86 results for Unitec, Conference paper, 2000

  • Analysis of results in simulation and modeling of CDMA systems

    Kolahi, Samad (2007-07-01)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    In this paper, using discrete event stochastic simulation by batch-means, new results have been obtained by analysing the sensitivity of CDMA blocking probability for a given traffic load against various number of calls per batch and confidence intervals. It is found that for the system under study one long simulation with one million call arrivals produce approximately 99% confidence in results while it needs 100,000 calls to achieve 95% confidence. For system under study and with 27 Erlang of traffic, the blocking probability is 0.0202 with 99% confidence and 0.0192 with 95% confidence. The impact of warm-up period on CDMA simulation is discussed. Situation with three tiers of neighbouring cells are considered when mobile compares three base stations and chooses the base station with the strongest signal.

    View record details
  • Sharing Building Information using the IFC Data Model for FDS Fire Simulation

    Dimyadi, Johannes; Spearpoint, M.; Amor, R. (2008)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    This paper describes part of a research project that looks into the potential and challenge of using the Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) open standard building information model in fire engineering design. In particular the paper describes work undertaken to share building geometry and other information with the Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) fire simulation model. A commercially available building information modeling (BIM) authoring application has been used to create building geometries and export IFC data files. A web-based conversion tool has been created to generate FDS input data given the output from a dedicated fire engineering IFC parser tool. The capabilities and outcome of data sharing process is illustrated in this paper using a simple test case building.

    View record details
  • The impact of wireless LAN security on performance for different windows operating systems

    Kolahi, Samad; Narayan, Shaneel; Nguyen, Du D.T.; Sunarto, Yonathan; Mani, Paul (2008-07-09)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    This paper investigates the impact of various encryption techniques (WEP-64, WEP-128 and WPA) on performance of wireless LANs for Windows operating systems (Windows Server 2003, Windows XP and Windows Vista) and for both TCP and UDP protocols. The parameters considered are throughput and response time. The results indicate that security mechanism does influence the wireless performance and different operating systems provide various results.

    View record details
  • Performance evaluation of virtual private network protocols in Windows 2003 environment

    Narayan, Shaneel; Kolahi, Samad; Brooking, Kris; de Vere, Simon (2008-12-20)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    Virtual Private Network (VPN) is a technology that provides secure communication for data as it transits through insecure regions of information technology infrastructure. With prolific development of the Internet, businesses nowadays implement VPN tunnels using different protocols that guarantee data authenticity and security between multiple sites connected using public telecommunication infrastructure. VPN provides a low-cost alternative to leasing a line to establish communication between sites. In this research we empirically evaluate performance difference between three commonly used VPN protocols, namely Internet Protocol Security (IPSec), Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) and Secure Socket Layer (SSL). We compare performance differences in these protocols by implementing each using different algorithms in a Windows Server 2003 environment. Results obtained indicate that throughput in a VPN tunnel can range from approximately 40 to 90Mbps depending on the choice of protocol, algorithm and window size. These three attributes also govern CPU utilization of VPN servers.

    View record details
  • The Garden City of the 21st century

    Bradbury, Matthew (2002-07)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    In 2014 the prestigious Wolfson Economics Prize (2014) was awarded to David Rudlin of URBED, for answering the question “How would you deliver a new Garden City which is visionary, economically viable, and popular?” The British Chancellor of the Exchequer, George Osborne announced in 2014 that the first new garden city for 100 years will be constructed at Ebbbsfleet (2015) in Kent, UK, to provide 15,000 homes. These two projects strongly suggest the power that Ebenezer Howard’s (Howard, 1902) original concept of Garden City still has. Yet even a cursory inspection of the two projects and the current debate in the UK show little new, unlike the radical combination of working and living within a hybrid of garden and countryside that Howard originally advanced. This paper suggests a way in which landscape architects can frame the renewed interest in the Garden City by building on the tradition of Howard’s radical inquiry. Taking a combination of techniques from environmental planning and traditional garden making the author develops a planning methodology to demonstrate how a new new garden city might be built. The paper is illustrated by two case studies designed by the author; the design of a resort in Guangdong Province, PR China [Beixing Resort Development] and a subdivision in Auckland New Zealand. [Paramuka Valley Subdivision, West Auckland] GIS mapping is used as a planning tool to analyse the sites through the mapping of important environmental features such as remnant indigenous vegetation and overland flow paths. A complex dialogue between the remediation of a native ecology through the preservation and reinstatement of indigenous hydrology and the preservation and replanting of native eco tones is developed. At the same time garden making procedures are deployed, the introduction of exotic species and the deliberate and artificial manipulation of topography. An architectural programme is introduced into this complex landscape conversation, not as an assembly of building types, but rather as a collection of social desires, a gradient from private to public space mediated through the landscape. The result is a new kind of garden city that develops an innovative social realm for the citizens, one in which a connection and awareness of the sustainable environment is central to a new garden city.

    View record details
  • Gimme shelter: Tsunami mitigation as part of a permanent shelter programme for Aceh, north Sumatra

    Potangaroa, Regan (2006)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    The resulting housing solutions developed for permanent shelter as part of aid packages and reconstruction often belie the complexity of their resolution. This paper briefly outlines the often hidden subtleties in such designs and in particular the complexity that “mitigation” can require. Mitigation is the accepted “notion” that any reconstruction should address former issues by reducing those perceived problems and issues. The hope is that they can be completed eliminated so that the disaster does not happen again. This may not always be achievable. The development of a permanent shelter reconstruction program for the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) for tsunami victims on the west Coast of Aceh, North Sumatra is documented. And in this program the obvious mitigation need was for “tsunami proofing” of housing. Drawing on the tsunami report by Wilkinson, the paper highlights the process, design and planning considered as part of this mitigation and the practicalities of “balancing” the wishes of people to return home to sites ravaged by the tsunami against the responsibility to ensure “safe” housing (Wilkinson, 2005). The starkness of the engineering “numbers” against the social costs is compelling and the paper highlights in practical terms the difficulties sometimes faced to reduce and thus “mitigate”.

    View record details
  • Measuring the qualitative aspects of a reconstruction programme: Aceh, Indonesia

    Potangaroa, Regan (2006)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    Aid Agencies are accountable for the funds that they administer and consequently there is a reporting requirement to demonstrate that any intervention (such as a permanent housing program) is beneficial to those that the Agency seeks to assist. The WHO Quality of Life Tool (WHO QLT) is one such measure of well being and has been extensively used since it was developed in 1996 (predominantly in the health sector). However, it does requires a before and after study to produce results. This is not necessarily problematic but the paper reports on the application of the Depression, Anxiety, Stress Survey tool that consists of 42 questions (hence its name DASS42) as part of a shelter program for the West Coast of Aceh following the December 2004 tsunami. The advantage of the DASS42 is that it can quantify results based on one survey (Lovibond, 1995). The DASS42 was developed at the University of New South Wales, Australia and while it enjoys wide acceptance this was the first time it was applied to a shelter program. The results from the DASS42 can be used to prioritise beneficiaries and when combined with the Disaster Life Continuum Model (rather than a 4 R Model) provides insights into the psycho-social status of beneficiaries. The paper outlines how the DASS42 was used to quantify the impact of the tsunami disaster in terms of gender, age and resilience of the Acehnese people. The survey was completed by 600 respondents at 5 different locations along the West Coast during the first two weeks of March 2005, less than 3 months after the tsunami.

    View record details
  • Leadership learning: The praxis of dilemma management

    Cardno, Carol (2006)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    No abstract available yet

    View record details
  • The three R's of the success case model - Recruitment, response, rigour

    Piggot-Irvine, Eileen; Marshall, Steven; Aitken, Helen (2009-01-01)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    An argument against employment of the Success Case Study methodology is that it promotes optimistic and potentially uncritical findings. This paper advances that in the authors’ experiences the latter has been substantially disconfirmed in terms of rigour and, additionally, the approach has offered considerable advantages for entry, recruitment and openness of respondents. Three ‘success’ case study examples illustrate the design adopted by the authors, the benefits linked to the methodology including the rigour associated with findings.

    View record details
  • Rhetoric and practice in action research

    Piggot-Irvine, Eileen (2002-01-01)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    This paper begins with a description of the elements of a Problem Resolving Action Research Model (PRAR) that I have developed (Piggot-Irvine, 2001) for working with groups in management development. The model has many features in common with other approaches to action research. It also has characterising features and these are given specific attention. The next part of the paper provides a brief overview of one example of an action research project that adopted the PRAR model. It involved five middle managers (all appraisers) in a New Zealand secondary school participating in a year-long intervention to improve the way that they established an "educative" process with appraisees. The third part of the paper draws upon the findings from the observation of this project to demonstrate factors that both limited and contributed to the implementation of the PRAR model. Limitations include low ownership, reduced collaboration and restricted time. Factors contributing to the PRAR model implementation include data-based reflection, consciousness-raising associated with exposure of the espousal-practice gap in change implementation, the employment of mutually informing theory and practice, narrowing the theory-practice gap, providing extended support and the opportunity to repeat learning.

    View record details
  • Whakawhanaungatanga: Dilemmas for mainstream New Zealand early childhood education of a commitment to bicultural pedagogy

    Ritchie, Jenny (2003)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    View record details
  • Whakawhanaungatanga in praxis: Transforming early childhood practice in Aotearoa through honouring indigineity

    Ritchie, Jenny (2007)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    View record details
  • He taonga te reo: Honouring te reo me ona tikanga, the Māori language and culture, within early childhood education in Aotearoa

    Ritchie, Jenny (2009)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    This paper considers data from recent research which illustrates the ways in which tamariki (children), whānau (families) and educators are integrating the use of the Māori language within their everyday educational interactions, as mandated by the bilingual New Zealand early childhood curriculum, Te Whāriki (Ministry of Education, 1996). Languages reflect cultures, expressing our deeper meanings and representations. Inscribed within verbal and non-verbal languages are our ways of being, knowing and doing (Martin, 2008). Jeanette Rhedding-Jones has inquired in her Norwegian multicultural context as to “What kinds of constructions are the monocultural professionals creating for cross-cultural meetings and mergings?” (2001, p. 5). What follows is an exploration of strategies by which Māori ways of being, knowing and doing are being enacted through the medium of te reo in early childhood centres.

    View record details
  • “Should I stand back, or should I lead?” Developing intentional communal cultures of emergent and distributed forms of leadership in educational settings

    Youngs, Howard (2008)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    The day to day practice of leadership in education can oscillate from being a rewarding activity one moment, to one that can be littered with confusion and dilemmas the next. Leadership practice can so often lie beyond what is prescribed and standardised, every situation brings with it a uniqueness that cannot be replicated. Leadership can be individual, role-based, conjoint and extremely fluid and emergent; it can often exist in places where we are not looking for it. This paper is informed by 32 studies of distributed forms of leadership practice from around the world and focuses on the issue of intentionality and how it is related to developing communal cultures of emergent and distributed forms of leadership. On one hand, leadership can be intentionally given out to others as a means of leadership development and also as a way of coping with the intensification of work. On the other hand leadership emerges when formal leaders intentionally stand back and allow others to flourish, be they children, adolescents, adult students, parents/caregivers, or staff. Linked to this issue is the distribution of power in our educational settings, trust, and the importance of open and transparent communication.

    View record details
  • The implementation of the revised New Zealand Curriculum: Unpacking the complexities of sustainability, school climate and distributed forms of educational leadership

    Youngs, Howard (2009-03-01)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    The day-to-day practice of educational leadership practice can be extremely complex, demanding and yet rewarding; it is a highly relational activity. At the very heart of changing the climate of a school in relation to professional and student learning is the importance of building relationships of trust and sustaining productive levels of transparency particularly amongst the staff. This paper provides a ‘window’ into the day-to-day activities of staff from two New Zealand secondary schools as they are expected to implement the revised National Curriculum. The Ministry of Education state that the new National Curriculum has been framed in such a way so that schools should not be limited in the way that they offer learning experiences to students; it is a framework rather than a detailed prescribed plan. Therefore schools should have a greater opportunity to make locally based decisions in relation to professional and student learning. An ongoing ethnographic project over twenty months in two urban secondary schools provides the context for the data that informs this paper. Observation is used as the primary means to interpret and understand day-to-day leadership practice in situ. The methodological approach is in contrast to the majority of leadership studies in education, where quantitative analysis and qualitative studies that focus mainly on espoused accounts of practice are commonplace. The data reveal that the day-to-day practice of educational leaders is not as straightforward and prescriptive as often is purported. School climates that emphasise sustainability and distributed forms of leadership can be arenas of both contestability and learning, but only if we are prepared to ‘drill deep’ below the surface of day to day leadership practice that can appear straightforward to research, label and prescribe. The barriers and opportunities for developing school climates of sustainable learning may then be revealed in relation to power relations and organisational learning. How teachers and school leaders in the two schools appear to navigate their way through initiatives and their relationship to school climate is a central focus of this paper.

    View record details
  • The interplay of market forces and government action in the achievement of urban sustainability: The case of Auckland, New Zealand

    Boon, John (2009-04-01)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    This is a case study of urban intensification in the central business district (CBD) of Auckland. The city is the commercial centre of New Zealand with a population of 1.3m. It is a sprawling city with low population density and a high dependency on private motor vehicles for transport. Auckland has recognised the need to contain urban growth within its existing urban perimeter and achieve greater intensification. Progress has been made in this regard within the CBD where significant growth in inner city residents is evident. This has been achieved through private developers reacting to market demand rather than through public sector initiatives. The availability of finance for development and investment is seen as a key enabling element. Tax advantages for investment in property and planning bonuses for residential development are also significant elements in the complex mix of matters that has enabled this urban intensification. However the quality of development is marginal. Services for the expanded inner city population have developed in line with growth.

    View record details
  • Management of New Zealand quantity surveying practices: A longitudinal study

    Boon, John (2008-08-01)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    This is a study of the management and strategy of quantity surveying firms in Auckland from the bottom of the property cycle in the late 1980’s to just past the next peak in 2008. Over the period the firms have developed a degree of differentiation based on the needs of clients for varying degrees of sophistication of service. This in turn leads to price differentiation. The firms who have become market leaders are all part of international groups and are able to use the expertise from within those groups to provide higher levels of sophistication of service. At the same time all firms have moved away from using contract labour and outsourcing as a means of having some flexibility in their cost structure. Because of this they may be vulnerable to incurring losses during the current downturn.

    View record details
  • Factors associated with the recovery of housing prices in Hong Kong

    Ge, X .J.; Poon, K. M.; Boon, John (2006-01-01)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    In the period 1999 – 2004 housing prices in Hong Kong sunk to a low point in mid 2003 and then rose again. This paper investigates which factors are associated with those price movements. The paper starts by reviewing literature on housing prices including both price determinants and research methodology. Data published by the Hong Kong Government is used for the study. The housing price variables are grouped together as macro economic factors, demographic factors, housing related factors and housing supply factors. The 2-Stage Least Square (2SLS) Method of regression analysis is used in order to reduce the bi-direction effects between dependent and independent variables. Results show that economic conditions are the most important external influencers of housing prices. The model developed can be used to predict the trend of housing prices.

    View record details
  • Utilising agent based models for simulating landscape dynamics

    Popov, Nikolay (2009)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    Cities and landscapes are now understood as systems that are open, chaotic, unpredictable, irreversible, and in constant flux - i.e. complex adaptive systems. This is why designers need to develop new modes of practice that can cope with open systems design. The term ‘model’, on the other hand, is now central to our thinking about the way we understand and design cities and landscapes. They are mediators between reality and theory and have a central role in bridging the gap between these two domains. This paper describes a new type of morphological modelling known as Agent Based Modelling (ABM) and investigates its applicability in landscape architectural design and planning. ABM assemble a wide range of theories and tools and offer an interesting view of urban and natural phenomena as a collective dynamics of interacting objects. They explore the connection between microlevel behaviour of individuals and the macro-level patterns that emerge from the interactions of many individuals. This paper examines, through a set of examples, the advantages, the drawbacks and the limitations of this type of modelling, with respect to their applications in landscape architecture. Finally, there will be some speculations about the future of these techniques in landscape design and planning.

    View record details
  • Landscape systems modelling: A disturbance ecology approach

    Margetts, Jacqueline; Barnett, Rod; Popov, Nikolay (2007)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    This paper reports on research which explores the modelling of landscape systems over time using multiagent simulation (MAS) software called NetLogo. Two case studies investigate a disturbance ecology approach to the recovery of Pacific Island settlements after cyclonic events. First, the natural tropical forest sequence of colonisation-succession-disturbance which operates on Pacific Islands subject to frequent cyclonic events is modelled according to the rules of forest recovery. Then, rules derived from the tropical forest model are applied to a Pacific resort to explore design possibilities as the resort responds to cyclonic disturbance. There are two useful outcomes: the possible impact of a cyclone on a resort is modelled, and new patterns of resort design emerge. The research shows that MAS can not only model natural landscape systems but also be used to explore an infinite number of ‘what-if’ design scenarios. The results show the potential for MAS in landscape architectural practice.

    View record details