1,431 results for The University of Auckland Library, 1990

  • Suffrage and beyond: international feminist perspectives

    (1994)

    Book
    The University of Auckland Library

    View record details
  • Guns and gold : as a result of reforms, New Zealand's Chief of Defence Force has a range of powers enjoyed by no other military chief in the West

    Smith, A (1999)

    Book
    The University of Auckland Library

    View record details
  • The Gendered Kiwi

    (1999)

    Book
    The University of Auckland Library

    The Gendered Kiwi, a collection of essays, analyses the ways Pākehā masculinity and femininity – gender relations – have changed over time. It brings together previously unpublished essays on topics as diverse as 1930s fashion and feminist men in the 1970s. Scholars such as Charlotte Macdonald re-open the debate about whether colonial New Zealand was really a man’s country, while Jock Philips asks new questions about late-twentieth-century leisure. Other writers canvass the stresses of depression-era masculinity, men’s and women’s different use of public space, office politics and power dressing. Gender relations and the family are a theme in several essays, including those about the colonial family, nineteenth-century criminal trials and World War II. The Gendered Kiwi builds on existing work in men’s and women’s history and points to new ways to analyse New Zealand’s past.

    View record details
  • Planning for life : Public Trust, once the conservative guardian of wills and estates, is now giving lawyers and financial planners a run for their money

    Smith, A (1999)

    Book
    The University of Auckland Library

    View record details
  • Discrete Fourier Transforms of Fractional Processes August

    Phillips, Peter (1999)

    Working or discussion paper
    The University of Auckland Library

    Discrete Fourier transforms (dft's) of fractional processes are studied and a exact representation of the dft is given in terms of the component data. The new representation gives the frequency domain form of the model for a fractional process, and is particularly useful in analyzing the asymptotic behavior of the dft and periodogram in the nonstationary case when the memory parameter d > 1/2. Various asymptotic approximations are suggested. It is shown that smoothed periodogram spectral estimates remain consistent for frequencies away from the origin in the nonstationary case provided the memory parameter d < 1. When d = 1, the spectral estimates are inconsistent and converge weakly to random variates. Applications of the theory to log periodogram regression and local Whittle estimation of the memory parameter are discussed and some modified versions of these procedures are suggested.

    View record details
  • Industry Premium: What we Know and What The New Zealand Data Say

    Bandyopadhyay, Debasis (1999)

    Working or discussion paper
    The University of Auckland Library

    This paper critically reviews conventional explanations of why the individual income reflects an industry premium. It presents four facts about industry premiums in New Zealand to highlight the limitation of those explanations. In particular, it suggests that competitive theories that refer to unobservable characteristics or compensating wage differentials are too broad and non-competitive theories that rely on the efficiency wage hypothesis are too narrow to successfully explain what the New Zealand data reveal. Employees receive industry premium, but so do the self-employed, and do so more than the employees if uneducated; but the premium difference falls as the education level rises.

    View record details
  • Public Disclosure of Patent Applications, R&D, and Welfare

    Aoki, Reiko; Spiegel, Yossi (1998)

    Working or discussion paper
    The University of Auckland Library

    In Europe and in Japan, patent applications are publicly disclosed after 18 month from the filing date regardless of whether a patent has been or will be registered. In the U.S. in contrast, patent applications are publicly disclosed only when a patent is granted. In this paper we examine the consequences of this difference for (i) firm's R&D and patenting behavior, (ii) consumers' surplus and social welfare, and (iii) the incentives of firms to innovate, in a setting where patent protection is imperfect in the sense that patent applications may be rejected and patents are not always upheld in court. The main conclusions are that public disclosure leads to fewer patent applications and fewer innovations, but for a given number of innovations, it raises the probability that new technologies will reach the product market and thereby enhances consumers' surplus and possibly total welfare as well .

    View record details
  • Distribution of Human Capital and Economic Growth

    Bandyopadhyay, Debasis (1997)

    Working or discussion paper
    The University of Auckland Library

    This paper provides an empirically tractable model of economic growth where the distribution of human capital is central to understanding the key issues. Long run growth is possible only if the distribution of human capital belongs to a known class such that investment in education, the model's engine of growth, exceeds inter-generational depreciation of human capital. The model contributes to understanding of the puzzle of growth disparities among countries by exhibiting multiple steady states under alternative paradigms of growth. It provides a purely neoclassical model to explain why a lower income inequality may correspond to a higher rate of growth.

    View record details
  • Architecture of a clonal population of Muehlenbeckia astonii Petrie (Polygonaceae), a divaricating shrub endemic to New Zealand

    Lovell, P.H.; Uka, D.; White, J.B. (1991)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Muehlenbeckia astonii produces both orthotropic and plagiotropic shoots but after a while the orthotropic shoots revert to a plagiotropic form.

    View record details
  • Chromosome numbers in the rare endemic Pennantia baylisiana (W.R.B. Oliv.) G.T.S. Baylis (Icacinaceae) and related species

    Murray, B.G.; De, Lange, P.J. (1995)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    An open access copy of this article is available from the publishers website. Chromosome numbers of 2n = 50 have been determined from clones of the single wild plant of Pennantia baylisiana as well as of a seedling from this plant. In addition the same number was determined for P. corymbosa and the hybrids P. baylisiana x P. endlicheri and P. baylisiana x P. corymbosa.

    View record details
  • The relationship between seed rain and the soil seed bank in a temperate rainforest stand near Auckland, New Zealand

    Sem, G.; Enright, N.J. (1996)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    An open access copy of this article is available from the publishers website. Composition of the germinable seed rain and the soil seed bank is documented for five sites in temperate rainforest near Auckland, New Zealand, in an effort to understand the dynamics of the soil seed bank. The seed rain added a mean of 202 +/- 93 germinable seeds per 0.1 m2 over 15 months to the forest floor in 1988 and a total of 40 species (range 15-25 per site). The source of seeds included both native forest species growing on-site, and adventive species of which most were growing off-site. Species richness of the seed rain was highest in summer (32 species) and lowest in winter (6 species). However, density of the recorded seed rain was highest in late autumn-early winter from high seed rain and massive germination in May and June of seeds from the native tree, Kunzea ericoides, at two sites in the early stages of forest regrowth. Seed germination from soil samples which had been denied seed inputs for 15 mo identified the density (52 +/- 41/0.1m2) and composition (18 species, range 2-9) of the `persistent' component of the seed bank (i.e., seed longevity >1 y). Native woody species were poorly represented in the persistent seed bank relative to native herbs and adventives. An estimated 10% of the annual seed rain enters the persistent soil seed bank. The presence, and dynamics of turnover for most species in the persistent seed bank can be explained as a balance between additions of new individuals and loss of old individuals over one to a few years. At the same time, the combination of high persistent seed bank densities and low seed rain inputs for a few adventive species (e.g., Phytolacca octandra, Juncus bufonius) indicates that seed of these species may derive from individuals which grew at or near the site at some time in the past.

    View record details
  • New records of Ramalina (lichenised Ascomycotina, Ramalinaceae) from Niue Island, south-west Pacific

    Blanchon, D.J.; Easton, L.M.; Braggins, J.E. (1996)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    An open access copy of this article is available from the publishers website. Ramalina nervulosa var. luciae and R. celastri subsp. celastri are reported for the first time from Niue.

    View record details
  • New reports of chromosome numbers in Actinidia (Actinidiaceae)

    Yan, G.; Yao, J.; Ferguson, A.R.; Mcneilage, M.A.; Seal, A.G.; Murray, B.G. (1997)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    An open access copy of this article is available from the publishers website. Chromosome numbers are reported for the first time for seven taxa of Actinidia: A. arguta var. purpurea, 2n = 8x = c. 232; A. deliciosa var. chlorocarpa, 2n = 6x = 174; A. deliciosa var. coloris, 2n = 6x = 174; A. glaucophylla, 2n = 2x = 58; A. guilinensis, 2n = 2x = 58; A. indochinensis, 2n = 2x = 58 and A. setosa 2n = 2x = 58. Ploidy variation has also been observed in A. melanandra and confirmed in A. chinensis var. chinensis: 2n = 2x = 58 and 2n = 4x = 116. Chromosome numbers for another 11 Actinidia taxa were found to be in agreement with those previously reported. Chromosome numbers were the same for male and female plants of the same taxon. Detailed studies of chromosome morphology was not possible under the light micro scope because of the small size of Actinidia chromosomes.

    View record details
  • Chromosome number of New Zealand specimens of Atriplex billardierei, Chenopodiaceae

    De, Lange, P.J.; Murray, B.G.; Crowcroft, G.M. (1997)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    An open access copy of this article is available from the publishers website. Meiotic chromosome counts of n = 9 (2n = 9) I have been determined from wild plants of Atriplelx (subgenus Teleophyton) billardierei gathered in New Zealand and on Chatham Island. Atriplex billardierei is an endangered species within New Zealand but remains abundant on Chatham Island.

    View record details
  • Molecular markers and experimental pollinations reveal self-fertility and high levels of natural inbreeding in the New Zealand endemic tree Vitex lucens (puriri)

    Barrell, P.J.; Richardson, T.E.; Gardner, R.C. (1997)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    An open access copy of this article is available from the publishers website. The breeding system of the New Zealand endemic tree Vitex lucens (puriri) (Labiatae) was investigated using controlled pollinations and paternity analysis with RAPD and microsatellite markers. Experimental pollinations demonstrated that puriri is physiologically capable of producing fruit and viable seed from both selfed and outcrossed flowers. A low level of autogamous seed set was also observed, suggesting that at least occasional seed set is possible in the absence of pollinators. Polymorphic RAPD and microsatellite markers were developed for puriri and used to confirm the parentage of seedlings from experimental self and outcrossed pollinations. Paternity analysis of 18 seedlings from naturally pollinated drupes collected from a single tree revealed that a high proportion of these progeny were likely to be the result of self-pollination. These results are the first demonstration that puriri is capable of both self-and cross-fertilisation, and that in nature puriri has a mixed breeding system, with high levels of self-fertilisation possible. The molecular markers developed in this project will be useful tools for future puriri genetic studies.

    View record details
  • Comparative seedling growth of five endemic New Zealand podocarp species under different light regimes

    Ebbett, R.L.; Ogden, J. (1998)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    An open access copy of this article is available from the publishers website. The comparative growth of seedlings of Dacrycarpus dacrydioides, Podocarpus totara, Dacrydium cupressinum, Prumnopitys ferruginea, and P. taxifolia was investigated at different light levels. Five light regimes were achieved using shade cloth for glasshouse seedlings (2-25% of full sunlight) and under different canopy vegetation types (5-30% of full sunlight) in dense lowland podocarp forest at Whirinaki Forest Sanctuary, Central North Island, New Zealand. Height growth, stem diameter growth, and dry weight increase were measured for a 15 month period over two spring seasons in both glasshouse and forest environments. The five podocarp species show significant differences in height growth, stem diameter growth, and dry weight increase under the different light regimes of both glasshouse and forest environments. Seasonal height growth rates were examined in the forest, and species exhibited different responses to the climatic parameters of rainfall, humidity, temperature, and solar radiation. Comparative growth rates are used to infer regeneration strategies of the five podocarp species, particularly in response to elevated light levels. Totara and kahikatea are considered to be light demanding and have the ability to respond to increased light levels. Both rimu and matai do not appear to have the ability to respond to elevated light levels and it may be more appropriate to consider these two species as consistently slow growers. Miro is often considered the most shade tolerant of the five podocarp species and in the present study it exhibited an increased growth response to elevated light levels, especially in the forest.

    View record details
  • Comparative vegetative development of divaricating and arborescent Sophora species (Fabaceae)

    Carswell, F.E.; Gould, K.S. (1998)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    An open access copy of this article is available from the publishers website. Morphometric parameters that have been used previously to define divaricates are not useful for the genus Sophora. In measurements of forest-grown material, only node-angles effectively distinguished between the arborescent S. tetraptera and the divaricating species S. prostrata and S. microphylla. We examined the developmental basis for the generation of divaricating architecture in Sophora species by following growth of potted material over one year. The divaricating form was characterised by a twice-yearly production of new branches; sylleptic outgrowth in the spring, and proleptic outgrowth towards late summer. Branches arose predominantly from the proximal node. By contrast, the arborescent species had only a single growth period, and proleptic branches were produced from more distal nodes. In all three species, growth was most extensive in the uppermost regions of the canopy. Developmental processes may be better descriptors of divarication than shoot dimensions.

    View record details
  • Fine resolution palynology of Erua Swamp, Tongaririo, New Zealand, since the Taupo Tephra eruption of c. 1718 B.P.

    Horrocks, M.; Ogden, J. (1998)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    An open access copy of this article is available from the publishers website. Fine resolution pollen analysis of a core from Erua Swamp shows that prior to the Taupo eruption of c. 17 l 8 B.P., the site bore a dryland vegetation type on river flats. Patchy Nothofagus/Phyllocladus forest on the flats was destroyed by the eruption and replaced by Gleichenia-restionad swamp vegetation with abundant Halocarpus. Regional forest during the period from after the eruption to c. 650-560 B.P. was mixed podocarp, dominated by Dacrydium cupressinum and Prumnopitys taxifolia. A period of widespread and sustained anthropogenic destruction by fire of forest commenced c. 650-560 B.P.

    View record details
  • Fine resolution palynology of Gibsons' Swamp, central North Island, New Zealand, since c. 13 000 B.P.

    Horrocks, M.; Ogden, J. (1998)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    An open access copy of this article is available from the publishers website. Fine resolution pollen analysis shows that the late-glacial (c. 13 000-10 700 B.P.) vegetation of the Ohakune-Horopito area was dominated by Prumnopitys taxifolia, indicating a cooler and probably drier climate than the present. Around 10 700 B.P., Dacrydium cupressinum replaced Prumnopitys taxifolia as the forest dominant, and tree ferns and hardwood trees expanded, suggesting a change to warmer or wetter conditions. Around 5800-6300 B.P., Dacrydium cupressinum and tree ferns declined, Prumnopitys taxifolia regained some of its former dominance, and hardwood species continued to expand, suggesting a change to more variable conditions. Immediately following the Taupo Tephra eruption of 1718 B.P., Libocedrus bidwillii expanded at Gibsons' Swamp. The eruption may have facilitated a regional expansion of this species which was apparently already underway as a result of a climate change to stormier and cooler conditions prior to the eruption. Extensive logging for podocarps in Ohakune-Horopito after AD 1850 resulted in an increase in the abundance of Weinmannia racemosa.

    View record details
  • Branch morphology and abscission in kauri, Agathis australis (Araucariaceae)

    Wilson, V.R.; Gould, K.S.; Lovell, P.H.; Aitken-Christie, J. (1998)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    An open access copy of this article is available from the publishers website. Agathis australis is unusual in that self-pruning of branches occurs. This capability persists throughout the life of the tree and all branches have this potential. Four morphologically different branch types were identified. The first-formed (early) branches on kauri saplings are longer, more slender, and longer lived than those formed later. They also have a juvenile leaf form whereas the later-formed branches on the saplings have a transitional leaf form. In the mature tree, the adult support branches bear foliage branches, which have the shortest life span of all the branch types. Analysis of shed branches showed that both early- and late-formed sapling branches have a greatly enlarged branch diameter at the base, a smooth separation face, and a reduction in cross-sectional area of vascular tissue at the point of separation when the branch abscises. In contrast, adult foliage branches show little indication of swelling of the branch base, no reduction of vascular tissue, a rough separation face, and broken vascular tissue after abscission, apparently from mechanical force breaking the wood. It appears that mechanical force is necessary for abscission to occur in adult foliage branches. When early-formed sapling branches were cut back to 50 mm stumps, the stumps abscised within six weeks in almost all cases. This occurred irrespective of the time of year that the treatment was carried out. Intact control branches did not abscise within the same time period.

    View record details