92 results for University of Canterbury Library, Mitrovic, A.

  • Teaching Database Design with Constraint-Based Tutors

    Mitrovic, A.; Suraweera, P. (2016)

    Journal Articles
    University of Canterbury Library

    Design tasks are difficult to teach, due to large, unstructured solution spaces, underspecified problems, non-existent problem solving algorithms and stopping criteria. In this paper, we comment on our approach to develop KERMIT, a constraint-based tutor that taught database design. In later work, we re-implemented KERMIT as EER-Tutor, and extended its instructional domain. Several evaluation studies performed with KERMIT and EER-Tutor show that they are effective Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITSs). We also comment on various extensions made to EER-Tutor over the years. There are several contributions of our research, such as developing effective problem-solving support for conceptual database design in terms of interface design. Our database design tutors deal with large solution spaces efficiently by specifying constraints that capture equivalent solution states, and using ideal solutions to capture the semantics of the problem. Instead of requiring a problem solver, the ITS checks whether the student?s database schema is correct by matching it to constraints and the ideal solution. Another contribution of our work is in guidelines for developing effective feedback to the student.

    View record details
  • Examples and tutored problems: How can self-explanation make a difference to learning?

    Shareghi Najar, A.; Mitrovic, A. (2013)

    Conference Contributions - Published
    University of Canterbury Library

    “The final publication is available at link.springer.com”.

    View record details
  • Intelligent Augmented Reality Training for Assembly Tasks

    Westerfield, G.; Mitrovic, A.; Billinghurst, M. (2013)

    Conference Contributions - Published
    University of Canterbury Library

    “The final publication is available at link.springer.com”.

    View record details
  • Eye tracking and studying examples: how novices and advanced learners study SQL examples

    Shareghi Najar, A.; Mitrovic, A.; Neshatian, K. (2015)

    Journal Articles
    University of Canterbury Library

    Eye tracking provides information about a user’s eye gaze movements. For many years, eye tracking has been used in Human Computer Interaction (HCI) research. Similarly, research on computerised educational systems also relies heavily on students’ interactions with systems, and therefore eye tracking has been used to study and improve learning. We have recently conducted several studies on using worked examples in addition to scaffolded problem solving. The goal of the project reported in this paper was to investigate how novices and advanced students learn from examples. The study was performed in the context of SQL-Tutor, a mature Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS) that teaches SQL. We propose a new technique to analyse eye-gaze patterns named EGPA. In order to comprehend an SQL example, students require the information about tables’ names and their attributes which are available in a database schema. Thus, if students paid attention to the database schema, they would understand SQL examples more easily. We analysed students’ eye movement data from different perspectives, and found that advanced students paid more attention to database schema than novices. In future work, we will use the findings from this study to provide proactive feedback or individualised amounts of information.

    View record details
  • Revisiting Ill-Definedness and the Consequences for ITSs

    Mitrovic, A.; Weerasinghe, A. (2009)

    Conference Contributions - Published
    University of Canterbury Library

    ITSs for ill-defined domains have attracted a lot of attention recently, which is well-deserved, as such ITSs are hard to develop. The first step towards such ITSs is reaching a wide agreement about the terminology used in the area. In this paper, we discuss the two important dimensions of ill-definedness: the domain and the instructional task. By the domain we assume declarative domain knowledge, or the domain theory, while the instructional task is the task the student is learning, in terms of problem-solving skills. It is possible to have a well-defined domain and still have ill-defined instructional tasks in the same domain. We look deeper at the features of ill-defined tasks, which all contribute to their ill/well defined nature. The paper discusses model-tracing and constraint-based modeling, in terms of their suitability for ill-defined tasks and domains. We show that constraint-based modeling can be used in both well- and ill-defined domains, and illustrate our conclusion using several instructional tasks.

    View record details
  • Closing the affective loop in intelligent learning environments

    Conati, C.; Mitrovic, A. (2009)

    Conference Contributions - Other
    University of Canterbury Library

    Workshop jointly chaired by Cristina Conati, and Tania Mitrovic.

    View record details
  • ITS domain modelling with ontology

    Martin, B.; Mitrovic, A.; Suraweera, P. (2008)

    Journal Articles
    University of Canterbury Library

    Authoring ITS domain models is a difficult task requiring many skills. We explored whether modeling ontology reduces the problem by giving the students of an e-learning summer school the task of developing the model for a simple domain in under sixty minutes using ontology. Some students also used our tool to develop a complete tutor in around eight hours, which is much faster than they could be expected to author the system without the tool. The results suggest this style of authoring can lead to very rapid ITS development. We further extend the ontological approach with domain schema: high-level abstractions that describe the semantics of the domain model for a class of domains. Using domain schema reduces the authoring effort to one of describing only those aspects that are unique to this particular domain, and enables the ontology-based approach to model domains with different semantic requirements.

    View record details
  • Constraint-based collaborative environment for learning UML class diagrams

    Baghaei, N.; Mitrovic, A. (2006)

    Conference Contributions - Published
    University of Canterbury Library

    Proceedings published online: http://www.springerlink.com/content/m13272756n42/

    View record details
  • Authoring constraint-based tutors in ASPIRE

    Mitrovic, A.; Suraweera, P.; Martin, B.; Zakharov, K.; Milik, N.; Holland, J. (2006)

    Conference Contributions - Published
    University of Canterbury Library

    Proceedings published online: http://www.springerlink.com/content/m13272756n42/

    View record details
  • Responding to free-form student questions in ERM-Tutor

    Milik, N.; Marshall, M.; Mitrovic, A. (2006)

    Conference Contributions - Published
    University of Canterbury Library

    Proceedings published online: http://www.springerlink.com/content/m13272756n42/

    View record details
  • Studying human tutors to facilitate self-explanation

    Weerasinghe, A.; Mitrovic, A. (2006)

    Conference Contributions - Published
    University of Canterbury Library

    This paper reports the first phase of a project with the goal of developing a general model of self-explanation support, which could be used in both open- and closed-ended domains. We studied how human tutors provide additional support to students learning with an existing intelligent tutoring system designed to help students learn database modelling. We report on the findings from this study, which will serve as the basis for defining the model. We also discuss directions for future work.

    View record details
  • Individualizing self-explanation support for ill-defined tasks in constraint-based tutors

    Weerasinghe, A.; Mitrovic, A. (2006)

    Conference Contributions - Published
    University of Canterbury Library

    We present the first phase of a project with the goal of developing a general model of self-explanation support, which could be used in constraint-based tutors for both well- and ill-defined domains. We studied how human tutors provide additional support to students learning with an existing intelligent tutoring system designed to help students learn an ill-defined task (database modeling using the ER model). Although the tutors were not given specific instructions to facilitate self-explanation, there were instances when self-explanation support was provided. Analysis of these interactions indicates that they have helped the students to improve their understanding of database design. These findings will serve as the basis for defining the self-explanation model. We also discuss directions for future work

    View record details
  • Constraint-based knowledge representation for individualized instruction

    Mitrovic, A.; Ohlsson, S. (2006)

    Journal Articles
    University of Canterbury Library

    Traditional knowledge representations were developed to encode complete, explicit and executable programs, a goal that makes them less than ideal for representing the incomplete and partial knowledge of a student. In this paper, we discuss state constraints, a type of knowledge unit originally invented to explain how people can detect and correct their own errors. Constraint-based student modeling has been implemented in several intelligent tutoring systems (ITS) so far, and the empirical data verifies that students learn while interacting with these systems. Furthermore, learning curves are smooth when plotted in terms of individual constraints, supporting the psychological appropriateness of the representation. We discuss the differences between constraints and other representational formats, the advantages of constraint-based models and the types of domains in which they are likely to be useful.

    View record details
  • A critique of Kodaganallur, Weitz and Rosenthal "A comparison of model-tracing and constraint-based intelligent tutoring paradigms"

    Mitrovic, A.; Ohlsson, S. (2006)

    Journal Articles
    University of Canterbury Library

    In the following, we group the flaws in the authors' paper into three sections. We first address KWR's misconceptions regarding the constraint representation that is the core of the CBM approach and the suboptimal implementation decisions these misconceptions caused. In the following two sections, we discuss their conclusions with respect to the range of application and remediation. We then critique how they conducted their comparison. We end with some reflections on how this sort of comparison ought to be conducted.

    View record details
  • The effect of adapting feedback generality in ITS

    Martin, B.; Mitrovic, A. (2006)

    Conference Contributions - Published
    University of Canterbury Library

    Intelligent tutoring systems achieve much of their success by adapting to individual students. One potential avenue for personalization is feedback generality. This paper presents two evaluation studies that measure the effects of modifying feedback generality in a web-based Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS) based on the analysis of student models. The object of the experiments was to measure the effectiveness of varying feedback generality, and to determine whether this could be performed en masse or if personalization is needed. In an initial trial with a web-based ITS it appeared that it is feasible to use a mass approach to select appropriate concepts for generalizing feedback. A second study gave conflicting results and showed a relationship between generality and ability, highlighting the need for feedback to be personalized to individual students’ needs.

    View record details
  • Large-Scale Deployment of Three Intelligent Web-Based Database Tutors

    Mitrovic, A.; ICTG team (2006)

    Conference Contributions - Published
    University of Canterbury Library

    We present our experiences with DatabasePlace, a Web portal aimed at university-level students enrolled in database courses. The portal was established by Addison-Wesley in January 2003. Besides presenting information about the textbooks, the portal also provides additional domain information, online quizzes and three Intelligent Tutoring Systems developed by the Intelligent Computer Tutoring Group (ICTG). We briefly present the three systems, and then discuss our experiences. We also compare the DatabasePlace students to our local students using the three ITSs.

    View record details
  • Evaluating an Animated Pedagogical Agent

    Mitrovic, A.; Suraweera, P. (2000)

    Conference Contributions - Published
    University of Canterbury Library

    The paper presents SmartEgg, an animated pedagogical agent developed for SQLT-Web, an intelligent SQL tutor on the Web. It has been shown in previous studies that pedagogical agents have a significant motivational impact on students. Our hypothesis was that even a very simple and constrained agent, like SmartEgg, would enhance learning. We report on an evaluation study that confirmed our hypothesis.

    View record details
  • Using Evaluation to Shape ITS Design: Results and Experiences with SQL-Tutor

    Mitrovic, A.; Martin, B.; Mayo, M. (2002)

    Journal Articles
    University of Canterbury Library

    This paper presents the results of three evaluation studies performed during 1998 and 1999 on SQL-Tutor, an intelligent tutoring system for the SQL database language. We have evaluated the system in the context of genuine courses, and used the results to further refine the system. The main goal of our research has been the exploration and extension of Constraint-Based Modeling (CBM), a student modeling approach proposed by Ohlsson (1994). SQL-Tutor provided us with experiences of using CBM, and we used it to extend the approach in several important ways. The main goal of all three evaluation studies was to determine how well CBM supported student learning. We have obtained positive results. The students who learnt with SQL-Tutor in the first study performed significantly better than those who did not when assessed by a subsequent classroom examination. Furthermore, the analysis of students’ learning shows that CBM has a sound psychological foundation. Besides the evaluation of CBM, we also evaluated the improvements in terms of student assessments of the usefulness of the system and evaluated various techniques used in SQL-Tutor. In the second study, we evaluated the effectiveness of feedback provided to the students. This study showed that high-level advice is most beneficial to students’ learning. The focus of the third study was different. We extended CBM to support long-term modeling of student knowledge, and used this extension to develop an adaptive problem-selection strategy. The study revealed the benefits of this strategy in comparison with a simple heuristic strategy. We also reflect on our experiences in evaluating SQL-Tutor.

    View record details
  • An Intelligent SQL Tutor on the Web

    Mitrovic, A. (2002)

    Journal Articles
    University of Canterbury Library

    The paper presents SQLT-Web, a Web-enabled intelligent tutoring system for the SQL database language. SQLT-Web is a Web-enabled version of an earlier, standalone ITS. In this paper we describe how the components of the standalone system were reused to develop the Web-enabled system. The system observes students’ actions and adapts to their knowledge and learning abilities. We describe the system's architecture in comparison to the architectures of other existing Web-enabled tutors. All tutoring functions are performed on the server side, and we explain how SQLT-Web deals with multiple students. The system has been open to outside users sinceMarch 2000. SQLT-Web has been evaluated in the context of genuine teaching activities. We present the results of three evaluation studies with the University of Canterbury students taking database courses, which show that SQLT-Web is an effective system. The students have enjoyed the system’s adaptability and found it a valuable asset to their learning.

    View record details
  • DB-suite: experiences with three intelligent, web-based database tutors

    Mitrovic, A.; Suraweera, P.; Martin, B.; Weerasinghe, A. (2004)

    Journal Articles
    University of Canterbury Library

    E-learning is becoming more and more popular with the widespread use of computers and the Internet in educational institutions. Current e-learning courses are nearly always developed using course management systems (CMS), such as WebCT or Blackboard. Although CMS tools provide support for some administrative tasks and enable instructors to provide online instructional material, they offer no deep support for learning: students have access to on-line material, simple multi-choice quizzes and chat tools, but there is no ability to track student’s progress and adapt the learning material and instructional session to the individual student. In this paper we present our experiences with three Web-based intelligent tutoring systems in the area of databases. SQL-Tutor teaches the SQL query language, NORMIT is a data normalization tutor, and KERMIT teaches conceptual database modelling using the Entity-Relationship data model. All three tutors in DB-suite have been used and evaluated in the context of genuine teaching activities. We present the most important features of these systems, as well as evaluation results. The DB-suite tutors have proved to be very effective in supporting deep learning, and are well liked by students.

    View record details