27,490 results for The University of Auckland Library

  • Trois mouvements éthiques en recherche collaborative

    Maheux, Jean-Francois (2013)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Constitutive expression of SOCS-3 in skeletal muscle induces obesity in mice

    Cognard, Emmanuelle (2007-12-21)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Type 1 or type 2 diabetes is a metabolic syndrome characterized by chronic hyperglycemia. The World Health Organization estimates that there are more than 180 millions of diabetic people worldwide and this number should double by 2030. The prevalence of diabetes strongly increases in all countries and nowadays its development is considered epidemic. Type 2 diabetes or non-insulin-dependent diabetes represents 95% of diabetic patients. Most of the time, it is associated with obesity. Type 2 diabetes occurs when insulin-sensitive tissues become insulin-resistant and pancreatic β-cells secrete less insulin. SOCS (Suppressor Of Cytokine Signaling) proteins have been discovered because of their negative feedback loop on cytokine signaling but they are also important inhibitors of the insulin signaling pathway (SOCS-3 in particular). Insulin actually induces SOCS-3 expression, which then interacts with the insulin receptor. SOCS-3 prevents the interaction between the receptor and its substrates, which decreases the upstream signal. Therefore SOCS-3 could play an important role in the development of insulin resistance. Liver, skeletal muscle and adipose tissue are the main target-tissue of insulin. It was shown in vitro that SOCS-3 inhibits insulin signaling in these tissues. However, SOCS-3 role in vivo and the mechanisms involved in the process are not fully understood yet. Furthermore we do not have a clear picture of the exact role of each tissue in the development of insulin resistance. The aims of this study are 1) to find out if constitutive expression of SOCS-3 in skeletal muscle could induce insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, 2) to analyze the underlying molecular mechanisms. To do this, we have generated transgenic mice, which constitutively express SOCS-3 specifically in skeletal muscle (MLC/SOCS-3 mice). We have analyzed the phenotype of the transgenic mice compared to their wild type littermates and we have performed a molecular analysis of the muscles. Interestingly, MLC/SOCS-3 mice have more adipose tissue, result of an increase in the size of the adipocytes. Food intake is the same in the transgenic mice compared to the wild type littermate. However, we found a decrease in energy expenditure for the transgenic mice, which could be due, at least in part, to a decrease of physical activity. Transgenic mice have a normal glucose tolerance and no hyperglycemia. So MLC/SOCS-3 mice do not develop type 2 diabetes. Insulin tolerance is nevertheless reduced and this correlates with the degree of obesity of the transgenic mice. Molecular analysis of skeletal muscle did not show any decrease in insulin signaling in the muscle of MLC/SOCS-3 mice. However, we observed a decrease in SOCS-2 expression, another isoform of the SOCS family. SOCS-2 is a potential insulin inhibitor and so this decrease in SOCS-2 expression could compensate the increase in SOCS-3 expression and in this manner insulin signaling would not be disturbed. In conclusion, this study shows new evidence for the role of SOCS-3 in insulin resistance, as well as its possible involvement in muscle physiology. We have shown that, if constitutive expression of SOCS-3 in the skeletal muscle does not lead to type 2 diabetes, this induces an increase in adipose tissue, which is due in part to a decrease in physical activity. Molecular mechanisms for the role of SOCS-3 in physical activity remain to be defined.

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  • From text to pretext: An ethical turn in curriculum work

    Maheux, Jean-Francois; Swanson, D; Khan, S (2012)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Technical support to EU strategy on invasive species (IAS) - Assessment of the impacts of IAS in Europe and the EU (final module report for the European Commission)

    Kettunen, M; Genovesi, P; Gollasch, S; Pagad, Shyama; Starfinger, U; Ten Brink, P; Shine, C (2008)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    This assessment provides a picture of the different environmental, social and economic costs and benefits of invasive alien species (IAS) in Europe, constituting the first full assessment of all types of IAS impacts at the pan-European scale. The report is part of the work led by IEEP to support the development of the EU Strategy on IAS.

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  • Technical support to EU strategy on invasive species (IAS) – Policy options to control the negative impacts of IAS on biodiversity in Europe and the EU. Final report for the European Commission

    Shine, C; Kettunen, M; Genovesi, P; Gollasch, S; Pagad, Shyama; Starfinger, U (2008)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    This assessment identifies policy measures available to minimise damage of invasive alien species (IAS) to European biodiversity in an efficient and cost-effective manner. It also provides preliminary insights on the feasibility of different policy approaches in the EU context. The report is part of the work led by IEEP to support the development of the EU Strategy on IAS.

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  • Opportunities and impediments: Drama in vocational education

    Heyward, Paul (2011)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Critical pedagogy: where are we now?

    McLaren, Peter (2007)

    Book
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Agents and Networks in the Translation of Taiwanese Literature

    Kung, Szu-Wen (2010)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    This thesis firstly investigates how a network of translation agents is formed and operates when translating and exporting contemporary Taiwanese literature to the West, in particular to the USA. The study then examine the translations, not only against their source texts, but also against the formation of such a network so as to identify how the target texts including paratexts are shaped by the mediation of the actors and the agency structure in relation to their ideology, translation objectives and translatorial habitus. This research identifies and compares the agency of two translation networks and their agents: the translator-led network and the subvention network. The study of paratexts and extratexts not only recognizes the mediation of the translation agents, their individual power and translation beliefs, but also maps out the network formation process, agency structure and their influence on the translation production. Meanwhile, the translation analysis including paratexts against not only the source text, but also the formation of the networks, gives an insight into the key role of the agent’s translatorial ideology and translation objectives in shaping the final presentation of translations, and moreover the importance of the assumed readership or the target culture expectations in influencing the agent’s understanding and mediation of translation. The outcome of this thesis firstly indicates how the recent interest in the emerging sociological approach, and that of Bourdieu’s and Latour’s frameworks in particular, can make conceptual contributions to translation studies and research in its own right and allow the researcher to move further in the development of a more agent- and process-oriented type of research. The study also highlights those issues which may contribute to more effective promotion and exportation of translated foreign literature from lesser-known cultures.

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  • Community meets university on Mangere Mountain

    Jesson, Jocelyn (2010)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Forms of participation in urban redevelopment projects - the differing roles of public and stakeholder contributions to design decision making processes

    Hunt, John (2006)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

    This paper examines how political commitment to participatory design within the context of a major urban redevelopment project was translated into a strategy and a course of action for achieving effective participation within a demanding project timeframe. The project in question involves a new transport interchange for the city of Auckland (New Zealand), the redevelopment of a number of heritage buildings, and the introduction of new buildings to create a mixed use precinct covering three city blocks. The project, currently being implemented, has involved extensive public consultation and stakeholder participation as it has proceeded through the stages of project visioning, an open public design competition, and the development of the competition winning design. The paper draws a distinction between the contributions of stakeholders versus the public at large to the decision-making process, outlines the different kinds of participatory processes adopted by the local authority (Auckland City Council) to effectively engage and involve these two different groups and the stages in the evolution of the project at which these different contributions were introduced. The model of ‘open design’ proposed by van Gunsteren and van Loon is used as a basis for explaining the success of multi-stakeholder inputs at a crucial stage in project development. The paper concludes by examining the limits of applicability of the ‘open design’ model in the context of urban redevelopment projects in which there is broad public interest, and by suggesting a number of design decision support guidelines for the management of participatory processes.

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  • A Membrane Target of Lithium in Cortical Neurons in vitro

    Butler-Munro, Charlotte (2011)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    For over fifty years the elemental cation lithium (Li+) has been the primary agent used in the treatment and prophylaxis of bipolar disorder, but its therapeutic mechanism of action remains unknown. Bipolar disorder is associated with alterations in ion distributions and may be the result of abnormal ion channel function. Consistent with this, anticonvulsants which block voltage gated sodium (Na+) channels are the second most commonly prescribed mood stabilisers, after Li+, for the treatment of bipolar disorder. How Li+ may share a membrane effect with the anticonvulsants has presented an unresolved paradox. While anticonvulsants block voltage gated Na+ channels, Li+ readily enters neurons through voltage gated Na+ channels and can replace Na+ in membrane depolarisation. This paradox has deterred the development of an ion channel hypothesis for the mechanism of action of the anticonvulsants and Li+ in the treatment of bipolar disorder, and may have prevented progress in understanding of the pathophysiology of this disease. Recent work has indicated that voltage gated Na+ channels are functionally and structurally coupled to potassium (K+) channels sensitive to the intracellular concentration of Na+, these channels generate the Na+ activated K+ conductance (IKNa+). Evidence suggests that Li+ cannot replace Na+ in IKNa+ channel activation, however, because previous studies investigating IKNa+ channels have replaced the majority of external Na+ with Li+, the effect of low concentrations of Li+ on IKNa+ channels in the presence of physiologically relevant Na+ levels is unclear. If lower, more therapeutically relevant concentrations of Li+ were to interfere with IKNa+ channel activation this would suggest a common target of Li+ and the anticonvulsants on the electrical membrane properties of brain neurons. Li+ may directly block IKNa+ channels, and the anticonvulsants indirectly block IKNa+ channels through their primary effect to block voltage gated Na+ channels. The work in this thesis has provided a systematic characterisation of the effects of low concentrations of Li+ on the electrical properties of a neuronal membrane. The results indicate that Li+ increases membrane excitability, and decreases the decay slope and after-hyperpolarisation (AHP) of individual action potentials, consistent with decreased activation of IKNa+ channels. Li+ is shown to decrease the activation of a persistent, voltage dependent outward current active at subthreshold potentials, an effect dependent upon Li+ entry into neurons through voltage gated Na+ channels. These effects of Li+ cannot be explained by a simple inability of Li+ to activate IKNa+ current, and it is proposed that low concentrations of Li+ actively interferes with Na+ activation of IKNa+ channels. This work indicates that Li+ has a direct effect on the electrical properties of neurons. Interestingly, anticonvulsant drugs, also used in the treatment of bipolar disorder, have long been known to alter the electrical properties of neurons through inhibition of voltage gated Na+ channels. Based on our findings with Li+ and the well characterised effects of the anticonvulsants, we propose that Li+ and the anticonvulsants target structurally and functionally coupled ion channels involved in the short and long term control of membrane excitability. This is consistent with increasing genetic evidence indicating that bipolar disorder could be a disease of ion channels (a channelopathy), and has exciting implications for our understanding of the pathophysiology of mood disorders.

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  • The value relevance of international financial reporting standards : evidence from New Zealand

    Bridges, Caroline (2009)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    In this thesis, I examine the value relevance of financial statements for companies that chose to voluntarily adopt International Financial Reporting Standards in New Zealand between 2005 and 2007, prior to it becoming mandatory for all companies. Specifically, I document the relative and incremental value relevance, respectively, of voluntarily adopting New Zealand International Financial Reporting Standards as opposed to domestically produced New Zealand Financial Reporting Standards on the book value of equity and net income for a sample of 34 companies. The main results of the empirical analysis find that (i) there is no evidence to suggest that the value relevance of the book value of equity and net income calculated under New Zealand International Financial Reporting Standards, when taken together, is greater than the combined value relevance of the book value of equity and net income calculated under domestically produced New Zealand Financial Reporting Standards (i.e., New Zealand International Financial Reporting Standards do not have relative value relevance); (ii) the book value of equity calculated under New Zealand International Financial Reporting Standards does not have incremental value relevance over and above the book value of equity calculated under domestically produced New Zealand Financial Reporting Standards; and (iii) net income calculated under New Zealand International Financial Reporting Standards does not have incremental value relevance over and above net income calculated under domestically produced New Zealand Financial Reporting Standards. I also carry out an analysis of the conservativeness of the net income figure measured under New Zealand International Financial Reporting Standards, and find that there is no significant difference in the timeliness or asymmetric timeliness (i.e., conditional conservatism) between net income calculated under New Zealand International Financial Reporting Standards and domestically produced New Zealand Financial Reporting Standards. Overall, my thesis finds little evidence that the voluntary adoption of New Zealand International Financial Reporting Standards provides accounting information that is more value relevant to that under domestically produced New Zealand Financial Reporting Standards, which is consistent with the conclusion of Hung & Subramanyam (2007) albeit in the German institutional setting. Hence, the benefits of early adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards in New Zealand are questionable.

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  • The effects of dietary fructose and salt on maternal, fetal and adult offspring growth, metabolic status and cardiovascular health.

    Gray, Clint (2011-07)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    The modern Western diet is typically high in salt and fructose. Variations in maternal diet can have delayed developmental effects on the adult offspring’s cardiovascular function leading to acute or chronic hypertension. The aim of the work in this thesis was to determine the effect of moderate dietary salt and/or fructose intake on maternal and fetal growth, metabolic status and cardiovascular health of the adult offspring. Sprague Dawley rats were fed either 1) control diet (chow) with tap water, 2) salt diet, 4% NaCl, 3) fructose diet, purified chow plus 10% fructose in tap water or 4) fructose and salt diet for 28 days prior to conception, through gestation and lactation. Data were collected on the non-pregnant and pregnant dam, the fetus and neonate and the adult offspring. Cardiovascular data in adult offspring were recorded between the ages of 10-15 weeks by implanted radiotelemetry probes. Dams fed fructose prior to and during gestation increased caloric intake (P<0.001), but significantly decreased basal MAP (~8mmHg) in the adult female offspring. Both fructose and salt diet had effects on the circadian variation in blood pressure and heart rate. Subsequent cardiovascular challenges revealed little beyond an altered cardiovascular set-point in these offspring. The study emphasizes the importance of quality rather than quantity when assessing maternal diet, particularly in terms of its mineral and simple sugar content. In conclusion, data within this thesis demonstrates for the first time a moderate maternal dietary intake of salt and fructose can affect offspring osmolality profile and blood pressure in a sex-specific manner and produce a pattern of symptoms resembling NAFLD which, in part, are passed vertically to the offspring.

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  • Synergistic Induction of Differentiation in Leukemia Cells by All-Trans Retinoic Acid (ATRA) and Plant polyphenols: Involvment of Retinoic Acid Receptor Beta (RARβ)

    Steiner, Michael; Danilenko, M; Levy, J; Sharoni, Y (2007)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Current cancer therapies are highly toxic and often nonspecific. A potentially less toxic approach to treating this prevalent disease employs agents that modify cancer cell differentiation, termed "differentiation therapy". Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), bearing a characteristic t(15;17) chromosomal translocation with breakpoints within the retinoic acid receptor alpha (RARα) and promyelocytic leukemia (PML) gene, is the best example of a malignant disease successfully treated by differentiation-inducing agents, e.g. all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA). The specific sensitivity of APL cells to ATRA has modified the therapeutic approach of APL resulting in 90% complete remission. However, prolonged treatment with high (therapeutic) ATRA doses (~ 1 μM) results in retinoid resistance syndrome and relapses usually occur within months in nearly all patients who are initially sensitive to ATRA. Another powerful differentiation agent, 1,25- dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D3), can induce differentiation in various myeloid leukemia cells in vitro. However, it is profoundly toxic (hypercalcemic) at pharmacologically active doses. Recently, we have shown that several dietary antioxidant micronutrients, such as the tomato carotenoid lycopene and the polyphenol carnosic acid (CA) found in rosemary, substantially enhance the differentiating and anti-proliferative effects of low, non-toxic concentrations of ATRA and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in HL-60 and U937 human myeloid leukemia cells (in vitro) and in the mouse-leukemia model (in vivo). This enhancement of antileukemic effect in vitro was associated with an increase in the levels of nuclear receptors for retinoids and vitamin D (VDR). The current study characterized strong anti-proliferative and differentiation effects of combined treatment of different human myeloid leukemia cell lines and cells obtained from leukemic patients with low concentrations of ATRA (0.3-1 nM) and CA (2.5-5 µM), and explored the molecular mechanism underlying these effects. A synergistic cell growth inhibitory effect of CA/ATRA combinations in different leukemic cell lines correlated with cell accumulation in G0/G1 phase of cell cycle and was not associated with cell death. Furthermore, a synergistic induction of differentiation was observed, as was evident by the changes in cell morphology, reorganization of nuclear bodies, induction of CD11b, CD11c and CD18 surface markers and oxygen burst activity. Importantly, combinations of ATRA and CA showed anti-proliferative and differentiation effects on ATRA-resistant cell lines (NB4-R1 and HL-60R). Importantly, the above antileukemic effects of inducer/polyphenol combinations in all leukemia cell lines (NB4, HL-60, U937, PLB-985) and ex vivo cells obtained from leukemia patients correlated with strong induction of RAR and, in NB4 cells (the APL cell line), with PML-RAR degradation and RAR stabilization. RAR gene expression is often lost or reduced in human carcinoma cells, suggesting a tumor suppressor role of RAR. Interestingly, the resistance of NB4 cells to 1,25D3, and of HT-29 colon cancer cells, and some types of ex vivo leukemic cells (M2 and M4) to polyphenols, ATRA, 1,25D3 and their combinations were associated with undetectable levels of RAR in these cells that were not changed by the indicated agents. Overexpression of RAR, after transfection of the RAR-expression vector into HT-29 cells, enhanced cell growth inhibition induced by CA, ATRA and their combination by 20-40%. Overexpression of the same vector in U937 cells enhanced the ATRA-induced growth inhibition and differentiation by 20-30%, whereas the effects of CA/ATRA combinations were not increased. These data indicate that substantial upregulation of RAR by the CA/ATRA combination results in a maximal cell differentiation response which is not further enhanced by the ectopic expression of RAR. The opposite effects on cell growth and differentiation were detected after RAR downregulation. Expression of the dominant negative RAR, mutated in its DNA-binding domain, in HL-60 cells decreased the cell growth inhibition, induced by the CA/ATRA combination (by 20%), and differentiation induced by both ATRA at high concentration (by 30%) and the combination (by 25%). Even stronger reduction of ATRA- and CA/ATRA-induced differentiation (by about 40%) was obtained by silencing of RAR induced by RAR-siRNA oligos transfected into HL-60 cells. The mechanism, by which plant polyphenols synergistically enhance the anticancer effects of ATRA and 1,25D3, is largely unknown. Our data indicate the involvement of retinoic acid receptor regulation at both transcriptional (mRNA) and protein levels in the CA-ATRA synergism. This is evidenced by the correlation between the enhanced antileukemic effect of the CA/ATRA combination and upregulation and stabilization of RAR, induction of RAR, and reduction in PML- RAR levels. In addition, strong upregulation of vitamin D receptor (VDR) and its heterodimeric partner, retinoid X receptor (RXR), correlated with the polyphenol potentiation of the antileukemic effect of 1,25D3 in patient-derived leukemic cells. Besides CA-induced upregulation of RAR at the transcriptional level, as seen by mRNA induction and transactivation of RAR response element (DR5) derived from RAR gene promoter, the possible mechanism of nuclear receptor modulation may involve the inhibition by polyphenols of proteasome-dependent or -independent degradation of these receptors. Indeed, treatment of NB4 cells with the proteasome inhibitor, MG132, dramatically elevated RAR levels. However, in contrast to CA, MG123 only slightly increased the ATRA-induced differentiation, indicating that the upregulation of RAR alone is not sufficient for the differentiation enhancement. An additional putative mechanism, which emerged from this study and may contribute to the polyphenol-inducer synergism, is CA-induced inhibition of the ATRA degradation pathway. Our preliminary results obtained by RT-PCR indicate that in ATRA treated NB4 cells, CA downregulates CYP26, the member of the cytochrome P450 enzyme family which is responsible for specific oxidation and degradation of ATRA. CYP26 downregulation is likely to increase cellular levels of ATRA which, in turn, would enhance the differentiation response. These data are supported by the evidence that a synergistic potentiation by CA of ATRA-induced CD11b induction in NB4 cells was mimicked by ketoconazole, a broad range inhibitor of P450 related enzymes. Taken together, the results of the current mechanistic study suggest that the enhanced cooperative anticancer effects of the combinations of polyphenols and differentiation inducers in both leukemic and non-leukemic cancer cells are mediated by multiple complementing mechanisms (e.g., nuclear receptor upregulation and stabilization of inducer concentrations). This study may provide the basis for the development of strategies for the treatment of myeloid leukemias and other malignant diseases, both sensitive and resistant to ATRA treatment, using combinations of ATRA and dietary polyphenols. This work supports the important role of RAR as the therapeutic target in cancer prevention and treatment.

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  • Leisure and Pleasure: Reshaping and Revealing the New Zealand Body 1900–1960

    Daley, Caroline (2003)

    Book
    The University of Auckland Library

    "This book explores an unexpected aspect of New Zealand social history, the modern body at leisure. It begins by tracing the only New Zealand tour of Eugen Sandow, the most famous strongman of his age. Sandow's body delighted his audiences and inspired many to reshape and then reveal their toned torsos. His rich New Zealand legacy is examined as Daley takes us through the gyms of the early twentieth century, the rise of beauty contests, the new crazes of swimming and sunbathing, the advent of organised nudism and the display of young bodies in parks and playgrounds. While many advocated bodily improvement for the sake of the nation's well being, Daley shows that not everyone was motivated by such civic desires. The pleasure of looking and being looked at, of having fun in the surf and sand or on the swings and roundabouts, is an understudied aspect of our past. In uncovering it Daley argues for the need to broaden our conception of New Zealand history, and to move away from the common assumption that ours is a unique national story. With style and wit she sees the body beautiful in New Zealand as the local expression of a worldwide trend."--BOOK JACKET.

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  • Prenatal and Postnatal Nutritional Influences on Neuroendocrine Expression and Susceptibility to Diet-induced Obesity.

    Ikenasio, Bettina (2008)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • SAFDetection: Sensor Analysis based Fault Detection in Tightly-Coupled Multi-Robot Team Tasks

    Li, Xingyan (2008)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    This dissertation addresses the problem of detecting faults based on sensor analysis for tightly-coupled multi-robot team tasks. The approach I developed is called SAFDetection, which stands for Sensor Analysis based Fault Detection, pronounced “Safe Detection”. When dealing with robot teams, it is challenging to detect all types of faults because of the complicated environment they operate in and the large spectrum of components used in the robot system. The SAFDetection approach provides a novel methodology for detecting robot faults in situations when motion models and models of multi-robot dynamic interactions are unavailable. The fundamental idea of SAFDetection is to build the robots’ normal behavior model based on the robots’ sensor data. This normal behavior model not only describes the motion pattern for the single robot, but also indicates the interaction among the robots in the same team. Inspired by data mining theory, it combines data clustering techniques with the generation of a probabilistic state transition diagram to model the normal operation of the multi-robot system. The contributions of the SAFDetection approach include: (1) providing a way for a robot system to automatically generate a normal behavior model with little prior knowledge; (2) enabling a robot system to detect physical, logic and interactive faults online; (3) providing a way to build a fault detection capability that is independent of the particular type of fault that occurs; and (4) providing a way for a robot team to generate a normal behavior model for the team based the individual robot’s normal behavior models. SAFDetection has two different versions of implementation on multi-robot teams: the centralized approach and the distributed approach; the preferred approach depends on the size of the robot team, the robot computational capability and the network environment. The SAFDetection approach has been successfully implemented and tested in three robot task scenarios: box pushing (with two robots) and follow-the-leader (implemented with twoand five-robot teams). These experiments have validated the SAFDetection approach and demonstrated its robustness, scalability, and applicability to a wide range of tightly-coupled multi-robot applications.

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  • Realizing the Power of Professional Learning

    Timperley, Helen (2011-09-01)

    Book
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Suffrage and beyond: international feminist perspectives

    (1994)

    Book
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Gene network inference and application

    Hurley, Daniel (2010)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

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