26 results for University of Canterbury Library, 1920

  • The psychology of laughter and the comic

    Beeby, Clarence Edward (1923)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Laughter may for the present, be defined as a movement of some or all of the muscles of the face, especially those of the lips accompanied by deep inspirations and interrupted expiration of air from the lungs producing intermittent vocal sounds of varying character.

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  • A comparison between the immigration into New Zealand by the New Zealand Company and that undertaken by the Canterbury Provincial Government

    Day, Inez Waiata (1927)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    No consecutive account of the Immigration into New Zealand and the policy regulating it has yet been attempted; and though the subject has been treated of in more than a cursory manner by the numerous writers who have dealt with the systematic colonisation of New Zealand and to whose works I am greatly indebted) yet in regard to later years the subject has received scant attention. It is by no means unimportant or uninteresting to trace the fluctuations in the policy our early provincial legislators followed in the matter of introducing immigrants, and to compare the results they obtained with those of their predecessors in this undertaking, whether Home Government or private company.

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  • The geology of the Malvern Hills, with map and sections, panoramic sketches, and photographs.

    Speight, R; Page, S (1928)


    University of Canterbury Library

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  • The history of the first New Zealand Parliament : being an account of the two houses of the Legislature, 1854-5

    Pierre, Bill (1923)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

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  • The solution of mercuric sulphide in hydrgen iodide and the solubility of mercuric iodide in solutions of potassium iodide

    Dixon, J. K. (1927)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    In group II A. Analysis two methods are used to dissolve precipitated Mercury Sulphide – potassium chlorate and concentrated hydrochloric acid or aqua regia. These methods are essentially the solution of mercury sulphide by means of nascent chlorine. A third method has been described whereby mercury sulphide is dissolved in a sulphuric acid solution of potassium iodide. This mixture liberates hydrogen iodide which is the dissolving agent. From the equations [complicated equations here] is seems possible that the dissolving action is due to complex formation. It will be seen from equation (1) that the lower the concentration of the sulphideions the greater will be tendency for mercury sulphide to dissolve. This furnishes an explanation why potassium iodide alone cannot be used with same success as hydrogen iodide. With potassium iodide potassium sulphide instead of hydrogen sulphide will be formed during the solution reaction. As potassium sulphide is the salt of a strong base there will remain in solution a high concentration of sulphideions which must promote the back reaction shown in equation (1) and an equilibrium is all that can be attained. It is not possible to reduce the sulphide ion concentration by boiling as it is with hydrogen sulphide since potassium sulphide is non volatile. If the ordinary methods and this new method are compared it is seen that whereas nascent chlorine converts mercury sulphide into mercury chloride, the action of hydrogen iodide is to form a complex salt which has a very low concentration of mercury ions. It is possible therefore that this new method may not give so sensitive a test for mercury. The object of this portion of the work is to ascertain the possibility of testing for mercury in Group II analysis by using the hydrogen iodide method of dissolving the precipitated mercury sulphide and to compare the sensitivity of the test with that of the methods usually employed.

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  • Research on the electrometric determination of the hydrolysis of salts by means of the hydrogen electrode and of the quin-hydrone electrode, with special reference to the anomalous behaviour of solutions of zinc sulphate

    Marris, N. A. (1927)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Many methods have been described for the determination of the degree of hydrolysis of salts. The following may be given as examples of the more important of these:- (I) Measurement of the rate of inversion of sugar. (II) Measurement of the rate of Saponification of Ethyl, or Methyl Acetate (III) Determination of Electrical Conductivity (IV) Electrometric determination of Hydrogen ion concentration by Hydrogen Electrode (V) Determination of Freezing Point (VI) Distillation of Solutions (VII) Dilatometric considerations (VIII) Solubility of Carbonates in water in atmosphere of Carbon Dioxide (IX) Partition of base between two immiscible solvents (X) Measurement of Heats of Neutralisation (XI) Measurement of the Motion Ions (XII) Decomposition of diazoacetic aster by hydrogen ions.

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  • The history of Lawrence, Otago, New Zealand, from earliest times to 1921, including a review of its future prospects

    Jennings, M. A. (1921)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    In order to enable the reader to see in his mind's eye the history of Lawrence unfolding itself before him, he must first become acquainted with the history of the district in which the future town is to arise. As the history of the district is an organic part of that of the province in which it is situated, it will be necessary to sketch in outline the history of the province and to describe the various conditions that prevailed as well as the events that took place in so far as they influenced and affected the development of the interior. Otago is now the southernmost province of the South Island of New Zealand. The Otago land district lies between the forty-fourth and the forty-seventh parallels of South latitude, and extends from one hundred and sixty seven degrees twenty one minutes to one hundred and seventy one degrees ten minutes of East longitude. Its capital, Dunedin, has been built at the head of Otago Harbour and is only 12 miles distant by mail from Port Chalmers, which is accessible to large sea-going vessels. For the purposes of local government the province is divided into counties and the counties into ridings. Lawrence is in Tuapeka County, which occupies a south easterly portion of the province and is hounded on the north by the Vincent and Maniototo Counties; on the east by that of the Taieri; on the south by those of Bruce and Clutha, and on the west by that of Southland. Its area is one thousand three hundred and sixty five square miles. No portion of the Tuapeka County touches the coast. Although Lawrence is frequently spoken of as being in Central Otago, the statement is not exactly true as the town is only sixty miles south east from Dunedin by rail and distant from the sea coast “as the crow flies” about thirty miles, whereas the width of the province from east to west is from one hundred and sixty to two hundred miles. The County is drained by the Tuapeka and Waitahuna rivers, both of which flow from the north east to south west into the Molyneux River; by the Waipori in the north and the Tokomairiro on the south eastern side. On the northerly fringe of the Tuapeka district are the Lammerly Moutains of an average altitude of three thousand feet. The general slope of the country is from the north east to the southwest and is more of nature of gently undulating downs than of hilly country. Looking to the south and southeast from Lawrence an extremely steep slope is noticeable. This is known as the Waitahuna Heights and rises rapidly to about one thousand feet. The climate is intermediate between the damp and cloudy coastal climate and the dry and sunny, but frosty climate of Central Otago proper. Further geographical features will be described as the course of historical events renders a reference to them necessary.

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  • The solution of mercuric sulphide in hydrgen iodide and the solubility of mercuric iodide in solutions of potassium iodide

    Dixon, J. K. (1927)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    In group II A. Analysis two methods are used to dissolve precipitated Mercury Sulphide – potassium chlorate and concentrated hydrochloric acid or aqua regia. These methods are essentially the solution of mercury sulphide by means of nascent chlorine. A third method has been described whereby mercury sulphide is dissolved in a sulphuric acid solution of potassium iodide. This mixture liberates hydrogen iodide which is the dissolving agent. From the equations [complicated equations here] is seems possible that the dissolving action is due to complex formation. It will be seen from equation (1) that the lower the concentration of the sulphideions the greater will be tendency for mercury sulphide to dissolve. This furnishes an explanation why potassium iodide alone cannot be used with same success as hydrogen iodide. With potassium iodide potassium sulphide instead of hydrogen sulphide will be formed during the solution reaction. As potassium sulphide is the salt of a strong base there will remain in solution a high concentration of sulphideions which must promote the back reaction shown in equation (1) and an equilibrium is all that can be attained. It is not possible to reduce the sulphide ion concentration by boiling as it is with hydrogen sulphide since potassium sulphide is non volatile. If the ordinary methods and this new method are compared it is seen that whereas nascent chlorine converts mercury sulphide into mercury chloride, the action of hydrogen iodide is to form a complex salt which has a very low concentration of mercury ions. It is possible therefore that this new method may not give so sensitive a test for mercury. The object of this portion of the work is to ascertain the possibility of testing for mercury in Group II analysis by using the hydrogen iodide method of dissolving the precipitated mercury sulphide and to compare the sensitivity of the test with that of the methods usually employed.

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  • A history of the Chatham Islands.

    Seymour, Maud Ella (1924)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    In writing a history of the Chatham Islands the actual story of white settlement seems to pale into insignificance beside that of the occupation by the Morioris and their subsequent displacement by the Maoris. The origin of the Moriori race is still a debated question and possibly it will never be solved for this unfortunate race is now extinct with the exception of one pure-blooded Moriori, who is now a very old man. The study of this race however, is still interesting and instructive and forms an excellent illustration of the influence of man's environment on his character and how detrimental is the effect of long isolation and lack of competition in obtaining a livelihood. The Maori invasion of 1835 and the maintainance of Maori prisoners at the island in 1865 form the connecting links with New Zealand history but for the most part though a part of the Dominion of New Zealand, the connection has been comparatively slight even in matter of administration. This study is an attempt to trace a connected historical account of the Chatham islands up to the present day - a work which has not been done before.

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  • A history of Presbyterianism and the Presbyterian Church in Canterbury

    Gray, Enid E. (1924)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    A History of the Presbyterian Church of Canterbury has not hitherto been attempted, except for three chapters on the Early Days in Christchurch, North Canterbury and South Canterbury, in the Rev. J. Dickson's book, The History of the New Zealand Presbyterian Church, which was published in 1899. Jubilee booklets of St. Andrew's and St. Paul's give brief outlines of the story of their development; but otherwise the ground broken in this research has been quite new.

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  • The Catholic missionary in Te Wahi Pounamu

    Clarke, Susan (1929)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The object of this work is to depict the life of pioneer missionaries in a new and remote country. It may help those who live in an age of comparative comfort to realise the hardships endured by those who came to “sow the good seed” in these southern lands. It will serve also to show the generous support given by the original settlers to the building and maintenance of their schools and churches. Beyond the few chapters dealing with Westland in Mr. Wilson's book, “The Catholic Church in New Zealand”, there is no other written record of the progress of the Catholic Church on the West Coast of the South Island. Limited as is the scope of the present work, it has entailed a good deal of research owing to the fact that at very few of the centres have diaries or annals of Church activities been written. This is accounted for by the fact that the strenuous work of our first missionaries allowed them scarcely any time for church work. They were busy making history; they had no time to write it. The New Zealand “Tablet”, the chief Catholic newspaper of the Dominion has been of assistance. The “West Coast Times” which dates as far back as 1865 and the “Grey River Argus” dating from 1866 have also chronicled some of the chief events. To the files of these three newspapers I had access. Best of all some of the pioneer Catholics, active church-workers in the olden days, are still with us. They love to revisit in spirit the haunts where once they helped to build the little church and where they welcomed with song or farewelled with tears this or that good priest of the early days. Accurate information as to the dates of the arrival and the departure of the various missionaries, I obtained from the Marist Year Book, 1927, which contains a short biography of all the early missionaries of the Marist Order. Owing to the limited time at my disposal, I have been forced to make use of the art of arts - that of omission; the present condition of the Catholic Church in Westland could be treated more fully and incidents that would give added interest could be included, were it possible to protract the writing of the thesis over a longer period.

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  • The history of early Lyttelton from a social aspect

    Hunter, Margaret (1929)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Half way down the east coast of New Zealand’s’ South Island there is a large peninsula, well wooded and indented with lovely bays and inlets full of shadow and sunlight. But in the matter of harbours and anchorage Nature has been liberal to little purpose. On the southern side there is a sheltered harbour, but mountain-locked; on the east, several bay divided from the plains country by miles of precipitous ridges; and on the north lie two far-flung harbours with common headland between them, the upper one much larger and running deeply into the land where the peninsula joins the mainland. These two harbours are alike in that they are bare of bush and woodland except for scattered remnants in little mountainous ravines or single patches clinging in odd places to the frowning rocks. They are alike, too, in the half rugged, half velvet appearance of the mountains that rise steeply from their waters, green in spring but mostly tawny colour that holds the varying atmospheric transformations and takes on added hues with the sunrise and the sunset, with the mist or with the clouds. The lower harbour is not more than half the length of the other, and much narrower; it is studded with small bays, not as a rule of a very decisive character, and one small island about three quarters of the way down almost touches a small promontory. The harbour is roughly a long narrow gulf with little variation on width except a slight narrowing at the head and a corresponding widening at the mouth.

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  • The reactions between phenyl chloroform and the sodio derivatives of ethyl malonate. Subsidiary thesis: The constitution of the natural gases of New Zealand

    Gray, C. M. (1929)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    When chloroform is condensed with 2 mols. of ethyl disodio-malonate in alcoholic solution ethyl sodio-dicarbethoxy-glutacomate (I) is formed. (Conrad and Guthzeit, Ann. 222 256.) [diagram here]. Under the proper conditions a yield of 50% is obtained. (Thele and Thorpe, J.C.S. 99. 2187) This on Hydrolysis and boiling with hydrochloric acid yields glutaconic acid. (II) The product I may also be methylated with methyl iodide when, on treatment with concentrated sodium ethyl sodio-x-methyl-carbethoxy-glutaconate (III) is obtained which on hydrolysis and boiling with hydrochloric acid similarly yields –methyl-glutaconic acid (IV) [diagram here]. The present investigation was undertaken to ascertain whether phenyl ethloroform (bonzotrichloride) behaved similarly to chloroform, and yielded the – Phenyl substituted analogues of I, II, III, and IV. and if not, to find what course the reaction followed, and study the products found. The β -phenyl-&-methyl-β –phenyl-glutasonic acids, phenyl analogues of II and IV above, have been prepared by Thorpe (J.C.S. 1912. 101 868) by condensing ethylphenyl-propiolate and ethyl sodio malonate and characterised and its properties investigated by Thorpe and Wood. (J.C.S. 103 P.F. 1569-1578).

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  • The physical constants of kauri gum

    Macky, W. A. (1924)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Kauri Gum is the fossilised resin of the Kauri Tree (Agathis Australis). The tree which often attains great size is found only in the Auckland Province, and the fossil gum is found embedded beneath the surface of the soil in open country on the sites of ancient forests. The gum is located by probing with long spears, and is then dug out. It is largely used in the manufacture of high class varnishes and linoleums. There is a large range of colour - from dark, almost black gum, that has evidently been subject in times gone by to the action of forest fires, to clear white, invaluable for certain descriptions of Varnishes. The pieces collected vary from small "chips" to the size of large flint stones and very occasionally lumps up to 50 lbs are found. Most of the gum obtained to-day is of the chip variety and considerable labour is involved in separating it from its surrounding earth. The gum used in these experiments was cut from a block weighing about three pounds, consisting of the best quality gum. As far as could be ascertained only one previous attempt has been made to determine any of the physical constants of the gum and then not even approximate results were obtained. This research was designed primarily to measure: (1) Resistivity (2) Surface Resistance (3) Dielectric Constant These three are of importance in connection with the possible electrical separation of the chip gum from impurities. Several methods are in use on the gum fields for separating the gum from clay and soils, but none give very good results. Since this research was started an English company has patented an electrostatic method of separation and intends to use it on their gum fields in North Auckland. The Refractive index and Specific Heat of the gum were also measured.

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  • A study of the transformation temperature of sulphur by means of X-ray diffraction photographs

    Simmers, R. G. (1928)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    On July 6th, 1826 Mitscherlich presented to the Berlin Academy his outstanding crystallographic paper, in which he announced his discovery that one of the best known of chemical elements, Sulphur, was capable of crystallising in two distinct forms belonging to the rhombic and monoclinic systems respectively. Other, but less important crystalline forms of sulphur exist or have since been discovered (Gernez 13; Lowry 47; Friedel 8; Engel 21; Wilkinson 60; Smith and Carson 45), while in addition there have been isolated at least two forms of amorphous sulphur and one form of colloidal (21). The two forms due to Mitscherlich and their main properties will first be treated in detail.

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  • A group of xerophytic ferns of the Port Hills, Canterbury

    Morrison, M. K. C. (1923)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Projecting from the East Coast of the South Island of New Zealand is a peninsula known as Banks Peninsula. (Fig. 1.) Cutting deep into the land on the northern side, is the Lyttleton Harbour, (Fig. 2 and 3.) surrounded on three sides, by a horse-shoe shaped range of hills (Fig 3.) The portion of this range that separates Port Lyttleton from the city and suburbs of Christchurch, is known as the Port Hills. (Fig 4.) Banks Peninsula has a characteristic vegetation, not the least interesting part of which is its fern flora. On the Port Hills in particular, are to be found many interesting forms. Certain of these ferns, growing on spurs and valleys of the hills in the vegetation of Christchurch, have been investigated by the author. It is the main object of this paper to give a general account, morphological, anatomical, and ecological, of these ferns, together with a brief summary of the general fern vegetation of Banks Peninsula and the Port Hills. The species under special consideration are: Cheilanthes sieberi, Kunze; Nothoclaena distans, R. Br; Pleurosorus rutaefolius, Fee; Anogramme leptophylla, Link; Gymnogramme rutaefolia, Hook and Grev.; Gymnogramme leptophylla, Desv.

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  • An Introduction to the Natural History of the Heathcote Estuary and New Brighton Beach, Canterbury - New Zealand. A Study in Littoral Ecology

    Thompson, Ernest F. (1926)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Ever since Marine Ecology began to take its place as a section of Biological Research, divergent views have been held as to the limits of marine and supra-marine regions; particularly is this so with regard to the fixation of the boundary between littoral and sub-littoral regions. Thus Murray(1898) defines littoral as down to 20 fathoms, while Flattely and Walton(1922) in their devision of plant zones, consider this lower boundary to be at low-water mark. Sernander(1927) applies the degree and nature of exposure as a principle of division. On his principle the boundary between littoral and sub-littoral would coincide with the lower limit of intermittent exposure.

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  • An investigation into the three component system, zinc oxide, hydrochloric acid, zinc chloride and water

    Holland, A. C. (1928)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Zinc Hydrogen or oxide is soluble in an aqueous solution of zinc chloride, and when a concentrated solution is diluted with water, a basic salt, an oxychloride of zinc is precipitated. The Formation of zinc oxychloride is also effected by adding water to solid zinc chloride or by diluting a concentrated solution of zinc chloride. An examination of the literature showed that up to the present time about sixteen different oxychlorides of zinc have been described by various workers. Writing the molecular ratio in the order ZnO: ZnCl₂: H₂O, the following compounds have been reported:-

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  • An investigation into the variation with temperature of the normal electrode potential of zinc and of the activity coefficients of zinc sulphate solutions

    Moffat, J. F. (1929)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    When two metals each dipping into a solution of one of its salts are joined together in the form of a circuit, a current flows between them. This fact although noted by Volta has so far resisted all attempts to interpret it convincingly. Volta explained the course of this electric current on the theory of contact potential difference. Faraday on the other hand put forward the theory that the current was merely the electrical energy produced by the chemical changes taking place in the cell. Later experiments have formulated theories embracing both of these points of view but still unanimity has not been reached. Probably the most outstanding of the determinations made was that due to Nernst. It is now well known how the gas laws were applied to liquid and solutions through the discovery of the Osmotic Pressure of liquids.

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  • On the species of Cystophora found in New Zealand, particularly in Lyttelton Harbour

    Bennett, Edward William (1921)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This thesis proposes to deal with certain species or the genus Cystophora, a fucoid common on many rocky coasts of Australasia. Three species (C. retroflexa, C. scalaris, C. torulosa) were collected from Lyttelton Harbour, South Island, New Zealand, (Map, Figs. 1,2.) and are discussed in some detail; they were identified with certainty only late in the year, after an extensive examination of all the available literature (which was far from complete), and of some herbarium specimens (for the most part doubtfully identified or not at all). The results however have furnished an account of all the known New Zealand species; this account, though in the main a compilation and comparison of earlier writers, is based on the very reliable works of J. Agardh and so can lay claim to accuracy. The anatomy and oecology, and in the main the general morphology, research methods, and some other parts, are based on actual work on the collected specimens of the above three species. Earlier work has been entirely descriptive of the morphology.

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