68 results for University of Canterbury Library, 1940, Masters

  • Economic policy in New Zealand 1936-1939

    Oxnan, D. W. (1941)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The aim of this survey is twofold. First, it attempts to describe and analyse the more important aspects of the Labour Government’s economic policy, and second, it attempts to demonstrate how the achievement of this policy is conditioned by the characteristics of the New Zealand economy. The economic policy of the Labour Government is important for several reasons. First, both the “recovery measures” of the previous Government during the depression, and Labour’s policy after the depression tend to show that New Zealand, in common with other countries, is experiencing a definite trend towards an extension of State control of economic life. Secondly, since the 1890’s the Dominion has indulged in economic and social experiments which have attracted the attention of economists not only in New Zealand but also abroad. The economic and social policy of the Labour Government thus appears to be an acceleration of this long term trend. In addition it is generally recognised that conditions in New Zealand are more favourable to economic experimentation than those existing in most other countries. In examining this policy it is of fundamental importance to realise that the Ottawa Agreements of 1932, mark the end of an era when New Zealand could confidently rely on a large and expanding overseas market for her exports. Moreover the rise of economic rationalism, the progress of agrarian protectionism, the developments in the alternative sources of supply and the declining rate of growth of population in the consuming countries, all have forcibly demonstrated the inherent weakness of the New Zealand economy. Consequently the post depression years have witnessed a conscious expansion of New Zealand’s secondary industries. Although the social and economic policy of the Labour Government is in many respects similar to that of the Liberal Administration of Balance and Seddon in the early ‘nineties’ of last century, it has certainly been carried out under far less favourable circumstances. It is mainly for these reasons that this subject provides a fruitful field for economic research. To cover the whole of the policy in detail and would be beyond the limits of a brief survey of this nature. It would be possible to write a detailed survey on any one aspect of the policy. Nevertheless, it is felt that a broad treatment of policy is not entirely unfruitful. On the contrary a wide survey has much to commend it, for a detailed analysis of one aspect only tends to lose sight of the nature of the policy as a whole. Thus the first two chapters are devoted to an analysis of the Labour Government’s Programme and the economic factors limiting the achievement of this programme. The remaining chapters are concerned with the development of policy. Separate chapters deal in turn with Monetary Policy, Marketing, Transport, Rationalisation of Industry, Import and Exchange Control, and Labour and Social Legislation. In a concluding chapter, the threads are drawn together and an evaluation of the policy attempted. It should be noted that the period under review extends from 1936 to 1939 inclusive. It does not deal with the policy after the outbreak of war in September 1939, because this has created new problems and has thus modified to a certain extent the direction of Government policy. At the outset, originality is disclaimed. Much has already been written on particular aspects of policy, but little if any, on the policy as a whole. The material has been collected from all available relevant literature, consisting of numerous pamphlets, periodicals, articles and officials publications. A detailed account of references is given in the bibliography. Finally it is not proposed to reveal anything which is not already known to competent economists. This survey merely aims to make a comprehensive and critical analysis of the economic policy followed by the Labour Government in the years 1936-39.

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  • The history of the apple industry in Nelson, with special reference to the work of the Cawthron Institute.

    Robinson, Elizabeth Joy (1942)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

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  • The synthesis of 2:3:4-trimethyl sacchardiamide

    Vivian, G. W. (1947)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    As constituents of polyuronides, uronic acids have a frequent and wide occurrence in nature. Much of the carbohydrate material in plants, which includes all pectic materials and plant gums, many plant mucilages, hemicelluloses and gel-forming substances and some microbial polysaccharides, belong to the group. Uronic acid residues have been shown to exist in the animal body where they may be linked wither to complex polysaccharides or to proteins. The uronic acids are reducing sugar acids formed by the oxidation of the terminal carbinol group (C atom 6) of the sugar, a process which apparently occurs readily in both plants and animals. Although a large number of uronic acids are theoretically possible, only three have been found to occur naturally, these being d-galacturonic, d-glucuronic and d-mannuronic acids.

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  • An apparatus for the purification of radon

    Sutton, H. C. (1947)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    As is well known, radium has been used for many years as a source of gamma radiation for therapeutic use. The method consists in placing needles of radium in suitable positions on and around the cancerous growth; dosage being controlled by the radium content of each needle, and its time of application. Such operations are extremely dangerous, in that the needles are small and easily lost; yet the radium decays very slowly so that the intensity of radiation emitted by the needles remains almost constant. The high cost of such needles also limits their use. An alternative method of gamma ray therapy utilises needles of radon, the radioactive gas which is the first decay product of radium. Radon has a half life period of 3.825 days, compared with that of radium, of 1580 years. Consequently its activity is appreciable only over its first few days, having fallen to one per cent of its initial value in 25 days. The danger factor is thereby largely eliminated, since lost radon needles would be quite safe, even if still inside that patient, after a month or so. Moreover, the dosage can be arranged so that the needles are left permanently in the patient, the dose integrating to the required amount in infinite time. In some cases, where the tumour is rather inaccessible, this method is very convenient. A further advantage of radon lies in the fact that it is a gas, and can therefore be compressed to small sources of any required shape or size. Thus the radium from which it is prepared is rendered many times more useful, all types of needle being available from a common source. This extends its use to many cases not otherwise capable of treatment, as it will be appreciated that the cost of a complete stock of all types of radium needles is prohibitive. The more so, so many of them would remain out of use for years.

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  • Studies on a New Zealand Serpulid Pomatoceros coeruleus, Schmarda

    Knox, G. A. (1949)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    1. It is shown that the animal studied belongs to the genus Pomatoceros. Its specific status is uncertain. 2. The species is widely distributed throughout New Zealand and has also been reported from South Africa. 3. The anatomy and some of the more interesting aspects of history are described in detail, comparison being made with other Serpulids. 4. The longitudinal muscles are well developed and the circular muscles much reduced, an adaption to the tubicolous habit. 5. One pair only of nephridia is present in the thorax, opening internally by large ciliated coelomostomes into the peristomial coelom and externally by a common pore at the anterior dorsal end of the body. Excretory products are probably extracted from the blood in the form of guanine. 6. The nervous system consists of a brain, formed from two pairs of united ganglia, situated in the prostomium and united to two sub-oesophageal ganglia in the peristomial segment by dorsal and ventral connectives on each side. The two ventral nerve cords are widely separated and the giant nerve fibres are particularly well developed. 7. The blood system consists of a gut sinus, connected to a ventral vessel by paired ring vessels in each segment. From the ring vessels branches supplying the various organs of each segment arise. The capillaries of these vessels end blindly. Movement of the blood is effected by rhythmic peristaltic contractions of the walls of the vessels. Details of the circulation are described. When the animal retracts within the tube the blood circulation stops. This reversible stoppage of the blood is brought about by the accumulation of carbonic acid. The course of the respiratory currents within the tube is described. 8. The ciliary feeding mechanism of the crown is described, the food consisting of finely divided plankton and detritus. 9. The form of the tube is extremely variable. It is shown to be composed of a glycol-protein of a mucoid nature in which crystals of calcium carbonate in the form of aragonite are deposited. It is formed as a discontinuous secretion from gland cells of the collar region of the peristomial segment. The evidence so far collected points to the sea-water as the source of calcium. 10. The development from the egg to a fully formed trochosphere has been followed. The egg us small with little yolk and development is rapid. 11. A large percentage of the worms is infected by a gregarine parasite and large numbers of a commensal ciliate, Trichodina sp. are present. 12. Experimentally Po,atoceros is found to tolerate a wide variation of temperature and salinity, and is shown to tolerate exposure and coverage by sand to a large extent. 13. The habitat of Pomatoceros coeruleus is described in detail and detailed analysis of the community at Taylor’s Mistake, Banks Peninsula, to which it belongs has been made. The relationship of a number of different species of plants and animals to tidal level and exposure to air is discussed, comparison being made with other surveys. Critical levels for the different species have been detected. Pomatoceros coeruleus is shown to be a dominant organism in the chamaesipho-Mytilus planulatus Association of the littoral rocky shore. The general zonation of the plants and animals on the shore is discussed in relation to tidal level and exposure to wave action. A comparison is made with other surveys carried out in Australia, South Africa, North America and Great Britain. A fundamental basic zonation of typical indicator animal species, common to the temperate regions of the world is recognized. This basic schme is, a Littorina zone, occupying the highest level on the shore followed by a Barnacle zone below with a Laminaria or Kelp zone occupying the sub-littoral fringe.

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  • The "contemporary" aspect of history

    Armour, Kenneth Ian (1948)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Laviase once said to his students: “We who live intellectually in the past should not forget that the majority of men live in the present and are concerned about the future”. It was as one of the majority, rather than of the minority, that I turned to the subject of this text. I had often wondered about the marked hiatus in history between the end of historical narratives and the present time. Indeed, it seemed that history faded away towards the near end of time and that this phenomenon might, from chronological juxtaposition, be associated with another vague aspect of history, the utilitarian present. To read history was, assuredly, to gain the habit of historical thinking, to acquire a sense of the indivisibility of life, to see one’s self and one’s society from the evolutionary point of view, to learn to discriminate between transitory and perpetual values, to become appraised of the need to exercise curiosity towards institutions and compassion towards men, to embrace the aesthetic pleasure of language in high service and, above all, to incline to deem it wise to court every opinion but to hesitate before espousing any one. But these seeming merits, and others that sprang to mind beside them, appeared as attitudes of the intellect that haunted me in the study but became furtive, coy things in the world of practical affairs. So, curious about the river of history where it went underground and thinking that, maybe, it gushed forth somewhere as a spring of living waters, I seized upon the connotations customary to “contemporary history” as covering, more or less, both ends of an interesting field of enquiry. Surprisingly, I found that discursive literature on contemporary history was not to be found. Only two brief articles touched upon the subject and, for the balance, I had to scan all the tests within my reach for a few fleeting references to the problems connected with narration of the last part of the past. Further, to acquire this negative information, I had to scan each book with some care as, in the matter of this neglected subject, indexes were never helpful. And, in addition, I was unable to find amongst my acquaintances anyone who had considered the contemporary aspect of history or who had much inclination so to do. As a consequence of these things this work has emerged as a discourse on “contemporary” history in subordination to history and concerned as much with the genus as the species. Secondary, with little comparative criticism possible on the primary facet of the subject, and with an elaboration of history necessary such as led on to consideration of the narration of its latest period, footnotes are scanty and personal conceptions plentiful. Thirdly, I have had to be content to trace the subterranean flow of the river of history and to set my period near the spring of living waters.

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  • The synthesis of αβγ-trimethylglutaconic acid

    Blakley, R. L. (1946)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The condensation of ethyl β-chloro-α-methylcrotonate with the sodio-derivate of ethyl methyl malonate was attempted as part of a projected synthesis of αβγ-trimethylglutaconic acid, and to test a new general method for the synthesis of β-methyl-αγ-dialkylglutaconic acids.

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  • Relations of government and private enterprise in New Zealand, 1860-1875 : a documentary study.

    Oathout, Evelyn Lewis (1949)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    New Zealand's leadership in “state socialism” is commonly thought of as originating in the 1890's, the period of the Liberal-Labour coalition, though writers on the subject have generally made a passing bow to the 1870’s when Sir Julius Vogel led the young colony out of economic stagnation by means of his program for opening the land with public works and government assisted immigration. In this paper I have undertaken to recount the story of that earlier development, together with its antecedents, as it appeared in those official publications of the successive Parliaments from 1860 to 1875 found in the Appendix to the Journals of the House of Representatives of New Zealand. I have limited my subject by omitting the tremendous question of land policy, although recognizing fully its influence on the state and economy of New Zealand. Too many factors enter into that problem for it to be viewed meaningfully from the economic angle alone. I have sought to record, often in the words of the participants, the relationship between. government and private enterprise however it appeared in the documents. The early years contributed little, since the colony was young, responsible government even younger. Official energies were largely concentrated on land acquisition and attendant difficulties with the Maoris. Permissory acts for corporations and emergency regulations ware typical manifestations of that relationship before 1870. The first extended contact recorded was that between successive administrations and the Bank of New Zealand, in which the former assumed the same position as a private firm of equal economic importance might have assumed toward its banking agent. Government participation in private enterprise fields began with the program of public works of the 1870’s, which testified to a change in administrative concepts; the central government was no longer the arbiter of the economy, but its leader. It built railroads and imported labor, it encouraged diversification and increase of industry, both primary and secondary, it strove to break the power of English monopolies over the colony. Those who have written about New Zealand's history have tended to consider this development an aberration from British economic thought of the nineteenth century, requiring explanation or defense. Two economists who were in a position to influence the colonists, however, distinguished between government in a developed, “overpopulated” country such as England, and administration of the empty spaces of a new land, providing theoretical justification for an active policy in the latter circumstances. Government construction of public works was no innovation in the Australasian colonies. On the continent, the separate colonies had faced the question of private or state railroads already and generally had settled on the latter. New Zealand's own provinces, not private enterprise, had built the colony's original telegraph lines and railroads as their finances permitted. This history of the shift from provincial enterprise to that of the colony as a whole follows.

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  • The catalytic effect of acids in anhydrous acetic acid on the rate of racemization of 1-trans-αγ-dimethylglutaconic acid

    Allison, R. M. (1940)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Glutaconic acid and its derivatives have for many years been studied by Thorpe and co-workers (J.C.S., 1905, 89, 1669; Thorpe and Thole, J. C. S., 1911, 99, 2187; Goss, Ingold and Thorpe, J. C. S., 1923, 129, 1199; etc.) Compounds of this type, containing a mobile hydrogen atom, exhibit three carbon tautomerism, accompanied by geometrical isomerisom. With the unsubstituted acid, migration of the hydrogen atom may or may not lead to interconversion of the cis and trans forms, and when no interconversion occurs the initial and final forms I and II are indistinguishable.

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  • The degree of dissociation of silver benzoate from conductivity measurements

    Doyle, J. J. (1946)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Much of the work on salts has been concerned with the process of solution:- i.e. Solid Salt → ions in solution. Quantitatively this operation is best described in terms of changes in certain thermodynamic functions. This method is especially sound as it is independent of any specific model or mechanisms.

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  • Part 1: The solubility of krypton in water-methanol mixtures and derived thermodynamic properties; Part 2 : Attempted measurements of rates of solution of gases

    Beckwith, A. J. (1949)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This work on the solubility of krypton in water-methanol mixtures was done to continue the series of rare gases begun by Law. This series is part of a wider plan to determine the effect of methanol in breaking down the water structure in the water methanol mixtures and to examine the possibility of preferential orientation of either solvent species in the neighbourhood of solute molecules. Preferential orientation of the more polar molecules round an ion would be expected for an ionic solution process, but the solution of uncharged rare molecules, which are isoeleotronic with the corresponding alkali-metal cations, should be free from such electrostatic effects. The complementary purpose is to provide a compilation of solubility data and their derived thermodynamic properties for the rare gases in water-methanol mixtures.

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  • The methylation of benzoylated glucose mercaptals

    Wilkinson, I. A. (1947)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The central compound of the carbohydrates is glucose and it is around this substance that the chemistry of the carbohydrates and their molecular structure has been developed. The empirical formula was early established as CH2O and on the development of the Beckmann Apparatus the true formula was shown to be C₆H₁₂O₆ by Tollens and Mayer. Meanwhile, Killani (1886) had demonstrated the presence of an aldehyde group by forming the cyanhydrin, which on hydrolysis and reduction gave n-heptoic acid. The formation of this acid also indicated that the six carbons were arranged in a straight chain. The next major development was the introduction by Fischer of the “Fischer Projection Formula”. This structure with four asymmetric carbon atoms and hence allowing for 24 or 16 optical isomers (Vant Hoff – Le Bel Theory,) accounted for the numerous optical isomers of glucose that were being reported at the time, e.g. galactose by Pasteur as early as 1856.

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  • The Starborough estate

    Collins, J. F. (1948)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The purpose of any geographic study is basically, the description of a set of geographic circumstances. Mere description, however, is not enough, it is just as fundamental to explain how and why a particular set of circumstances evolved. In this thesis on the Starborough Estate, therefore, I have attempted to trace the various which caused and influenced that development, to describe the present land utilization pattern and to suggest possible future trends. The interest inherent in the topic lies in the fact that within a comparatively small area there are such marked geographic contrasts and the fact that the story of the development of farming on the estate is, to all intents and purposes, the story of New Zealand farming. The thesis is divided into three sections. The first deals with the geographic environment – the background of climate, soil, topography and vegetation on which human occupance has carved a constantly changing pattern. The second section traces the geographic development of the estate area and the changes in the cultural landscape from the time of first white settlement in 1846 to the present day. Most of the information for this part of the thesis was obtained in personal interviews with old residents of the district and particularly from Mr. J. B. Dick whose association with Starborough dates back to the years before the subdivision in 1899, and from Mrs. A. Fleming whose experiences as the first schoolmistress in the district throw considerable light on conditions prevailing from time to time. The third section, consists of a land utilization survey. All the field work associated with the preparation of the land utilization map was carried out in 1948, a year in which farming conditions had returned to some degree of normality and the pattern of land use can be considered typical of the present stage of development. As an appendix I have included studies of four individual farms which should assist in demonstrating contrasts in land utilization which, in turn, reflect differences in the geographic environment.

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  • A reconnaissance survey of Lake Ellesmere and its border lands

    Cooper, Betty Mary (1944)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The purpose of this paper is to give a descriptive account of Lake Ellesmere and the land immediately adjacent to it. Ever since the settlement of Canterbury the utilization of this land marginal to Lake Ellesmere has presented a special problem which has been largely one of recurring inundations due to rise of the lake level. The frequent flooding of much of it temporarily puts large areas out of economic use. Therefore the primary purpose of this paper is to define on a map the limits of the area adversely affected by the rise of the lake level. Having done this, an attempt is made to describe in general terms the nature, management and use of this land and to examine the various schemes by which man has attempted to control the rise and fall of the lake. Incidental, but at the same time essential to this discussion of the lowland bordering the lake is a study of the nature and origin of the lake itself and the shingle barrier enclosing it. With one departure the boundary of the region under discussion is that drawn up by the Ellesmere Lands Drainage Board. This Drainage Board boundary includes all that land directly flooded by the lake as it rises, and all the land liable to be indirectly flooded because of the reduce fall in the rivers and creeks. The area included in the region under review but not in the Ellesmere Lands Drainage Board’s area is the shingle bank separating the lake from the sea. This has been included because it is responsible for the formation of Lake Ellesmere. Through the Drainage Board boundary is a purely arbitrary one, a glance at the soil survey map will show that it coincides very closely with the boundary between the saline or partly saline soils and the non saline soils. For the discussion of the nature and origin of the spit, extensive use has been made of Professor R. Speight’s paper on the “Lake Ellesmere Spit” which appears in the “Transactions of the New Zealand Institute”, Vol 61, 1930, 99. 147-69. For information about the Maoris and the early European settlement in the region a series of articles written by Mr. W. Taylor and appearing in the “Ellesmere Guardian” of 1943-44 proved most helpful. For the account of the utilization of the land of the region it was necessary to make field observations and interview the farmers themselves. In an endeavour to control the rise and fall of the lake level the Ellesmere Lands Drainage Board, which has been inexistence for thirty-eight years, has collected a great deal of useful information. This information has been of great help and thanks are due to the Board for permission to use it. The writer is also indebted to Professor E. Percival and Mr L. W. McCaskill for information on the fauna and flora of the region; to the Public Works Department for a copy of their contour map; to Mr C. S. Harris of the soil survey division of the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research for access to a soil survey map of the region; to Mr V. C. Browne for aerial photographs; to Mr. F. Millar, Mr F. Coop, Mr Stalker and Mr W. O. Rennie for much valuable information about the present and past land utilisation in the region.

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  • The work of the third, fourth and fifth sessions of the Fourth New Zealand Parliament, 1868-1870, and its relation to the history of the colony.

    Sexton, Moya (1941)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This thesis attempts to show the importance of the work of the New Zealand parliament from 1868-70 the influence on this work of the movements and opinion of the colony as a whole. General histories of New Zealand are apt to treat this period rather casually as it did not produce any of the more important legislative measures. Nevertheless even if it did not pass far-reaching legislation, it had an importance of its own, for it was a parliament of endings and beginnings. It saw the end of Stafford's last ministry, the end of the self-sacrificing and public spirited work of this Superintendent of Nelson; the end of the Maori Wars, and. the disputes with the Imperial Government. It saw the true beginning of a constructive policy towards the natives and the reconciliation of the two races. It saw the beginning of the end of the Provincial System, and most important of all, the beginning of Vogel’s period as Treasurer end his policy of borrowing and public works. In arranging my material I have summarised briefly the work of the first three New Zealand Parliaments, and that of the first two sessions of the Fourth, after which I have endeavoured to give some idea of the conditions prevailing in New Zealand in 1868. Devoting one chapter to the work of the last three sessions of the Fourth Parliament, chiefly from the source of Parliamentary Debates, I thought it wise to deal with the Maori question in a separate Chapter. In it I have followed through the history of the sessions trying to link up the events in the country with the parliamentary debates and legislation, and hoping to show the effect on the members of the legislature (and through them on the legislation) of the public opinion of the time. I found my greatest difficulty in obtaining material concerning the condition of New Zealand in the year 1868. I did not wish this account to be purely a parliamentary record, yet there is an amazing lack of literature describing the social and more general position. Sewell’s Diary ended before these years. My domicile prevented me from making use of the McLean and Stafford Papers in the Turnbull Library. I made enquiries of my elderly relatives, but they had not arrived in New Zealand till about the eighties, and even then were very young, but their stories enabled me to form some idea of the primitive state of the Colony and what it must have been ten Years before. By dint of much searching I discovered various old books written about this time, with their thick pages and distorted maps, and they helped to throw some light upon the times.

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  • The oxidation of α-methyl-d-glucoside with nitrogen dioxide

    Sewell, O. K. (1946)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The initial step in the present investigation was the preparation of the α-methyl-d-glucuronoside (ii) by the oxidation of α-methyl-d-glucoside (i) with an equilibrium mixture of nitrogen dioxide and nitrogen tetroxide in chloroform and carbon tetrachloride. [formula here]. The uronic acids in general will be discussed below, especially d-glucuronic acid (iii) which can not be purchased and hence must be synthesised or isolated from natural products.

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  • An apparatus for the purification of radon

    Sutton, H. C. (1947)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    As is well known, radium has been used for many years as a source of gamma radiation for therapeutic use. The method consists in placing needles of radium in suitable positions on and around the cancerous growth; dosage being controlled by the radium content of each needle, and its time of application. Such operations are extremely dangerous, in that the needles are small and easily lost; yet the radium decays very slowly so that the intensity of radiation emitted by the needles remains almost constant. The high cost of such needles also limits their use. An alternative method of gamma ray therapy utilises needles of radon, the radioactive gas which is the first decay product of radium. Radon has a half life period of 3.825 days, compared with that of radium, of 1580 years. Consequently its activity is appreciable only over its first few days, having fallen to one per cent of its initial value in 25 days. The danger factor is thereby largely eliminated, since lost radon needles would be quite safe, even if still inside that patient, after a month or so. Moreover, the dosage can be arranged so that the needles are left permanently in the patient, the dose integrating to the required amount in infinite time. In some cases, where the tumour is rather inaccessible, this method is very convenient. A further advantage of radon lies in the fact that it is a gas, and can therefore be compressed to small sources of any required shape or size. Thus the radium from which it is prepared is rendered many times more useful, all types of needle being available from a common source. This extends its use to many cases not otherwise capable of treatment, as it will be appreciated that the cost of a complete stock of all types of radium needles is prohibitive. The more so, so many of them would remain out of use for years.

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  • The synthesis off 2: 3: 4-trimethyl sacchardiamide

    Vivian, G. W. (1947)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    As constituents of polyuronides, uronic acids have a frequent and wide occurrence in nature. Much of the carbohydrate material in plants, which includes all pectic materials and plant gums, many plant mucilages, hemicelluloses and gel-forming substances and some microbial polysaccharides, belong to the group. Uronic acid residues have been shown to exist in the animal body where they may be linked wither to complex polysaccharides or to proteins. The uronic acids are reducing sugar acids formed by the oxidation of the terminal carbinol group (C atom 6) of the sugar, a process which apparently occurs readily in both plants and animals. Although a large number of uronic acids are theoretically possible, only three have been found to occur naturally, these being d-galacturonic, d-glucuronic and d-mannuronic acids.

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  • The Mackenzie Basin : a regional study in the South Island high country.

    Wilson, Ronald Kincaid (1949)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    During recent years the high country of the South Island has attracted a good deal of attention from farm economists, soil conservationists, geographers and also politicians. With the present need for increased national production the problem of keeping the high country in productive occupation is the subject of justifiable concern. The purpose of this regional study is to describe one of the most distinctive areas in the high country, and to discuss the problems which have caused the recent Royal Commission on the Sheep-farming Industry in New Zealand to investigate the general economic position of the runholders. Besides being a well-defined physiographic unit, the Mackenzie Basin or, as it is better known to the local people, the Mackenzie Country has a distinctive character of its own. On entering Burkes Pass even the most casual observer cannot fail to notice how different the landscape within the basin appears compared with that outside. This large, gravel-filled intermontane depression with its vast expanse of dun coloured tussock and its clear, dry climate seems to have a special flavour which distinguishes it from any other part of either Canterbury or Otago. Probably the most striking feature of the basin is its monotonous uniformity of both physical conditions and human activities. The extensive sheep-farming economy has imposed a distinctive pattern of land use over the whole area. Not only does the landscape have a similar appearance everywhere but, because of their common int erests, the people all tend to live alike and think alike. Before 1939 the basin was solely a sheep-grazing area but, with the recent developments connected with the storage of water in the lakes for the generation of hydro-electricity, the Mackenzie Country has assumed a new importance. With the dam-building schemes at Tekapo and Pukaki an entirely new element has been introduced into the landscape - the large Public Works Camp. These camps, however, are, for the most part, temporary features and the sheep-station remains the typical unit of settlement. For this reason the major part of this study is devoted to a description of the landscape as it has developed under the extensive sheep-farming economy and a discussion of the problems resulting from the exploitation of the natural vegetation. When the early settlers first took up their runs they had the opportunity of making the Mackenzie basin one of the best merino grazing areas in New Zealand. In most cases that opportunity was lost, due partly to ignorance of proper grazing methods under sub-humid conditions and partly to short-sighted practices caused by temporary economic difficulties. Over-burning and over-stocking extracted an early toll from the vegetation cover which, in spite of numerous attempts can never be fully repaid. By deliberately introducing rabbits into the area the early runholders made their third and possibly their greatest mistake. These rabbits were allowed to multiply unchecked for nearly twenty years before it was realised what a menace they were likely to become. By that time it was too late. Today, the rabbit is generally considered to be the chief cause of the disturbing decline in the sheep carrying capacity of the Mackenzie Country. Altogether, unwise burning, overstocking and rabbits have caused such a deterioration in the tussock cover that Cumberland's description of some parts of the basin as "deserts in the making" is quite appropriate. Admittedly conditions are not as bad as in the "man-made deserts" of Central Otago but a serious problem at present confronts the Mackenzie runholders.

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  • The Te Awaiti whaling station : An essay on whaling in and around Cook Strait, New Zealand

    Caygill, R. Doreen (1948)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The purpose of this study is to describe the whaling station at Te Awaiti, near Cook Strait, New Zealand, the adjacent land area on which it is based, and the nature of the local whaling operations. This whaling station is of unique interest inasmuch as it represents a relic of what was once a major industry in the earliest settlement of New Zealand. It is located in the Marlborough Sounds region of the South Island, a region that itself has a unique character. The people engaged in whaling follow this occupation actively for only four months of the year. For the remainder of the year they are engaged in farming the adjacent land. Therefore, the station and its operation will be described in conjunction with the adjoining land area which is occupied for farming. The total area in which the Whalers have a direct interest is limited at sea by the range of the whale boats and on land by the acreage which they are able to farm economically during the part of the year they are not at sea.

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