9,048 results for The University of Auckland Library, 2000

  • Global Justice: A Cosmopolitan Account

    Brock, G (2009)

    Book
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Analysis and Modelling of Probes in Waveguides and Mobile Radio Propagation and Systems Engineering

    Williamson, Allan (2008)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Mountains of Wonder: The Rockies

    Kowalski, KM; Hoskin, Paul (2009-05-13)

    Unclassified
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • The Special Court for Sierra Leone: Justice for whom?

    Mahony, Christopher (2007)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    The thesis examined the divergence of conceptions of justice between civil society actors in Sierra Leone and personnel working at the Special Court for Sierra Leone.

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  • 'Bills of Exchange'

    Hare, Christopher (2000)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Face Value. Perception and Knowledge of Others’ Happiness

    Zamuner, Edoardo (2009)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Molecular characterisation of the EAS gene cluster for ergot alkaloid biosynthesis in epichloe endophytes of grasses

    Fleetwood, Damien (2007)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Clavicipitaceous fungal endophytes of the genera Epichloë and Neotyphodium form symbioses with grasses of the family Pooideae in which they can synthesise an array of bioprotective alkaloids. Some strains produce the ergot alkaloid ergovaline, which is implicated in livestock toxicoses caused by ingestion of endophyteinfected grasses. Cloning and analysis of a plant-induced non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) gene from Neotyphodium lolii and analysis of the E. festucae E2368 genome sequence revealed a complex gene cluster for ergot alkaloid biosynthesis. The EAS cluster contained a single-module NRPS gene, lpsB, and other genes orthologous to genes in the ergopeptine gene cluster of Claviceps purpurea and the clavine cluster of Aspergillus fumigatus. Functional analysis of lpsB confirmed its role in ergovaline synthesis and bioassays with the lpsB mutant unexpectedly suggested that ergovaline was not required for black beetle (Heteronychus arator) feeding deterrence from epichloë-infected grasses. Southern analysis showed the cluster was linked with previously identified ergot alkaloid biosynthetic genes, dmaW and lpsA, at a subtelomeric location. The ergovaline genes are closely associated with transposon relics, including retrotransposons, autonomous DNA transposons and miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs), which are very rare in other fungi. All genes in the cluster were highly expressed in planta but expression was very low or undetectable in mycelia from axenic culture, including under nitrogen-, carbonor phosphate-limited conditions. Comparative analysis of the EAS gene cluster in four different epichloë strains showed marked differences in gene expression and ergot alkaloid synthesis. Gene order is conserved in each strain although evidence for recombination between two MITEs and expansion or reduction of a simple sequence repeat (SSR) at a single intergenic region was observed. Heterologous expression of a candidate regulatory gene, laeA, from Aspergillus nidulans, which is a global regulator of secondary metabolism in aspergilli, did not affect eas gene expression. This, along with phylogeny and microsynteny analysis, suggests there is not an orthologue of this gene in epichloë. This work provides a genetic foundation for elucidating biochemical steps in the ergovaline pathway, the ecological role of individual ergot alkaloid compounds, and the regulation of their synthesis in planta.

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  • Isolation of new secondary metabolites from New Zealand marine invertebrates.

    Wojnar, Joanna (2008)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    This study describes the isolation and structure elucidation of several known and 13 new compounds from New Zealand marine organisms. Furthermore, it describes the development of a digital mask program for the analysis of HSQC spectra of crude sponge extracts. This was used as a screening tool to identify secondary metabolite producers that warranted further analysis. As reports of metabolites from New Zealand nudibranchs are poorly represented in the literature, a study of five New Zealand nudibranch species was undertaken. These coloured and seemingly undefended nudibranchs are known to concentrate or sequester toxic metabolites from their prey, facilitating rapid isolation and structure elucidation of these metabolites. This study resulted in the isolation of a variety of metabolite classes; two new compounds, 13alpha- acetoxypukalide diol (30) and lopholide diol (31) from the nudibranch Tritonia incerta, are described. Examination of the sponge Raspailia agminata resulted in the isolation of a novel family of partially acetylated glycolipids which contain up to six glucose residues. The chromatographic separation of these compounds was a challenge due to the similarity of the congeners and their lack of a chromophore. MSguided isolation eventually led to the purification of agminosides A-E (145-149). An unidentified sponge of the order Dictyoceratida was found to contain a new isomer (186) of the known sesterterpene variabilin. As variabilin-type compounds are predominantly found from sponges of the family Irciniidae, the unidentified sponge is most likely an irciniid. In addition, the sponge contained two prenylated quinones, one of which, 189, is a new isomer of a known sponge metabolite. The sponge Darwinella oxeata contained four new nitrogenous diterpenes of the aplysulphurane (rearranged spongian) skeleton, oxeatamide A (214), isooxeatamide A (215), oxeatamide A 23-methyl ester (216) and oxeatamide B (217).

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  • Telecommunications Inc.: Korea's Challenge to Qualcomm

    Kim, Sung-Young (2009)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Building on the success of the 1990s, in the past decade the Korean state has attempted a transition from a strategy based on catching-up to one based on innovation in the domestic telecommunications industry, which I call ‘Telecommunications Inc.’. Concomitant with this shift is a new set of challenges for the state in supporting companies that seek to reap first-mover advantages. How, if at all, has the Korean state supported the technological upgrading ambitions of domestic firms in the telecommunications industry in an era of greater economic openness? The core contention of this study is that the Korean state has coped with economic openness through adapting institutions. The existence of a ‘quasi-pilot agency’, the extension of new linkages to a wider array of private sector participants, and the emergence of ‘technology-centred forums’ represent the fine-tuning of organisational arrangements to cope with the pressures of global technology-based competition. The emergence of WTO rules appears to have helped recast rather than ruled out developmental strategy in the Korean telecommunications industry. The Korean state has coped with the rise of the global trade regime by adopting development strategies based on ‘exploiting’, which entails increasing state activism in areas not explicitly prohibited and proactively embracing rules that encourages greater state activity. The Korean state has coped by ‘modifying’ such rules to meet strategic industry objectives; either by using overt measures that take advantage of loopholes and ambiguities contained in the legal texts of the WTO and by using covert below-the-radar measures. I demonstrate my argument through an examination of the goals, underlying strategic motivations and the strategy involved in the Korean Government’s promotion of three technological standards related to telecommunications software, fourth generation mobile broadband, and mobile broadcasting.

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  • Structural studies of the sugar-binding protein from the pneumococcal raffinose transport system

    Paterson, Neil (2007)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) is a Gram-positive bacterium responsible for a large number of deaths annually due to pneumonia, septicaemia and meningitis, mainly among young, elderly and immunocompromised populations. The primary virulence factor is the polysaccharide capsule that surrounds the cell and confers protection from phagocytosis; in addition the organism surface is decorated with a variety of proteins attached by both covalent and non-covalent means, with many of these also being involved in virulence. The pneumococcus is highly dependent on a wide range of carbohydrates for energy and growth with both phosphotransferase systems (PTS) and adenosine triphosphate binding cassette (ABC) transport systems utilised in sugar importation. Included among these is an ABC transport system, the Raf system, responsible for the importation and initial metabolism of the trisaccharide raffinose (α-D-Galp-(1→6)-α- D-Glcp-(1→2)-β- D-Fruf) that is highly sequentially homologous to the multiple sugar metabolism (Msm) system from S. mutans. The transporter itself comprises an extracellular raffinose binding protein (RafE), two membrane permease domains (RafF and RafG) and a protein responsible for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) binding and hydrolysis that has yet to be definitively identified. The 46.6 kDa substrate binding protein from the Raf system, RafE, is attached to the surface of the cell by means of a posttranslational lipoprotein modification and is responsible for the initial detection and capture of raffinose and conveying it to the transmembrane domains. RafE has been successfully overexpressed and purified to homogeneity using a novel interaction with a gel filtration matrix. Biophysical characterisation of RafE revealed the protein to be monomeric with one raffinose binding site per molecule and an affinity of 337μM for raffinose. Affinity for melibiose (α-D-Galp-(1→6)-α- D- Glcp), a substrate of the Msm system, was determined to be 6.84mM although the Raf system is incapable melibiose transport. Purified RafE was crystallised in both native and selenomethionine-labelled forms allowing solution of the phase problem by single wavelength anomalous dispersion (SAD) to a resolution of 2.90Å. Subsequent rational truncation and a change of construct to facilitate polyhistidine tag removal has produced two different crystal forms diffracting to a resolution of 1.04Å with the purification tag in place and 1.40Å iii following tag cleavage. An original solution to ice-ring diffraction was utilised for collection of this latter dataset which obviated the need for potentially problematic cryoprotectant solution. The crystal structures of RafE reveal that the protein adopts the periplasmic binding protein-like II fold, in common with a number of other substrate binding components of ABC transport systems, comprising two α/β/α sandwich domains joined by a hinge region consisting of three cross-linking peptide chains with the active site located in the cleft formed between the domains. These structures allowed identification of key active site residues and also revealed a range of conformational motion between the two domains. The active site is formed from a large aromatic patch, formed from three tryptophan residues aligned with their aromatic faces exposed to the solvent, surrounded by polar and charged residues. To assess the interaction with raffinose, polyhistidine-tag cleaved RafE was crystallised in the presence of raffinose and diffraction data collected to a resolution of 2.80Å. Structure solution using molecular replacement of the separate domains revealed a substantial conformational shift compared to the apo structures, with the two domains rotated approximately 29o towards each other, closing the active site region and trapping raffinose. RafE forms direct hydrogen bonding contacts between nine residues and the hydroxyl groups of the carbohydrate coupled with stacking of the sugar rings to the aromatic surface of the tryptophan residues. Molecular modelling of MsmE based on the raffinose bound RafE was used to try to assess the differences contributing to different substrate specificity and revealed changes in the residues forming contacts to the galactose moiety of raffinose but these did not appear to fully explain the dissimilar specificities. As an additional project, work was carried out in an attempt to obtain a crystal structure, with a view to functional elucidation of the choline-binding protein CbpI. This protein is a member of a highly important family for pneumococcal virulence with proteins of diverse function sharing a common surface attachment domain that binds to the choline moieties of teichoic and lipoteichoic acids that intersperse the cell wall. CbpI has been successfully overexpressed, purified and crystallised with diffraction data measured to a resolution of 3.50Å. The diffraction data however display very high mosaic spread and structure solution by molecular replacement has not been successful.

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  • The Use of Type 1 Cytokines to Modulate Immune Responses Raised by the Gene Gun Method of DNA Delivery

    Williman, Jonathan (2007-05)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Since its discovery 15 years ago there has been an explosion of research in the field of DNA immunisation. Unfortunately despite early promises that DNA immunisation had the potential to cure almost any infectious disease, autoimmune disease or even cancer, progress towards clinical trials has been slow. This has been due in part to the huge range of permutations possible in delivering the DNA. One approach is to deliver the DNA by gene gun. Gene gun delivery is a very efficient way of transfecting cells however also has a number of possible disadvantages. These drawbacks include a weak immunogenicity in larger animals as well as the tendency to bias towards the development of a strong type 2 response. In an effort to enhance antigen-specific immune responses and counter the type 2 polarisation of gene gun delivery, a series of DNA vaccines were created where the extracellular portion of the hemagglutinin (HA) gene from influenza A/PR8/34 virus was genetically fused the type 1 cytokines IFNγ, IL-12 and IL-23. Interleukin-23 has been recently discovered and even though both IL-12 and IL-23 contain the p40 subunit they seem to have dissimilar functions. The vaccine constructs were first tested in cellular assays in vitro to ensure correct production and biological activity of the attached cytokines. They were then delivered in various combinations to groups of BALB/c mice to test development of immune responses and the effect of different delivery regimes. Finally mice were immunised then challenged with live influenza virus to determine the different DNA vaccines’ protective efficacy. DNA vaccines containing the HA gene alone (pHA) or fused to IFNγ (pIFNγHA), IL-12 (pIL-12HA) or IL-23 (pIL-23HA) were successfully constructed. The fusion of the HA gene to the genes for IFNγ, IL-12 or IL-23 did not significantly disturb the structure of the antigen or prevent the biological actions of the cytokines. Mice immunised three times with pHA had high titres of serum IgG1 antibody and their splenocytes produced approximately equal amounts of IFNγ and IL-5. Co-delivery of IFNγ was unable to alter immune responses regardless of whether it was delivered at the first, last or during all immunisations. Surprisingly co-delivery of IL-12 acted to suppress both antibody and cellular immune responses, possibly through an IFNγ/nitric oxide feedback loop. On the other hand co-delivery of IL-23 tended to enhanced immune responses and, while it did not significantly alter the type 1 to type 2 balance, it was able to increase the ability of mice to clear live influenza virus from their lungs when they were challenged 26 weeks after immunisation. This protection was associated with increased levels of neutralising antibody in the serum of pIL-23HA immunised mice. This research has illuminated several of the pitfalls in the development of DNA vaccines and the use of cytokine as adjuvants. However it has also broadened our understanding of IL-23 and implies that IL-23 could be effectively used to increase the development of longterm immunity after immunisation.

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  • An instrumental case study of a professional development intervention that uses unfamiliar mathematics to prompt secondary teachers' re-thinking about learning and teaching.

    Paterson, Judith (2008)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    This study is part of a professional development project working to enhance mathematics achievement and retention in schools in a low socio-economic region in Auckland, New Zealand. Over two years teachers of senior mathematics classes from ten schools attended workshops and meetings at which mathematicians and statisticians from the University of Auckland gave talks on aspects of their academic work. These talks form basis of the intervention that is the focus of this study. The aim of the study was to determine whether, when put in the position of encountering unfamiliar mathematics, teachers would re-view their understanding of learning, and what the results of this experience would be for their understanding of students learning needs and their teaching. In the workshops prompts and questions encouraged the teachers to discuss learning and teaching. It was hypothesised that this could lead to teachers becoming more open to considering change in their practice. A framework was developed in order to categorise the teacher talk that constituted the data. Measured against this framework the data showed that the intervention was effective in encouraging approximately 40% of the group of 31 teachers who attended one or more workshops to consider or enact change in their practice. The data was re-examined at a deeper level seeking to establish how and why the teachers responded as they did. On the basis of this a model of the processes and outcomes of teacher learning in the intervention was developed. This analysis showed that three strands of experience encouraged teachers to consider change in their practice: being re-energised for teaching through being mathematically stimulated; coming to realisations about teaching through introspection and identification with students as learners; and discussing teaching within a supportive learning community. A number of factors and contexts that impacted on teachers, responses to the intervention were identified.

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  • Extinction-induced variability in human behaviour

    Kinloch, Jennifer (2006)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    These results [of five experiments] add to the small number of studies showing increased variability in extinction for human behavior, and also show that the degree of effect could be due to reinforcement history and the instructional specificity

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  • Enhancing Students Conceptual Understanding of Chemistry through the SOLO Taxonomy

    Gan, Joo (2007)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • The role of imprinting in mouse embryonic development and tumorigenesis.

    Holm, Teresa (2006)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Imprinting is a mammalian adaptation that results in the mono-allelic expression of a subset of genes depending on their parental origin. It is believed that DNA methylation marks are responsible for maintaining imprinted gene expression patterns. The 'parental conflict' hypothesis was proposed to explain the evolution of imprinting and is based on the assumption that mammals arose from an ancestor that was polyandrous (multiple fathers within one litter). According to this hypothesis, conflict between the male and female over the allocation of maternal resources to the offspring led to the evolution of imprinting. Consistent with this, many imprinted genes are involved in embryonic or placental growth by regulating mitogenic pathways or the cell cycle. Loss of imprinting (LOI) has been found at specific loci in cancers, raising the possibility that altered expression of imprinted genes may also contribute to tumorigenesis. To investigate the effect of global LOI on embryonic development and cancer formation, imprint free (IF) embryonic stem (ES) cells were generated using conditional inactivation/reactivation of the DNA methyltransferase Dnmtl. Tetraploid complementation and chimera experiments revealed that IF-embryos fail to develop beyond E11.5 and display an overgrowth phenotype.

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  • An investigation into how the cell cycle and the Notch signalling pathway regulate pronephrogenesis in Xenopus laevis

    Naylor, Richard (2009)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Designing literacy education as modes of meaning in globalised and situated contexts: Towards a restoration of the self through embodied knowing

    Thwaites, Trevor (2008)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

    The world of the twenty-first century is one that presents humans with diverse forms of identity, loyalty, and sense of place. The nation state appears all but redundant in this time of transnationalism and transculturalism, as ongoing migrations and re-affirmations of identity produce transient loyalties which make policy development problematic in areas such as education. The new empire is a global one, reflecting corporate economic ambition and territorial expansion—a type of colonisation by capitalist interests that we might call “globalisation”. Associated with this global empire are the new technologies of trading and communication which have produced new societal structures, such as social networks, that display various formations of information and cultural amateurs who promote themselves through the voyeuristic possibilities of the World Wide Web. The preparation of students for their life in these scenarios has been guided by governments and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), convinced that the future lies in a vaporous ambition called the ‘knowledge-economy’—a further complication for education policy. Where does that leave the self as an identity requiring forms of efficacy, personal ambition, and a sense of being-in-a-physical-world? This paper explores one facet of this question which is linked both to concepts of literacy and to the embodied self as one way of demonstrating that there are strategies for responding to the new environment. This way suggests giving agency to learners through a radical and embodied means of constructing knowledge and literacy that seeks to retain the humanness in schooling and which potentially empowers learners through the possibilities opened up by these ‘new’ pedagogies.

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  • Phage Integrases for Mediating Genomic Integration and DNA Recombination

    Maucksch, Christof (2008)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

    φC31 integrase is a site specific recombinase derived from the Streptomyces phage. In the phage lifecycle, the enzyme mediates lysogeny by mediating recombination between specific sequences termed attB (present in the bacterial DNA) and attP (present in the phage genome). Screening the enzyme activity in mammalian cells provided positive results and also showed that the enzyme retained its property of site specific recombination into mammalian genomes. Mammalian genomes have been shown to contain sequences that are similar to the wild type attP sequence of the Streptomyces phage genome and experiments with the integrase in mammalian cells showed that it could mediate recombination and subsequent integration of any DNA bearing an attB site into these pseudoattP sites. ...

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  • Engaging pedagogies for teacher education: Considering a modest critical pedagogy for preparing tomorrow's teachers

    Tinning, Richard (2007)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Constitutive expression of SOCS-3 in skeletal muscle induces obesity in mice

    Cognard, Emmanuelle (2007-12-21)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Type 1 or type 2 diabetes is a metabolic syndrome characterized by chronic hyperglycemia. The World Health Organization estimates that there are more than 180 millions of diabetic people worldwide and this number should double by 2030. The prevalence of diabetes strongly increases in all countries and nowadays its development is considered epidemic. Type 2 diabetes or non-insulin-dependent diabetes represents 95% of diabetic patients. Most of the time, it is associated with obesity. Type 2 diabetes occurs when insulin-sensitive tissues become insulin-resistant and pancreatic β-cells secrete less insulin. SOCS (Suppressor Of Cytokine Signaling) proteins have been discovered because of their negative feedback loop on cytokine signaling but they are also important inhibitors of the insulin signaling pathway (SOCS-3 in particular). Insulin actually induces SOCS-3 expression, which then interacts with the insulin receptor. SOCS-3 prevents the interaction between the receptor and its substrates, which decreases the upstream signal. Therefore SOCS-3 could play an important role in the development of insulin resistance. Liver, skeletal muscle and adipose tissue are the main target-tissue of insulin. It was shown in vitro that SOCS-3 inhibits insulin signaling in these tissues. However, SOCS-3 role in vivo and the mechanisms involved in the process are not fully understood yet. Furthermore we do not have a clear picture of the exact role of each tissue in the development of insulin resistance. The aims of this study are 1) to find out if constitutive expression of SOCS-3 in skeletal muscle could induce insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, 2) to analyze the underlying molecular mechanisms. To do this, we have generated transgenic mice, which constitutively express SOCS-3 specifically in skeletal muscle (MLC/SOCS-3 mice). We have analyzed the phenotype of the transgenic mice compared to their wild type littermates and we have performed a molecular analysis of the muscles. Interestingly, MLC/SOCS-3 mice have more adipose tissue, result of an increase in the size of the adipocytes. Food intake is the same in the transgenic mice compared to the wild type littermate. However, we found a decrease in energy expenditure for the transgenic mice, which could be due, at least in part, to a decrease of physical activity. Transgenic mice have a normal glucose tolerance and no hyperglycemia. So MLC/SOCS-3 mice do not develop type 2 diabetes. Insulin tolerance is nevertheless reduced and this correlates with the degree of obesity of the transgenic mice. Molecular analysis of skeletal muscle did not show any decrease in insulin signaling in the muscle of MLC/SOCS-3 mice. However, we observed a decrease in SOCS-2 expression, another isoform of the SOCS family. SOCS-2 is a potential insulin inhibitor and so this decrease in SOCS-2 expression could compensate the increase in SOCS-3 expression and in this manner insulin signaling would not be disturbed. In conclusion, this study shows new evidence for the role of SOCS-3 in insulin resistance, as well as its possible involvement in muscle physiology. We have shown that, if constitutive expression of SOCS-3 in the skeletal muscle does not lead to type 2 diabetes, this induces an increase in adipose tissue, which is due in part to a decrease in physical activity. Molecular mechanisms for the role of SOCS-3 in physical activity remain to be defined.

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