2,837 results for The University of Auckland Library, 2011

  • Storm over the Starship: A geosemiotic analysis of brand co-ownership

    Conroy, DM; Brookes, R (2011)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • HD Sheep Model (A-2476) Project Report October 2011

    Reid, Susanne; Bawden, S (2011)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    This Interim review provides a summary of the work that has been undertaken by researchers from SARDI and University of Auckland on the HD Sheep Biomolecular project over the 6 month period from 1st April 2011-30th September 2011. This report does not include data that was incorporated in the previous report unless noted. The aim of this work is to further characterize the ovine model of Huntington's disease (HD) in order to gain a better understanding of disease progression, and to establish it as a therapeutic testing system. Our objective was to develop a model that will recapitulate the progressive, late-onset characteristics of the disease expressing the full-length huntingtin protein with a moderate (in model terms) CAG repeat size. Although not yet conclusive, we have good evidence that the model will fulfill our initial objectives. Support from the CHDI since October 2009 (A-2476) has enabled the characterization and flock expansion of the sheep transgenic model, identification of the transgenic line "Kiwi" as the favored line for future analysis, establishment of tissue collection protocols and molecular/pathological methodologies for monitoring "disease" progression in the model. A limited breeding program has been initiated from two Taffy line animals that exhibit higher mRNA expression than other Taffy animals, along with detectable transgene protein in skin biopsy. Unlike the Kiwi line, we now know Taffy has multiple integration sites, explaining the variable levels of expression seen. This additional breeding will establish if a viable additional line can be generated, showing adequate and stable transmission. The Kiwi line demonstrates reliable and stable expression of the transgene and repeat. MGH capture sequencing has identified the Kiwi transgene insertion site is at a single locus in an intragenic region. Analysis of harvested brain tissues as the animal's age will demonstrate the extent to which the human disease is being recapitulated. The oldest transgenic sheep have been preserved as a result of SOC discussions, given the intrinsic value of their age with respect to observations of disease progression. A SOC decision was also made to delay the harvest of 18 month animals until 2 years, primarily based on the observation of a small number of inclusions seen in 2 of the 3 18 month animals. The decision to delay sacrifice was to allow phenotype advancement. Therefore the only animals harvested and assessed for a molecular phenotype within the time frame of this contract are 6 months old, with the next harvest scheduled for March 2012 (2 year old animals).

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  • Essays on Macroeconomic Dynamics

    Grechyna, Daryna (2011-07-13)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    This dissertation is comprised of three papers devoted to several recent macroeconomic problems. The first two chapters are devoted to the questions of optimal fiscal policy, in particular, to the issues of optimal public debt and deficit under the conditions of aggregate uncertainty and governmental imperfections. The problem of optimal public debt regulation is of particular importance nowadays, when seemingly developed countries face threads of unsustainable debt levels. The first chapter explains different, persistent and large public debt levels in developed countries by the presence of public corruption in these countries. The second chapter studies stochastic behavior of public debt and deficit in the time-consistent setup. The third chapter is devoted to not the least important problem of periodic financial crises that hit developed economies. It proposes evidence in favor of cautious attitude towards too fast financial development of the economies, which are not characterized by corresponding development in other, productive sectors. The first chapter proposes a possible explanation of different and positive government debt levels observed in developed economies. It builds a simple model that relates the level of government debt to the degree of corruptness of the public officials in the country, using neoclassical economy framework with discretionary and non-benevolent government. Public corruption results in higher public debt levels in the steady state. The model reproduces about 76\% of variation in debt-to-GDP levels in a sample of advanced OECD countries as a function of the measure of public corruption in these countries. In the empirical part the assumptions and predictions of the model are tested in a panel of OECD member states. The second chapter considers the implications of optimal taxation for the stochastic behavior of debt and deficit in the economy with discretionary government, focusing on Markov perfect equilibria. It concludes that in such time-consistent setup in case of market incompleteness the properties of the variables are very similar to those in the full commitment case. Moreover, debt shows more persistence than other variables and it increases in response to shocks that cause a higher deficit, which is in accordance with empirical evidence from U.S. data. This result, in contrast to the full commitment case, holds regardless whether the government pursues its optimal fiscal policy under complete markets, or under incomplete markets. The third chapter, based on the joint work with Lorenzo Ductor, investigates possible negative influence of financial development on economic growth. It defines excess finance as a level of the difference between the growth in financial sector and growth in productive sector of the economy, under which the aggregate output decreases. Based on panel data for 33 OECD economies, it is shown, that for smooth economic development the equilibrated growth of both productive (real) and financial sectors is required. Whenever financial development exceeds the development of productive industries by 4.5\% (when measured in terms of growth rates of the two sectors output), there is a thread of reaching the productive capacity bound of the economy, with consequent "financial" crisis. The existence of excess financial development may be justified by the theory of informational overshooting.

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  • Unintentional injuries at home: the role of alcohol, recreational drug use, & fatigue in the greater Auckland, Waikato, & Otago regions in people aged 20 to 64 years

    Kool, B; Ameratunga, S; Sharpe, S (2011)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    Unintentional injuries in the home account for a significant burden of injury among all age groups in New Zealand. Falls are the leading cause of injury-related admissions to hospital and one of the three leading causes of injury death in New Zealand. Cutting or piercing injuries are the second leading cause of injury hospitalisation in New Zealand. Home is the most common location for injuries resulting in hospitalisation. The impact of injuries at home among young and middle-age adults may have significant implications for both work productivity and family life. This project was designed to explore modifiable risk factors for unintentional falls and cutting or piecing injuries at home resulting in admission to hospital among young and middle-aged adults (aged 20 to 64 years). The study builds on the Auckland Fall Study previously conducted by the researchers and funded by the Accident Compensation Corporation (ACC). The project involved the following methodologies: a review of the published literature to identify risk factors for unintentional cutting or piercing injury or falls at home among young and middle-aged adults; an analysis of routinely collected national data on hospitalisations and deaths for home injuries; an analysis of trauma registry data for home injuries; and a multi-regional population-based case-control study, with a case-crossover component, to identify modifiable risk factors for unintentional falls and cutting or piercing injures at home among the age group of interest .

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  • Progression in the knowledge and philosophy of technology

    Compton, Vicki; Compton, AD (2011)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Economyths

    Kushner, Saville; Kushner, B (2011)

    Unclassified
    The University of Auckland Library

    The case for economic crisis in the UK - the basis of the austerity programme and the part-dismantling of the Welfare State - is assertion rather than analysis. This is evidence of a hegemonic 'single political narrative' which is little subjected to critical scrutiny or public debate. The casualty is deliberative democracy and the quality of public understanding - essentially, a de-education strategy. This analysis challenges such a hegemony and, through its presentation at conferences, public lectures, publications and broadcasts (cited elsewhere in this submission) makes the case for deliberative contestation over social and economic realities and visions. This is an attempt at public education and to trial a diffusion strategy commensurate with the principles of Democratic Evaluation. The methodological approach is Popperian 'falsification'. Each card has an assertion on its face with a (evidence-based) refutation on its reverse - some cards are pedagogical in keeping with the public education aspect of the presentation.

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  • Atlas da fauna brasileira ameaçada de extinção em unidades de conservação federais

    Nascimento, JLD; Campos, Ivan (2011)

    Book
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Opportunities and impediments: Drama in vocational education

    Heyward, Paul (2011)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • A Membrane Target of Lithium in Cortical Neurons in vitro

    Butler-Munro, Charlotte (2011)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    For over fifty years the elemental cation lithium (Li+) has been the primary agent used in the treatment and prophylaxis of bipolar disorder, but its therapeutic mechanism of action remains unknown. Bipolar disorder is associated with alterations in ion distributions and may be the result of abnormal ion channel function. Consistent with this, anticonvulsants which block voltage gated sodium (Na+) channels are the second most commonly prescribed mood stabilisers, after Li+, for the treatment of bipolar disorder. How Li+ may share a membrane effect with the anticonvulsants has presented an unresolved paradox. While anticonvulsants block voltage gated Na+ channels, Li+ readily enters neurons through voltage gated Na+ channels and can replace Na+ in membrane depolarisation. This paradox has deterred the development of an ion channel hypothesis for the mechanism of action of the anticonvulsants and Li+ in the treatment of bipolar disorder, and may have prevented progress in understanding of the pathophysiology of this disease. Recent work has indicated that voltage gated Na+ channels are functionally and structurally coupled to potassium (K+) channels sensitive to the intracellular concentration of Na+, these channels generate the Na+ activated K+ conductance (IKNa+). Evidence suggests that Li+ cannot replace Na+ in IKNa+ channel activation, however, because previous studies investigating IKNa+ channels have replaced the majority of external Na+ with Li+, the effect of low concentrations of Li+ on IKNa+ channels in the presence of physiologically relevant Na+ levels is unclear. If lower, more therapeutically relevant concentrations of Li+ were to interfere with IKNa+ channel activation this would suggest a common target of Li+ and the anticonvulsants on the electrical membrane properties of brain neurons. Li+ may directly block IKNa+ channels, and the anticonvulsants indirectly block IKNa+ channels through their primary effect to block voltage gated Na+ channels. The work in this thesis has provided a systematic characterisation of the effects of low concentrations of Li+ on the electrical properties of a neuronal membrane. The results indicate that Li+ increases membrane excitability, and decreases the decay slope and after-hyperpolarisation (AHP) of individual action potentials, consistent with decreased activation of IKNa+ channels. Li+ is shown to decrease the activation of a persistent, voltage dependent outward current active at subthreshold potentials, an effect dependent upon Li+ entry into neurons through voltage gated Na+ channels. These effects of Li+ cannot be explained by a simple inability of Li+ to activate IKNa+ current, and it is proposed that low concentrations of Li+ actively interferes with Na+ activation of IKNa+ channels. This work indicates that Li+ has a direct effect on the electrical properties of neurons. Interestingly, anticonvulsant drugs, also used in the treatment of bipolar disorder, have long been known to alter the electrical properties of neurons through inhibition of voltage gated Na+ channels. Based on our findings with Li+ and the well characterised effects of the anticonvulsants, we propose that Li+ and the anticonvulsants target structurally and functionally coupled ion channels involved in the short and long term control of membrane excitability. This is consistent with increasing genetic evidence indicating that bipolar disorder could be a disease of ion channels (a channelopathy), and has exciting implications for our understanding of the pathophysiology of mood disorders.

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  • The effects of dietary fructose and salt on maternal, fetal and adult offspring growth, metabolic status and cardiovascular health.

    Gray, Clint (2011-07)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    The modern Western diet is typically high in salt and fructose. Variations in maternal diet can have delayed developmental effects on the adult offspring’s cardiovascular function leading to acute or chronic hypertension. The aim of the work in this thesis was to determine the effect of moderate dietary salt and/or fructose intake on maternal and fetal growth, metabolic status and cardiovascular health of the adult offspring. Sprague Dawley rats were fed either 1) control diet (chow) with tap water, 2) salt diet, 4% NaCl, 3) fructose diet, purified chow plus 10% fructose in tap water or 4) fructose and salt diet for 28 days prior to conception, through gestation and lactation. Data were collected on the non-pregnant and pregnant dam, the fetus and neonate and the adult offspring. Cardiovascular data in adult offspring were recorded between the ages of 10-15 weeks by implanted radiotelemetry probes. Dams fed fructose prior to and during gestation increased caloric intake (P<0.001), but significantly decreased basal MAP (~8mmHg) in the adult female offspring. Both fructose and salt diet had effects on the circadian variation in blood pressure and heart rate. Subsequent cardiovascular challenges revealed little beyond an altered cardiovascular set-point in these offspring. The study emphasizes the importance of quality rather than quantity when assessing maternal diet, particularly in terms of its mineral and simple sugar content. In conclusion, data within this thesis demonstrates for the first time a moderate maternal dietary intake of salt and fructose can affect offspring osmolality profile and blood pressure in a sex-specific manner and produce a pattern of symptoms resembling NAFLD which, in part, are passed vertically to the offspring.

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  • Realizing the Power of Professional Learning

    Timperley, Helen (2011-09-01)

    Book
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Critical Pedagogy as Revolutionary Practice

    McLaren, Peter (2011)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Behaviour of invader ship rats experimentally released behind a pest-proof fence, Maungatautari, New Zealand

    Innes, J; Watts, C; Fitzgerald, NL; Thornburrow, D; Burns, B; MacKay, Jamie; Speedy, C (2011)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

    Six ship (roof, black) rats (Rattus rattus) were cage-trapped adjacent to a pest-proof fence and released with radio transmitters inside the 65 ha pest-free exclosure at Maungatautari, North Island, New Zealand, to mimic reinvasion. Unexpectedly, four of the six rats climbed back out of the exclosure and returned to their original home ranges after periods ranging from a few hours to seven days. All six rats travelled along the fence top at some time during follows, and only three of the six used tracking tunnels set on a 50 m grid inside the exclosure to detect invaders. The rats that remained inside the fence stayed within C. 100m of the release point for about three days, then made increasingly large (to 1100m) movements into the reserve. Resultant range lengths greatly exceeded those of four other rats radio-tracked outside the fence where rat density was higher. This behaviour is very similar to that reported for experimentally released house mice (Mus musculus) and Norway rats (R. norvegicus) on islands. These results suggest that a) some invading ship rats may themselves vacate a fenced sanctuary without encountering efforts to detect and remove them; b) rats at low density have much larger movements than occur in home ranges at typically higher mainland densities, and c) managers should target rat invaders with detection and killing devices within 100 m of a fence breach for at least three days, and some traps should be set on top of the fence.

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  • Combination of traditional cell biology and bioinformatics to study molecular pathways associated with melanoma progression and response to DMXAA

    Wang, Li (2011)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Māori Representation, Local Government and the Auckland Council

    Sullivan, Ann (2011)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

    The paper discusses the serious under representation of Maori on local government councils and issues of identity, obligation and types of representation on the Auckland Council.

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  • The two-phase method for multiobjective combinatorial optimization problems

    Przybylski, A; Gandibleux, X; Ehrgott, Matthias (2011)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Performers' Rights

    Morgan, Owen (2011)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • The Sanctity of Bread: Missionaries and the promotion of wheat growing among the New Zealand Māori

    Petrie, Hazel (2011)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Histoire de la virilité

    Courtine, Jean-Jacques (2011)

    Book
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • The Small Business Book - A New Zealand Guide for the 21st Century

    Oliver, Leith; English, J (2011)

    Book
    The University of Auckland Library

    A comprehensive guide to starting, managing and growing a small to medium sized business in New Zealand. Subjects include entrpreneurship, support agencies, financial, marketing and operations management, exporting, franchising and digital media

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