2,853 results for The University of Auckland Library, 2016

  • Progress toward pathways prioritization in compliance to Aichi Target 9

    Riccardo, S; Genovesi, P; Booy, O; Essl, F; Jeschke, J; Hulme, PE; McGeoch, M; Pagad, Shyama; Roy, HE; Saul, W-C; Wilson, JR (2016)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Data fitness for use in research on alien and invasive species

    McGeoch, M; Groom, QJ; Pagad, Shyama; Petrosyan, V; Wilson, J; Ruiz, G (2016)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    The discovery, access and appropriate use of primary biodiversity data are critical for alien and invasive species (A&IS) research at continental, regional, country and subnational scales. Sustainable, reliable, timely, and accessible data on A&IS is essential to the long-term management of this key threat to biodiversity, including the ability of countries to meet the Honolulu Challenge and to achieve Aichi Target 9 of the CBD Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020. GBIF provides a range of essential information services for A&IS researchers, including but not limited to taxonomic and occurrence information. After broad consultation with the research and A&IS community, a suite of recommendations were identified under five broad topic areas: 1) Strategic approaches, 2) Improving existing data, 3) Expanding information content, 4) Functionality, and 5) Communication and engagement. Several recommendations are relevant for other data users, but the availability, quality and timeliness of these data are especially critical for A&IS because of the real-world consequences resulting from the negative impacts of biological invasions. Alien species occurrence includes taxonomically verified species presence records or absence information at a locality with a geographic coordinate, or in a prescribed area, such as a management or geopolitical unit or site (Latombe et al. 2016). Alien species occurrence information is the single most important variable necessary to support research, monitoring and management of A&IS.

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  • Can We Believe It? Evidence for Christianity

    Seber, George (2016-03-21)

    Book
    The University of Auckland Library

    Many people today believe that Christianity will not stand up to a scientific or intellectual investigation, and that science has all the answers. Such an attitude shows an ignorance of the wealth of available philosophical arguments and scientific information that Dr. Seber taps into in this book. Initially, he shows that mathematics and science are limited in what they can prove in spite of modern advances. He then summarizes his material using basic questions as ten chapter headings: Does God exist, is there a spiritual dimension, do we have free will, is the Bible reliable, who is Jesus, do miracles occur, why does God allow suffering and evil, is Christianity a blessing or a curse to society, what about evolution, and how can we get to know God? The reader may have other questions and a number are considered within each chapter, such as problems with philosophical materialism and atheism. He draws his material from many sources including statistics, physics, cosmology, genetics, philosophy, history, biochemistry, theology, psychology, archaeology, and biology. Comparatively, new subjects like epigenetics, chaos theory, and quantum mechanics, that many people are not aware of, are brought into the picture. These topics change our thinking about reality.

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  • Review – Final Rule for FSMA Intentional Adulteration (Food Defense) Regarding Food Fraud and EMA

    Spink, JW; Moyer, D; Huff, A; Evans, Bradley (2016-06-22)

    Scholarly text
    The University of Auckland Library

    The Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA) Intentional Adulteration Rule (FSMA-IA) draft was published in December 2013, public meetings started in February 2014 and the final rule was published May 27, 2016. The effective date is in 60 days but “[FDA] are providing for a longer timeline for facilities to come into compliance” in at least three years, or May 2019. Economically Motivated Adulteration (EMA) – and Food Fraud (FF) – is in the FSMA law due to the text “…intentional adulteration, including acts of terrorism.” FDA announced their scope narrowed to “wide scale [human] public health harms” and removed from this rule the concepts of EMA, disgruntled employees, tampering, etc. The FSMA compliance requirements for FF & EMA are in the Preventive Controls Rule (FSMA-PC). FSMA-IA also continually confirms many times that the Food, Drug & Cosmetics Act (FDCA) is still in effect, which includes all types of Food Fraud, even without a health hazard (“Adulterated Foods” and “Misbranded Foods”). CONCLUSION Even though Food Fraud (FF) and Economically Motivated Adulteration (EMA) are not a compliance requirement for FSMA-IA, this final rule provides important insight into FSMA and assessments: Addressing all types of Food Fraud is a requirement – and subject to a recall – under the Food, Drug & Cosmetics Act (FDCA). FDA specifically reiterated the FDCA compliance requirement in sections on “Adulterated Foods” and “Misbranded Foods.” FSMA-IA stated that stolen goods (various types of theft) that lead to a public health hazard are clearly defined and expected to be covered under FSMA-PC. There were no more clarifications of key terms such as reasonably foreseeable hazard, significant vulnerability, rare occurrence, credible threat, or the threshold of acceptable or unacceptable. The compliance requirement for Food Fraud is addressed in FSMA-PC, not in this FSMA-IA. Other FSMA final rules provide some insight on FDA’s thinking regarding assessments, thresholds of acceptable /unacceptable, and the compliance priorities (see appendix of full report regarding the May 26, 2016 FDA public call). Reviewing FSMA compliance is exhausting. There are seven long Final Rules that impact all aspects of a food company. There are minute details that can lead to a recall or regulatory penalties. We have focused on the Food Fraud aspects – and tried to provide as brief and concise insight as possible – so hopefully this one part of FSMA you can quickly address. We have been continually adjusting our research focus to provide academic theory, in the form of scholarly publications, to support your countermeasures and control systems. There are many resources that are available for assisting your FSMA compliance. Find trusted resources and rely on them.

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  • Probability of Error Expressions for Communications in Wireless Sensor Networks over Frequency-selective Channels

    Tian, Jianjie (2016-08-10)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Directors as Agents–Some Aspects of Disputed Territory

    Watts, Peter (2016-01-28)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

    The main question addressed in this chapter is whether, in relation to the operation of general private law, company directors are agents. The chapter then turns to some more specific aspects of the application of private law questions to directors.

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  • Exploring Customer Engagement: a multi-stakeholder perspective

    Hollebeek, Linda (2016)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Living Life at the Edge: Democracy, Equity and Pragmatics in Evaluation

    Kushner, Saville (2016)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

    The chapter explores the politics and the role of program and policy evaluation in contexts of social inequity. A contrast is drawn between the roles and the goals of three key approaches to evaluation: Democratic Evaluation, Deliberative Democratic Evaluation and Equity-Based Evaluation.

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  • The Onus of Proof in Restitutionary Claims

    Watts, Peter (2016)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Agents' Disbursal of Funds in Breach of Instructions

    Watts, Peter (2016-01-20)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    This article argues that, where an agent disburses a principal’s funds in breach of instructions, the principal is prima facie entitled at common law to bring a restitutionary claim against the agent for a refund of the moneys so disbursed. Such a claim is merely a manifestation of a general inference at common law of a right to a refund where the recipient of a payment (or other transfer) has failed to meet the undertakings attached to the payment. The right to a refund is quite independent of any implied promise there may also be on the part of the payee to put the payer in the position it would have been in had the undertakings been met. It is therefore no defence that, had the undertakings been met, the claimant would have suffered a loss. But the refund right is fragile in other respects. It must be asserted promptly after the claimant knows the conditions have been broken; and, even where the claimant does not know of the breach it may, for a range of reasons, become too late to invoke it. In so far as agents are subject to parallel duties to account at equity for misapplied funds, the relevant principles are not markedly different. These principles of the common law were not addressed in Target Holdings Ltd v Redferns and AIB Group (UK) Plc v Mark Redler & Co Solicitors. In the result, the reasoning in these cases was seriously fl awed, even though the ultimate outcome in each can be justifi ed. Not only does the reasoning deployed in them damage the law of agency, it threatens serious and unjustified constriction of the law’s responses to breaches of contract in general.

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  • First-Hop Router Selection by Hosts in a Multi-Prefix Network

    Baker, F; Carpenter, Brian (2016-11)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    This document describes expected IPv6 host behavior in a scenario that has more than one prefix, each allocated by an upstream network that is assumed to implement BCP 38 ingress filtering, when the host has multiple routers to choose from. It also applies to other scenarios such as the usage of stateful firewalls that effectively act as address-based filters. Host behavior in choosing a first-hop router may interact with source address selection in a given implementation. However, the selection of the source address for a packet is done before the first-hop router for that packet is chosen. Given that the network or host is, or appears to be, multihomed with multiple provider-allocated addresses, that the host has elected to use a source address in a given prefix, and that some but not all neighboring routers are advertising that prefix in their Router Advertisement Prefix Information Options, this document specifies to which router a host should present its transmission. It updates RFC 4861.

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  • Laser textured surface gradients

    Ta, VD; Dunn, A; Wasley, TJ; Li, J; Kay, RW; Stringer, J; Smith, PJ; Esenturk, E; Connaughton, C; Shephard, JD (2016-05)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    This work demonstrates a novel technique for fabricating surfaces with roughness and wettability gradients and their subsequent applications for chemical sensors. Surface roughness gradients on brass sheets are obtained directly by nanosecond laser texturing. When these structured surfaces are exposed to air, their wettability decreases with time (up to 20 days) achieving both spatial and temporal wettability gradients. The surfaces are responsive to organic solvents. Contact angles of a series of dilute isopropanol solutions decay exponentially with concentration. In particular, a fall of 132° in contact angle is observed on a surface gradient, one order of magnitude higher than the 14° observed for the unprocessed surface, when the isopropanol concentration increased from 0 to 15.6 wt%. As the wettability changes gradually over the surface, contact angle also changes correspondingly. This effect offers multi-sensitivity at different zones on the surface and is useful for accurate measurement of chemical concentration.

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  • Surviving Shame: Adolescent Sex Workers’ Experiences of Accessing and Avoiding Helping Services

    Thorburn, Natalie (2016-04-17)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Adolescents involved with sex work are largely hidden from formal systems, and typically view counselling, social work, and health services with distrust. This article reports the findings of a study involving semi-structured interviews with a sample of eight young people who started sex work between the ages of 12 and 16. The study found that participants’ experiences with formal services were overwhelmingly negative and emotionally harmful. The combination of the participants’ outcome expectations, interactions with individual practitioners,and feelings of shame was found to preclude sustained engagement, irrespective of the participants’ level of need. Helpful elements of the client-practitioner alliance are identified, and components of service design that promote emotional safety and the positive development of self are discussed.

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  • Winston Peters “Puts His Hand to the Plow”: The Bible in New Zealand Political Discourse

    Myles, Robert (2016-05)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    This article examines the charismatic New Zealand politician Winston Peters’ sparse use of the Bible as a case study in the propagation of the “Cultural” and “Liberal” Bibles across the relatively irreligious landscape of New Zealand’s political culture. It considers why politicians continue to employ biblical rhetoric despite increasing indifference towards Christianity and the Bible, by situating such moves within the context of global capitalism. It also identifies some peculiarities of the political use of the Bible unique to the New Zealand situation and explores how these have aided the construction of distinctive political identities.

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  • Benthic Photo Survey: Software for Geotagging, Depth-tagging, and Classifying Photos from Survey Data and Producing Shapefiles for Habitat Mapping in GIS

    Kibele, Jared (2016-03)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Photo survey techniques are common for resource management, ecological research, and ground truthing for remote sensing but current data processing methods are cumbersome and inefficient. The Benthic Photo Survey (BPS) software described here was created to simplify the data processing and management tasks associated with photo surveys of underwater habitats. BPS is free and open source software written in Python with a QT graphical user interface. BPS takes a GPS log and jpeg images acquired by a diver or drop camera and assigns the GPS position to each photo based on time-stamps (i.e. geotagging). Depth and temperature can be assigned in a similar fashion (i.e. depth-tagging) using log files from an inexpensive consumer grade depth / temperature logger that can be attached to the camera. BPS provides the user with a simple interface to assign quantitative habitat and substrate classifications to each photo. Location, depth, temperature, habitat, and substrate data are all stored with the jpeg metadata in Exchangeable image file format (Exif). BPS can then export all of these data in a spatially explicit point shapefile format for use in GIS. BPS greatly reduces the time and skill required to turn photos into usable data thereby making photo survey methods more efficient and cost effective. BPS can also be used, as is, for other photo sampling techniques in terrestrial and aquatic environments and the open source code base offers numerous opportunities for expansion and customization.

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  • A Didactic Proposal for EFL in a Public School in Cali

    Chaves, O; Fernandez, A (2016)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    This article reports an action-research project aimed at designing, applying, and assessing a didactic sequence for teaching English as a foreign language in the first grade of a public school in Cali. The article comprises the context, reasons that justified the research, theoretical support, methodology, and results, analyzed through descriptive statistics and a data matrix. The findings suggest that the didactic proposal was easy to use for the teacher, understandable for the students, and appropriate for the students’ proficiency level due to its emphasis on the oral skills. It was concluded that didactic material should follow the pacing of the teachers’ academic work and has to be closely linked to the reality of teachers and students.

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  • Assessment capability for New Zealand teachers and students: Challenging but possible

    Booth, B; Dixon, H; Hill, MF (2016)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    The term assessment capable was introduced in New Zealand to distinguish between the more formulaic use of assessment-for-learning practices, and those that empower students to become self-regulated learners. This article explores the concept of assessment capability. It considers what it means to be an assessment-capable teacher in New Zealand, the lessons that have been learned in this area, and why the realisation of the assessment-capable student may be challenging. It examines the critical roles that teachers play in facilitating three key conditions needed for students to become metacognitive, self-regulated learners. Finally, it suggests ways that teachers may be supported to become assessment-capable professionals.

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  • Memory limited algorithms for optimal task scheduling on parallel systems

    Venugopalan, Sarad; Sinnen, Oliver (2016-05)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    To fully benefit from a multi-processor system, tasks need to be scheduled optimally. Given that the task scheduling problem with communication delays, P|prec,cij|CmaxP|prec,cij|Cmax, is a well known strong NP-hard problem, exhaustive approaches are necessary. The previously proposed A* based algorithm retains its entire state space in memory and often runs out of memory before it finds an optimal solution. This paper investigates and proposes two memory limited optimal scheduling algorithms: Iterative Deepening A* (IDA*) and Depth-First Branch and Bound A* (BBA*). When finding a guaranteed near optimal schedule length is sufficient, the proposed algorithms can be combined, reporting the gap while they run. Problem specific pruning techniques, which are crucial for good performance, are studied for the two proposed algorithms. Extensive experiments are conducted to evaluate and compare the proposed algorithms with previous optimal algorithms.

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  • The Productivity Paradox in Green Buildings

    Byrd, H; Onyeizu Rasheed, E (2016-04)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    In this paper we challenge the notion that “green” buildings can achieve greater productivity than buildings that are not accredited as “green”. For nearly two decades, research has produced apparent evidence which indicates that the design of a “green” building can enhance the productivity of its occupants. This relationship between building design and productivity is claimed to be achieved through compliance with internal environmental quality (IEQ) criteria of Green rating tools. This paper reviews methods of measuring productivity and the appropriateness of the metrics used for measuring IEQ in office environments. This review is supported by the results of a survey of office building users which identifies social factors to be significantly more important than environmental factors in trying to correlate productivity and IEQ. It also presents the findings of observations that were discretely carried out on user-response in green buildings. These findings demonstrate that, despite a building’s compliance with IEQ criteria, occupants still resort to exceptional measures to alter their working environment in a bid to achieve comfort. The work has been carried out on “green” buildings in New Zealand. These buildings are rated based on the NZ “Green Star” system which has adopted the Australian “green star” system with its roots in BREEAM. Despite this, the results of this research are applicable to many other “green” rating systems. The paper concludes that methods of measuring productivity are flawed, that IEQ criteria for building design is unrepresentative of how occupants perceive the environment and that this can lead to an architecture that has few of the inherent characteristics of good environmental design.

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  • The illogic of logic models

    Kushner, Saville (2016-03)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    It is a fundamental obligation of the evaluator to support the evaluand in theorising about their initiative and their assumptions of change. Most initiatives we evaluate are fragile in some sense - often they are charting new territory that may be contested. No one finds innovation comfortable or easy - it is too complex. Finding a way into that complexity and reducing it to practical understanding is one reason for an evaluation. However, this does not go as far as to say that all such initiatives are characterised by an overarching logic (it may even be unethical to insist that there must be a logic), that is, a discrete 'theory of change'. In fact, there may be no logic, or multiple logics. In any event, there are many ways of understanding programs and logical analysis is but one.

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