of technology has come to dominate every aspect of human life. Progressive realization of adverse effects has led to increasing demand for and imposition of control measures. The concept of common law embodied in legal tradition have been found inadequate, and forced a change to "enacted law". The regulatory explosion necessitated delegation from legislative to executive agencies.The resulting techniques of control developed in the United Kingdom, New Zealand, Australia, Canada and the United States are examined. One common factor stands out, the extensive dependence of law-making bodies on independent technical specification material from non-government sources, and the confused, conflicting, and inconsistent methods of utilizing those specifications in law-making. Most of this independent material comes from Standards bodies. Their basic concept, the establishing of acceptable practice by prior agreement, is outlined, and the growth of the movement traced from the original development in Britain to a World-wide movement. Their processes of consultation and consensus represent a practical democratic system of self regulation. Studies of these aspects are rare, but a number of those relevant are reviewed, ranging from the Robens committee in Britain, through Building Code Reform in New Zealand, to a whole series of very recent reports from the United States, including a Presidential Task Force, an attempt to establish a National Standards Policy, a Federally commissioned study by a Professor of Law, and a Presidential Executive Order.From these emerge the pattern of complaint: Regulatory control is excessive, rigid, and liable to cause economic waste. It tends to be ineffective, and fails to achieve primary aims. As technology development exposes society to greater risks, efficiency becomes more vital, and failure to achieve control a serious danger. Problems arise from the failure of traditional legal approaches to adapt to the newer challenge of technology, particularly the legal acceptance of law "as it is" without recognition that the task calls for developing the law-making process to meet the needs of the changed situation. It is contended that many of the problems in regulatory control of technology come from the practice of making technical specification material direct legal command. The various reports reviewed comment on the limitations inherent in negative legislative control, the irrelevance of litigation, Court action and punishment, to the fundamental problem of achieving successful control. There is need for the encouragement of self regulation, and establishment of appropriate links with law.The special characteristics and responsibilities of law controlling technology are brought out, and call for identification as a separate branch of law: "Technological Law". Such law, it is contended, needs to make optimum usage of (a) the factors that have contributed to the dominance of technology, including the scientific approach, and the practice of prior agreement and (b) the essential components of democratic society, including participation, consensus, decentralized control, and self regulation associated with a formal method of determining acceptability.Practical proposals are developed involving the recognition of the practice of legislating by reference to independent technical specifications the encouragement of self-regulation processes through statutory backing, and their linking by recognition of the dyad in law, a separation of fundamental aims and principles appropriate to law from the means of meeting these aims.There is detailed examination of the three themes of reform. Techniques of the reference process, the legal objections, and the range of practices are examined, and acceptable technique suggested. The significance and importance of self-regulation is examined, and the contribution of "Standards" developed. A detailed examination is made of the various examples of two part law found in legislation, or in the studies reviewed. The framing of law in terms of general requirements is considered in relation to the problem of certainty and the idealization of the performance concept. The prerogative of the law-maker to designate certain practices as complying with general requirements is established as fundamental. The objection that this is a function of interpretation which lies exclusively with the Courts is discussed and the principle advanced that the vital Court function should never be called into the routine observance area.Technological law has as its essential aim the achievement of observance. Punishment, and court action is indication of failure. The emphasis must be on understanding and facilitating compliance. The second part of the dyad calls for sets of interrelated, interdependent specifications of acceptable practice, serving equally differing specialized laws, technical practices, commercial practices and education, and clarifying in positive fashion that which complies with law. The existing, established mechanisms of the world Standards movement are seen as providing the sets of technical specifications to fulfill this second function. This industry-developed process of self regulation utilises the techniques of prior agreement and in practical form, the elusive concept of consensus.Studies have emphasised the superior ability of the system to call in technical resources and voluntary effort to the service of law-making, in comparison with the resources of a governmental agency. The desirable aim is partnership, and the utilization of substantial measures of voluntary compliance.The question of recognition and authority for Standards and their producing organizations is seen as essential, and criteria are developed from the examples reviewed, notably from the pioneer New Zealand Act of 1941.The study emphasizes the little recognised function of Standards organizations of identifying acceptable practice, providing what has become an essential component of the machinery of government of a modern state.The mechanism provides a basis of certainty for commercial operations, and, through the strength of consumer or purchaser choice, an effective method of control as an alternative to yet more complex regulatory activity.

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  • Studies on Cell Membrane Ultrastructure, and the use of the Freeze-Fracturing Technique in Electron Microscopy

    Chalcroft, James Paul (1971)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Whole document restricted, but available by request, use the feedback form to request access. 1) The Ultrastructural appearance of frozen-fractured mouse liver cell membranes, and consistent variations in the distribution of membrane-associated particles caused by various pretreatments as described by previous investigators, were confirmed in this study. 2) Freeze fracturing, was evaluated as a method for studying the ultrastructure of single celled microorganisms. Large prokaryotes with previously undescribed morphologies were investigated using freeze fracturing, thin sectioning, and negative staining techniques. 3) Structures thought to represent flagellar attachment sites were demonstrated in frozen fractured bacterial preparations for the first time. 4) A previously undescribed level of cell organization was discovered in a rumen organism classified morphologically as Selenomonas. 5) A technique was devised to retrieve replicas from both sides of the fracture of a single frozen-fractured specimen. The results obtained by its use support the theory that frozen cell membranes fracture along some interior plane rather than at the membrane-cytoplasm boundary. The technique also showed that the particles seen on frozen fractured membranes lie within the thickness of the membrane. 6) For determination of the third dimension in freeze fracture replicas, i.e. the heights of various features, an alternative method to stereoscopy was devised. This method, which can be made semiautomatic in execution, involves microdensitometry of electron micrograph negatives and certain mathematical manipulation of the optical density data.

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  • An Investigation of Intracellular Isosmotic Regulation in the Mollusc Melanopsis Trifasciata (Gray 1843.)

    Bedford, Jennifer June. (1970)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    An estuarine mollusc Melanopsus trifasciata was studied with respect to its osmoregulatory capacity. Analysis of the environment, body fluids, and cell constituents was carried out and the results indicated that Melanopsus was able to regulate its cellular amino compounds in response to salinity changes. However it is isosmotic and more or loss isotonic with the environment as far as the haemocoelic fluid is concerned. An attempt was made to find out how or why this response of the cells to changing external osmotic pressure comes about. Various techniques were used: puromycin to block protein synthesis, labelled amino acids, time experiments, enzyme assays, and so on. Finally in the light of present day work the results were interpreted and a system of control put forward for Melanopsis which was later extended in general terms to all euryhaline poikilosmotic invertebrates.

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  • DNA and RNA synthesis in leaves during TYMV replication

    Bedbrook, John Robert Martin (1974)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    1. Small scale HAP column chromatography has been developed as a rapid and reproducible method for the isolation of TYMV-specific DS-RNA. 2. A procedure for the isolation of an outer chloroplast membrane fraction from healthy and diseased Chinese cabbage has been developed. This membrane system from diseased chloroplasts has been shown to contain most of the TYMV-specific DS-RNA. It is capable of incorporating 3H-UTP into DS-RNA in vitro. 3. In vivo and in vitro labelling studies, in conjunction with HAP column chromatography, have established the existence of DS-RNA in the nuclei fraction of diseased cells. No DS-RNA (as measured by chromatographic behaviour on HAP) has been found in any fraction of healthy Chinese cabbage leaf tissue. 4. The rate of total and nuclear DS-RNA synthesis is maximal before virus particles are detected. 5. The asymmetry of synthesis of viral-specific DS-RNA has been followed during the development of infection in a systemically infected leaf. Minus strand synthesis was predominant before virus particles were detected and late in the infection when virus synthesis was virtually complete. Plus strand synthesis was the predominant reaction during the period of rapid virus production. 6. DNA from the nuclei plus chloroplast fraction of healthy Chinese cabbage leaf has been fractionated into two components by HAP column chromatography: Component A-DNA which represents the bulk DNA of the cell, and component B-DNA, a minor component. 7. In healthy tissue component B-DNA appears to be metabolically distinct from component A-DNA. This distinction has been established by differential labelling rates of the two components. 8. Physical and biochemical studies indicate that component B-DNA consists of two species: (i) SS-DNA and (ii) DNA-RNA hybrid. 9. The labelling rate of component A-DNA is unchanged by TYMV synthesis. The apparent labelling rate of the two species of component B-DNA is increased by virus synthesis. 10. Detergent-solubilized nuclei plus chloroplasts from Chinese cabbage contain RNase-sensitive, actinomycin D-insensitive DNA synthesis activity. This activity is increased by TYMV infection.

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  • Ovine placental lactogen: purification and properties

    Reddy, Shivanand (1979)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    A procedure was developed to purify ovine placental lactogen (oPL) from fetal cotyledonary tissue of late gestation. A prolactin radioreceptor assay using mammary tissue membranes from the late pregnant rabbit was established and used to monitor lactogenic activity throughout the purification.

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  • Variables affecting choice behaviour: choice behaviour and deprivation

    Temple, William (1973)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Pigeons were studied in concurrent chain schedules in which the terminal links were variable-interval (aperiodic) and fixed-interval (periodic) schedules. Choice was studied at various maintained percentages of body weight, (Experiment 1) and after various amounts of food had been pre-fed (Experiment 2). No effects on choice of the level of deprivation were found except in those choice conditions in which both terminal-link schedules were variable-interval schedules. Choice behaviour was further studied with equal, but increased magazine durations (Experiment 3) and no reliable effects were found. Explicit discrimination training established control over choice behaviour by the amounts pre-fed (Experiment 4) and generalisation gradiets of choice showed that this control was reliable. The differences found between aperiodic and periodic schedules were probably related to the different patterns of behaviour maintained by these schedules and an attempt was made to relate the results to overall models of behaviour and the 'value' of food.

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  • Effects of serial correlation on linear models

    Triggs, Christopher M. (1975)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Given a linear regression model y = Xβ + e, where e has a multivariate normal distribution N(0, Σ) consequences of the erroneous assumption that e is distributed as N(0, I) are considered. For a general linear hypothesis concerning the parameters β, in a general model the distribution of the statistic to test the hypothesis, derived under the erroneous assumption is studied. Particular linear hypotheses concerning particular linear models are investigated so as to describe the effects of various patterns of serial correlation on the test statistics arising from these hypotheses. Attention is specially paid to the models of one- and two- way analysis of variance.

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  • Studies on the endocrinology of parturition in the guinea-pig

    Kendall, June Zeta (1977)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Design and evaluation of projects with variable labour response: case study of agricultural aid on Atiu

    Bollard, Alan (1977)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    This thesis analyses producer response to technical change using agricultural aid projects on Atiu, Cook Islands, as an example. Part One is a case study of the island, its economic activities, social organisation and cultural attitudes. Part Two presents a theoretical model of grower response to new technical opportunities, looking at the implications of new risky decision over time in a particular community; it also considers the role of the community and the administration in encouraging change. Part three concludes with policy implications of designing, administering and evaluating aid projects with variable labour response.

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  • Structural Studies of Prostratin and of Oxalate Bridging

    McCormick, Ross (1970)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    This thesis is presented in three parts. The first is concerned with the solution and attempted refinement of the structure of prostratin, a toxic anti-tumour chemical extracted from the New Zealand tree pimelia prostrata. The second is concerned with the analysis of the structures of three inorganic compounds of current interest. These are; 1. bisethylenediaminenickel(II) hemioxalate nitrate 2. dipropylenetriaminezinc(II) hemioxalate perchlorate 3. diethylenetriaminecopper(II) hemioxalate perchlorate. The last section deals with the theory and programming of five of the more important computer programs developed during the course of the work.

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  • The mechanical properties of glassy poly (methyl methacrylate)

    Meikle, John Boyd, 1940- (1970)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    The mechanical properties of glassy poly (methyl methacrylate) have been examined by means of constant strain-rate tests at differing strain-rates and temperatures. Both fast-cooled and slow-cooled samples have been examined in order to determine the effect the rate of cooling has upon the mechanical properties. The ß and α’ relaxations were revealed in the experimental results. The difference in mechanical properties of fast- and slow-cooled samples could not be satisfactorily explained by the theory of Rusch.

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