27,490 results for The University of Auckland Library

  • The Use of Type 1 Cytokines to Modulate Immune Responses Raised by the Gene Gun Method of DNA Delivery

    Williman, Jonathan (2007-05)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Since its discovery 15 years ago there has been an explosion of research in the field of DNA immunisation. Unfortunately despite early promises that DNA immunisation had the potential to cure almost any infectious disease, autoimmune disease or even cancer, progress towards clinical trials has been slow. This has been due in part to the huge range of permutations possible in delivering the DNA. One approach is to deliver the DNA by gene gun. Gene gun delivery is a very efficient way of transfecting cells however also has a number of possible disadvantages. These drawbacks include a weak immunogenicity in larger animals as well as the tendency to bias towards the development of a strong type 2 response. In an effort to enhance antigen-specific immune responses and counter the type 2 polarisation of gene gun delivery, a series of DNA vaccines were created where the extracellular portion of the hemagglutinin (HA) gene from influenza A/PR8/34 virus was genetically fused the type 1 cytokines IFNγ, IL-12 and IL-23. Interleukin-23 has been recently discovered and even though both IL-12 and IL-23 contain the p40 subunit they seem to have dissimilar functions. The vaccine constructs were first tested in cellular assays in vitro to ensure correct production and biological activity of the attached cytokines. They were then delivered in various combinations to groups of BALB/c mice to test development of immune responses and the effect of different delivery regimes. Finally mice were immunised then challenged with live influenza virus to determine the different DNA vaccines’ protective efficacy. DNA vaccines containing the HA gene alone (pHA) or fused to IFNγ (pIFNγHA), IL-12 (pIL-12HA) or IL-23 (pIL-23HA) were successfully constructed. The fusion of the HA gene to the genes for IFNγ, IL-12 or IL-23 did not significantly disturb the structure of the antigen or prevent the biological actions of the cytokines. Mice immunised three times with pHA had high titres of serum IgG1 antibody and their splenocytes produced approximately equal amounts of IFNγ and IL-5. Co-delivery of IFNγ was unable to alter immune responses regardless of whether it was delivered at the first, last or during all immunisations. Surprisingly co-delivery of IL-12 acted to suppress both antibody and cellular immune responses, possibly through an IFNγ/nitric oxide feedback loop. On the other hand co-delivery of IL-23 tended to enhanced immune responses and, while it did not significantly alter the type 1 to type 2 balance, it was able to increase the ability of mice to clear live influenza virus from their lungs when they were challenged 26 weeks after immunisation. This protection was associated with increased levels of neutralising antibody in the serum of pIL-23HA immunised mice. This research has illuminated several of the pitfalls in the development of DNA vaccines and the use of cytokine as adjuvants. However it has also broadened our understanding of IL-23 and implies that IL-23 could be effectively used to increase the development of longterm immunity after immunisation.

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  • An instrumental case study of a professional development intervention that uses unfamiliar mathematics to prompt secondary teachers' re-thinking about learning and teaching.

    Paterson, Judith (2008)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    This study is part of a professional development project working to enhance mathematics achievement and retention in schools in a low socio-economic region in Auckland, New Zealand. Over two years teachers of senior mathematics classes from ten schools attended workshops and meetings at which mathematicians and statisticians from the University of Auckland gave talks on aspects of their academic work. These talks form basis of the intervention that is the focus of this study. The aim of the study was to determine whether, when put in the position of encountering unfamiliar mathematics, teachers would re-view their understanding of learning, and what the results of this experience would be for their understanding of students learning needs and their teaching. In the workshops prompts and questions encouraged the teachers to discuss learning and teaching. It was hypothesised that this could lead to teachers becoming more open to considering change in their practice. A framework was developed in order to categorise the teacher talk that constituted the data. Measured against this framework the data showed that the intervention was effective in encouraging approximately 40% of the group of 31 teachers who attended one or more workshops to consider or enact change in their practice. The data was re-examined at a deeper level seeking to establish how and why the teachers responded as they did. On the basis of this a model of the processes and outcomes of teacher learning in the intervention was developed. This analysis showed that three strands of experience encouraged teachers to consider change in their practice: being re-energised for teaching through being mathematically stimulated; coming to realisations about teaching through introspection and identification with students as learners; and discussing teaching within a supportive learning community. A number of factors and contexts that impacted on teachers, responses to the intervention were identified.

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  • A methodology for multilevel analysis of scientific collaboration networks : Mapping current computer science research in New Zealand

    Martin, Bernd (2014-05-01)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    This research scientifically analysed the evolving Complex Network structures of the New Zealand Computer Science research community upon multiple levels (Macro, Meso, Micro, Topics). Methodological approaches utilised interdisciplinary techniques comprised of data mining, social network analyses, scientometrics and data visualisation. The research sought to identify communities, highly influential nodes, research institutions, and their collaborative patterns over the last 5 years. Network metrics revealed insights into the structure of the networks. Collaboration networks were generated using a variety of layout algorithms then visually presented in the form of knowledge maps. Furthermore, Word Co-occurrence networks of terms from both the Titles field and Keywords field were constructed and analysed to reveal topic trends and bursts. The mapping of recent New Zealand Computer Science research developments was accomplished by using Alluvial diagrams. The change of streams over the time period highlights the nature of, and evolving relations within and amongst topics. The visual results of this research provide a natural way to reveal information. To my knowledge, this is the most comprehensive multilevel study of a specific domain (Computer Science) conducted within New Zealand, to date. The applied methods are transferable to other domains and interdisciplinary endeavours. A real world application of the applied methodology could be an enhancement of the existing interdisciplinary portal (www.nzresearch.org.nz/) with the application of multilevel analysis methods. This could enable collaboration and discovery among scientists across all disciplines. An interactive multimedia presentation of this research including high definition maps and a 3D demonstration of the Topic network can be found at: http://tinyurl.com/BerndMartinThesis It accompanies, supports the findings of, and enhances this written research.

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  • Essays on Macroeconomic Dynamics

    Grechyna, Daryna (2011-07-13)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    This dissertation is comprised of three papers devoted to several recent macroeconomic problems. The first two chapters are devoted to the questions of optimal fiscal policy, in particular, to the issues of optimal public debt and deficit under the conditions of aggregate uncertainty and governmental imperfections. The problem of optimal public debt regulation is of particular importance nowadays, when seemingly developed countries face threads of unsustainable debt levels. The first chapter explains different, persistent and large public debt levels in developed countries by the presence of public corruption in these countries. The second chapter studies stochastic behavior of public debt and deficit in the time-consistent setup. The third chapter is devoted to not the least important problem of periodic financial crises that hit developed economies. It proposes evidence in favor of cautious attitude towards too fast financial development of the economies, which are not characterized by corresponding development in other, productive sectors. The first chapter proposes a possible explanation of different and positive government debt levels observed in developed economies. It builds a simple model that relates the level of government debt to the degree of corruptness of the public officials in the country, using neoclassical economy framework with discretionary and non-benevolent government. Public corruption results in higher public debt levels in the steady state. The model reproduces about 76\% of variation in debt-to-GDP levels in a sample of advanced OECD countries as a function of the measure of public corruption in these countries. In the empirical part the assumptions and predictions of the model are tested in a panel of OECD member states. The second chapter considers the implications of optimal taxation for the stochastic behavior of debt and deficit in the economy with discretionary government, focusing on Markov perfect equilibria. It concludes that in such time-consistent setup in case of market incompleteness the properties of the variables are very similar to those in the full commitment case. Moreover, debt shows more persistence than other variables and it increases in response to shocks that cause a higher deficit, which is in accordance with empirical evidence from U.S. data. This result, in contrast to the full commitment case, holds regardless whether the government pursues its optimal fiscal policy under complete markets, or under incomplete markets. The third chapter, based on the joint work with Lorenzo Ductor, investigates possible negative influence of financial development on economic growth. It defines excess finance as a level of the difference between the growth in financial sector and growth in productive sector of the economy, under which the aggregate output decreases. Based on panel data for 33 OECD economies, it is shown, that for smooth economic development the equilibrated growth of both productive (real) and financial sectors is required. Whenever financial development exceeds the development of productive industries by 4.5\% (when measured in terms of growth rates of the two sectors output), there is a thread of reaching the productive capacity bound of the economy, with consequent "financial" crisis. The existence of excess financial development may be justified by the theory of informational overshooting.

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  • He kohikohinga rangahau: a bibliography of Māori and psychology research

    Hollis, H; Cooper, Erana; Braun, V; Pomare, P (2010-09)

    Book
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Unintentional injuries at home: the role of alcohol, recreational drug use, & fatigue in the greater Auckland, Waikato, & Otago regions in people aged 20 to 64 years

    Kool, B; Ameratunga, S; Sharpe, S (2011)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    Unintentional injuries in the home account for a significant burden of injury among all age groups in New Zealand. Falls are the leading cause of injury-related admissions to hospital and one of the three leading causes of injury death in New Zealand. Cutting or piercing injuries are the second leading cause of injury hospitalisation in New Zealand. Home is the most common location for injuries resulting in hospitalisation. The impact of injuries at home among young and middle-age adults may have significant implications for both work productivity and family life. This project was designed to explore modifiable risk factors for unintentional falls and cutting or piecing injuries at home resulting in admission to hospital among young and middle-aged adults (aged 20 to 64 years). The study builds on the Auckland Fall Study previously conducted by the researchers and funded by the Accident Compensation Corporation (ACC). The project involved the following methodologies: a review of the published literature to identify risk factors for unintentional cutting or piercing injury or falls at home among young and middle-aged adults; an analysis of routinely collected national data on hospitalisations and deaths for home injuries; an analysis of trauma registry data for home injuries; and a multi-regional population-based case-control study, with a case-crossover component, to identify modifiable risk factors for unintentional falls and cutting or piercing injures at home among the age group of interest .

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  • Progression in the knowledge and philosophy of technology

    Compton, Vicki; Compton, AD (2011)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Extinction-induced variability in human behaviour

    Kinloch, Jennifer (2006)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    These results [of five experiments] add to the small number of studies showing increased variability in extinction for human behavior, and also show that the degree of effect could be due to reinforcement history and the instructional specificity

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  • Prioritising International Sex Crimes before the Special Court for Sierra Leone: Another Instrument of Political Manipulation?

    Mahony, Christopher (2012)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

    Introduction Over the past two decades the prosecution of international crimes1 has be-come increasingly common, with international organisations and individ-ual States taking political positions over their legitimacy and conduct. Ef-forts to ensure impartiality and independence in the selection of cases prosecuted however, have largely failed. Independent case selection has been compromised because States have sought to impede prosecution where they view doing so as antithetical to their interests. ...

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  • Enhancing Students Conceptual Understanding of Chemistry through the SOLO Taxonomy

    Gan, Joo (2007)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Forest Health News: Eucalypt pest gum leaf skeletoniser reaches the central North Island

    Withers, TM; Gresham, B; Avila Olesen, Gonzalo (2014-10)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Image and Video Technology: 6th Pacific-Rim Symposium, PSIVT 2013, Guanajuato, Mexico, October 28-November 1, 2013. Proceedings

    (2014)

    Book
    The University of Auckland Library

    This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of the 6th Pacific Rim Symposium on Image and Video Technology, PSIVT 2013, held in Guanajuato, México in October/November 2013. The total of 43 revised papers was carefully reviewed and selected from 90 submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections on image/video processing and analysis, image/video retrieval and scene understanding, applications of image and video technology, biomedical image processing and analysis, biometrics and image forensics, computational photography and arts, computer and robot vision, pattern recognition, and video surveillance.

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  • Concise Computer Vision: An Introduction into theory and algorithms

    Klette, Reinhard (2014)

    Book
    The University of Auckland Library

    Concise Computer Vision provides an accessible general introduction to the essential topics in computer vision, highlighting the role of important algorithms and mathematical concepts. Classroom-tested programming exercises and review questions are also supplied at the end of each chapter.

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  • Does employee downsizing really work?

    Datta, DK; Basuil Tobias, Dynah (2014)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

    Over the past couple of decades, employee downsizing has become a fact of organizational life, not just in the U.S. but, increasingly so, in other countries, with unprecedented levels of downsizing occurring in several countries during the last recession. Seen as being inevitable in an increasingly competitive global marketplace, the high levels of downsizing activity attest to the deep-seated belief among managers that downsizing enhances organizational efficiency and leads to improved financial performance. Critics, on the other hand, argue that benefits are illusory and point out that attendant costs, both visible and invisible, can make downsizing a relatively ineffective tool for creating firm value. After a brief discussion of the factors that motivate and propel firms to engage in downsizing, we, in this article, examine the findings of extant research to assess whether downsizing does indeed improve organization performance. What we find based on our examination of 55 studies is that the findings are equivocal with very little agreement among researchers on the efficacy of employee downsizing to create organizational value. We explore possible reasons for the same and conclude by providing directions for future research that, we believe, will provide the insights that scholars and managers need to better understand the complex relationship between employee downsizing and firm value.

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  • Foundations for the Logic of Questions and Commands

    Girle, Roderic; McKeown-Green, J (2014)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

    Recent interest in logics for questions and commands has been prompted partly by a recognition that reasoned argument often involves moves that are not truth-evaluable, and partly by the use of questions and commands in most procedural programming. The authors argue that certain methodological issues must be addressed before we can agree on the purpose and nature of logics for questions and commands. They deny that formulas in such logics should correspond to sentences in ordinary language. They consider how formulas should be interpreted, focusing especially on questions. The authors argue that logics designed to capture the conditions for correct reasoning involving questions require a semantics that treats question-answer pairs as values. This emphasis brings to the fore issues about questions in premise-conclusion arguments. In both premise-conclusion and dialogical argumentation, the authors argue that logic should aim to capture moves in reasoning, not facts about sentences.

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  • Othering “Lebs”: Racialised demonisation of Lebanese immigrants in Australia

    Poynting, Noel (2014)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

    This paper demonstrates how the Lebanese immigrant population in Australia (and especially its largest city, Sydney) has quite a distinct experience from elsewhere in the Lebanese diaspora in the way they have been perceived and represented. Over the past two decades, Lebanese immigrants in Sydney have been ideologically associated with inherent criminality: they have been racialised and criminalised at the same time. A whole younger generation, of second- and third-generation Lebanese immigrants, has grown up having to live with, and to respond to, being defined in that way. This chapter traces that process of racialisation and criminalisation by focusing on some key flashpoints over this period, and also gives some indication of how Lebanese Australians in Sydney have experienced this ‘othering’.

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  • Economyths

    Kushner, Saville; Kushner, B (2011)

    Unclassified
    The University of Auckland Library

    The case for economic crisis in the UK - the basis of the austerity programme and the part-dismantling of the Welfare State - is assertion rather than analysis. This is evidence of a hegemonic 'single political narrative' which is little subjected to critical scrutiny or public debate. The casualty is deliberative democracy and the quality of public understanding - essentially, a de-education strategy. This analysis challenges such a hegemony and, through its presentation at conferences, public lectures, publications and broadcasts (cited elsewhere in this submission) makes the case for deliberative contestation over social and economic realities and visions. This is an attempt at public education and to trial a diffusion strategy commensurate with the principles of Democratic Evaluation. The methodological approach is Popperian 'falsification'. Each card has an assertion on its face with a (evidence-based) refutation on its reverse - some cards are pedagogical in keeping with the public education aspect of the presentation.

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  • The role of imprinting in mouse embryonic development and tumorigenesis.

    Holm, Teresa (2006)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Imprinting is a mammalian adaptation that results in the mono-allelic expression of a subset of genes depending on their parental origin. It is believed that DNA methylation marks are responsible for maintaining imprinted gene expression patterns. The 'parental conflict' hypothesis was proposed to explain the evolution of imprinting and is based on the assumption that mammals arose from an ancestor that was polyandrous (multiple fathers within one litter). According to this hypothesis, conflict between the male and female over the allocation of maternal resources to the offspring led to the evolution of imprinting. Consistent with this, many imprinted genes are involved in embryonic or placental growth by regulating mitogenic pathways or the cell cycle. Loss of imprinting (LOI) has been found at specific loci in cancers, raising the possibility that altered expression of imprinted genes may also contribute to tumorigenesis. To investigate the effect of global LOI on embryonic development and cancer formation, imprint free (IF) embryonic stem (ES) cells were generated using conditional inactivation/reactivation of the DNA methyltransferase Dnmtl. Tetraploid complementation and chimera experiments revealed that IF-embryos fail to develop beyond E11.5 and display an overgrowth phenotype.

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  • Commercial decisions in the Supreme Court of New Zealand: The prominence of agency law in the first ten years

    Watts, Peter (2015)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Progress toward pathways prioritization in compliance to Aichi Target 9

    Riccardo, S; Genovesi, P; Booy, O; Essl, F; Jeschke, J; Hulme, PE; McGeoch, M; Pagad, Shyama; Roy, HE; Saul, W-C; Wilson, JR (2016)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

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