14,528 results for University of Canterbury Library

  • Hearing aid satisfaction among adults with hearing impairment in New Zealand.

    Kengmana, Caitlin (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Introduction: This study investigated hearing aid (HA) satisfaction among adult with hearing impairment (HI) in New Zealand. This study aimed to answer three questions: 1) What are the current HA satisfaction levels amongst adult HA users in New Zealand? 2) How do the satisfaction findings of this study compare with other HA satisfaction data? 3) What client factors are related to HA satisfaction? Method: Participants were recruited prospectively. They completed a questionnaire prior to HA fitting and a questionnaire three months post-fitting. Information was collected on: age, gender, HA experience, HI severity, hearing ability, change in hearing ability, hearing handicap, communication self-efficacy, change in communication self-efficacy, HA self-efficacy, HA usage, and number of appointments. HA satisfaction was measured via the Satisfaction with Amplification in Daily Life questionnaire (SADL; Cox & Alexander, 1999). Results: Data were collected for 47 participants. Of these, 91.5% fell within or above the normative range for global satisfaction established by Cox & Alexander (1999). The mean SADL scores were predominantly high compared to previous research. Satisfaction with negative features of HAs was especially high in this study. However satisfaction with the service and cost of HAs was low compared to other research. SADL scores were found to significantly relate to age, gender, change in hearing ability, hearing handicap, communication self-efficacy, change in communication self-efficacy, and HA self-efficacy. Conclusions: Results differed from previous research indicating that HA satisfaction may differ over time and across countries. Assessing HA satisfaction in a comprehensive standardised way, as opposed to with a single-item measure, can help identify important related factors. Targeting identified variables such as communication and HA self-efficacy may lead to improved treatment efficacy.  

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  • Covalently anchored polymerisation initiator monolayers for polymer brush growth.

    Lankshear, Ethan Robert (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This thesis describes the covalent modification of carbon electrodes with a monolayer of polymerisation initiators and the growth of polymer brushes by surface initiated atom transfer radical polymerisation (SI-ATRP). Monolayer modification was sought to preserve the underlying electrode properties and topography and to produce a well-organised layer from which the polymer brushes can be grown. This work investigated two approaches for immobilising a monolayer of polymerisation initiators. Firstly, the electrochemical grafting of protected aryl diazonium salts produced a covalently anchored monolayer of tether groups that can participate in subsequent amide coupling and click reactions, to covalently anchor the polymerisation initiator. Secondly, specific reactions between the electrode surface and appropriate polymerisation initiator derivatives have been used to covalently anchor the initiators. For most systems, electro-active ferrocene (Fc) groups were reacted with modified surfaces as model reactants to enable the electrochemical estimation of the surface concentration of the polymer initiator groups. Film thickness measurements of the ethynylaryl (Ar-Eth) monolayer were carried out using atomic force microscopy confirming a monolayer. XPS analysis confirmed the presence of bromine on most of the polymerisation initiator modified samples. Modification of surfaces with polymer brushes can introduce new surface properties, such as switchable wettability, while maintaining the underlying bulk substrate properties. This work focused on examining SI-ATRP at each of the polymerisation initiator monolayers, with the aim to identify the most promising system(s) for further investigation. Polymer brushes of poly(3-(methacryloylamino)propyl)-N,N’-dimethyl(3-sulfopropyl)-ammonium hydroxide) (PMPDSAH) were grown from initiators tethered through the aryl diazonium salts modification procedure. Redox probe voltammetry and XPS analysis indicated that the grafting from polymerisation by the copper catalysed SI-ATRP was successful. Polymer brushes of poly(methyl methacrylate) PMMA were grown from the Ar-Eth modified monolayer by three SI-ATRP procedures: a standard procedure, an electrochemically mediated SI-ATRP method and a one-pot copper catalysed azide-alkyne click (CuAAC) reaction and SI-ATRP reaction from the Ar-Eth monolayer. Redox probe voltammetry and AFM images provided evidence for the growth of polymer brushes by these three methods. The successful one-pot CuAAC/SI-ATRP reaction for simultaneous coupling of the polymerisation initiator to the surface and polymerisation is a new approach for the production of polymer brushes and it minimises the number of surface modification steps needed. This method appears most promising for further development.

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  • Progesterone and the striatal 6-hydroxydopamine model of Parkinson’s disease

    Perry, James Colin (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder that is characterised by akinesia, muscular rigidity, and postural instability, due primarily to the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and depletion of upstream dopamine in the striatum. Current dopaminergic treatments reduce motor symptoms, but have diminishing benefits as the disease progresses. Treatment with the neuroactive steroid natural progesterone (PROG) improves outcomes in many experimental models of brain injury due to its pleiotropic mechanisms of neuroprotection, many of which may also benefit PD. This thesis investigated the influence of PROG on motor impairments in the unilateral intrastriatal 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesion model of PD in rats. We established a PD-like impairment with a d-amphetamine induced rotation test at day 7 after large lesions and then administered PROG (4 mg/kg or 8 mg/kg) once daily for 7 days starting at day 8. Both PROG doses markedly improved the primary outcome measure, forelimb akinesia on the adjusting steps test, with improvement sustained for six weeks after treatment had stopped. In a second study the beneficial influence of PROG (8 mg/kg) on akinesia was replicated for rats with large lesions and was extended to rats with small lesions so that the latter rats were now similar to sham operated controls. We also found that PROG modestly improved postural instability of the ipsilateral forelimb on the postural instability test, and sensorimotor integration on the whisker test, but did not improve skilled reaching accuracy on a single-pellet reaching task, forelimb use asymmetry on the cylinder test, sensory neglect on the corridor test, or rotation bias after apomorphine. Furthermore, PROG did not change striatal tyrosine hydroxylase density when assessed in rats with large lesions. This study has provided the most thorough examination to date regarding PROG’s influence on motor skills in an animal model of PD. Furthermore, this study has produced novel evidence of the beneficial effects of PROG treatment on forelimb akinesia. These initial promising findings suggest that PROG is an effective therapy for akinesia and thus provides an impetus to further investigate PROG’s efficacy for the treatment of PD.

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  • Accounting for thinking with reference to the deaf

    Long, D. S. (1975)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Faced with an apparent conflict between two approaches to the teaching of deaf children : (i) that we should teach deaf children a language so that they can think, and (ii) that we should teach deaf children to think so that they can then acquire a language - I have examined the assumptions about thinking assumed by these two schools of thought. Reductionists hold that thinking is nothing but such things as inner speech (they identify thinking with its expression). Duplicationists argue that this is an inadequate explication of the concept of thinking (that it is only half the story) and they argue that thinking is something else as well as its expression. If successful Duplicationism becomes an objection to Reductionism. Unfortunately it results in an infinite regress. A third alternative account of thinking (Ryle's Adverbial account) regards thinking as an adverbial characterization: thinking is the way or circumstances in which we perform certain diverse and neutral (vis-a-vis thinking) activities. By such an account the elements of thinking which Duplicationists accuse Reductionist of ignoring become conditional dispositions. I argue that they should be regarded as categorical dispositional ascriptions. Additionally Ryle assumes a "process" account of thinking when in point of fact an "episodic" account is required. The thesis concludes by arguing that we need an ontology sufficiently large to take in all the aspects of thinking and that in turn this will generate not one precept but a matrix of precepts for the education of the deaf.

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  • Management Control in a Thai-Owned Chicken Company in Thailand

    Dokkularb, P.; Lord, B.R.; Dixon, K. (2014)


    University of Canterbury Library

    The purpose of this study is to add knowledge of the composition and exercise of management control systems. The study focused on a Thai-owned chicken processing company in Thailand. Thailand was chosen for this study both because the researcher (the first-named author) is Thai and because few previous management control studies have been about Thailand even though Thailand has a high level of foreign investment. Although Thailand has been influenced significantly by Western ideas, it differs from many of its South and Southeast Asian neighbours in having maintained a much greater degree of formal political autonomy than its neighbours. This ethnographic research shows that only some factors from previous studies, namely national culture and demographic characteristics, are relevant to the Thai-owned chicken company’s MCSs. Other factors not identified in previous studies were found to be important; for example, being a family business, competition in the markets for labour and custom, and labour laws have influenced and shaped the Company’s MCSs.

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  • Predicting tidal heights for new locations using 25 hours in situ sea-level observations plus reference site records: a complete tidal species modulation with tidal constant.

    Byun, D.S.; Hart, D.E. (2015)

    Journal Articles
    University of Canterbury Library

    A hybrid technique for predicting tides for new locations, based on as little as 25 h of concurrent temporary and reference site sea level observations, plus up to a year of reference records, is evaluated using 2-yr South Korean and New Zealand case studies. Comparisons are made between the existing prediction methods of conventional standard harmonic analysis and prediction (CSHAP) and tidal species modulation with tidal constant corrections (TSM1TCC). Building on these approaches, a new procedure is developed to produce a complete tidal species modulation (CTSM) equivalent of CSHAP, with the added inclusion of nodal factors and angles, astronomical arguments, and tidal species tidal constant correction terms (1TCC), to generate results for temporary sites. The CTSM1TCC approach described here overcomes the record length limitations of traditional standard harmonic-based prediction methods, making the technique more useful to diverse coastal and hydrographic researchers. The CTSM1TCC method is refined using yearlong input and comparative data from contrasting hydrographic settings, revealing spring periods, specific months, and conditions devoid of nontidal residual extremes (e.g., storms) as the most appropriate sample periods for collecting temporary site data in order to maximize prediction accuracy. CTSM1TCC represents a viable alternative to tidal prediction methods using multiconstituent inferences, for those wishing to make predictions for new sites based on established conventional tidal prediction software, with the added benefits of efficient input data collection and no need for a decision process regarding multiconstituent inference calculations. CTSM1TCC could, without compromising accuracy, support the spatial and temporal proliferation of tidal predictions across coastal oceans, where fieldwork funds and instruments currently hinder predictions for new locations.

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  • Predicting the Activation Time of a Concealed Sprinkler

    Suen, Yeou Wei (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This research examined a heat transfer model to predict the activation time of a concealed sprinkler. Concealed sprinklers consist of two stages of activation. They include the release of cover plates from a recess housing and the breakage of the glass bulbs or melting of the solder links. The research analysis is divided into two sections. The first section includes the prediction of cover plate activation time (stage one) and the second section includes the prediction of glass bulb activation time (stage two). Each prediction result is compared with the experimental data conducted by Annable (2006) and Yu (2007). A lumped heat capacity method is introduced to predict the activation time of the cover plate. This method has been used for predicting the activation time of a standard pendent exposed sprinkler. It is reasonable to apply this method by assuming they are flush with the ceiling. The analysis results are compared based on the percentage of predicted and measured uncertainties. A recommendation is provided for which method is appropriate to apply to predicting the cover plate activation time. The proposed of using FDS5 simulations is to simulate the heat transfer to the sensing element (glass bulb only) within the recessed housing. The constructed simulation models comprises of ceiling within a compartment. The simulations of various sprinkler heads are performed to investigate any parameters that can potentially affect the activation time of the sprinklers. To simulate the glass bulb, combined thermal properties including glass and glycerine are modified to account for the differences in mass. Prior to stage two analysis, the FDS5 simulation was tested to predict the activation time of a standard pendent exposed sprinkler. The results showed positive progress to carry onto the next analysis. In stage two analysis, the simulations are constructed with and without the presence of vent holes within the recess housing. The combined activation time for concealed sprinklers show lack of solid predictions compared to the experimental data especially Yu experimental data.

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  • An Investigation into the Classroom Interactions of Twice Exceptional Students in Comparison to their Typically Developing Peers

    Lewis, Taryn (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Students who meet criteria for both being intellectually gifted and having a disability are known by the term ‘twice exceptional’. To date there is little known about the classroom interactions of these students, and how these interactions impact their developing self-esteem. The interactions of four gifted primary school students with identified learning difficulties (twice exceptional) were observed along with four matched typically developing students and their teacher during normal classroom teaching activities. The number and type of positive, negative, neutral or no response interactions were recorded over four, one hour observation sessions. The Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory was then administered to the four twice exceptional and four comparison students. Results indicated that there was little difference between the twice exceptional and comparison students in terms of number of interactions recorded, with the twice exceptional students showing slightly more positive interactions with their teacher and peers. All four twice exceptional students reported lower self-esteem levels than their matched peers, with two students being in the low range. The results suggested that these four twice exceptional students were interacting in a manner similar to their typically developing peers, although they displayed lower self-esteem levels. The implications of these findings and recommendations for future research are discussed.

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  • Printed Chromatography Media (Keynote)

    Fee, C.J.; Dimartino, S.; Nawada, S. (2013)

    Conference Contributions - Other
    University of Canterbury Library

    Keynote Presentation

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  • Rubisco's chiropractor: a study of higher plant Rubisco activase

    Keown, Jeremy Russell (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Rubisco activase operates as the chaperone responsible for maintaining the catalytic competency of Ribulose 1,5-bisphophate carboxylase oxygenase (Rubisco) in plants. Rubisco is notoriously inefficient, rapidly self-inactivating under physiological conditions. Rubisco activase uses the power released from the hydrolysis of ATP to power a conformational change in Rubisco, reactivating it. Rubisco activase has been previously shown to form a large range of species in solution; however, little has been done to relate the size of oligomeric species and physiological activity. In this thesis data is presented from a range of biophysical techniques including analytical ultracentrifugation, static light scattering, and small angle X-ray scattering combined with activity assays to show a strong relationship between oligomeric state and activity. The results suggest that small oligomers comprising 2-4 subunits are sufficient to attain full specific activity, a highly unusual property for enzymes from the AAA+ family. Studies utilising a number of Rubisco activase variants enabled the determination of how Rubisco and Rubisco activase may interact within a plant cell. A detailed characterisation of the α-, β-, and a mixture of isoforms further broadened our knowledge on the oligomerisation of Rubisco activase. Of particular importance was the discovery of a thermally stable hexameric Rubisco activase variant. It is hoped that these findings may contribute to development of more heat tolerant Rubisco activase and lead research into more drought resilient crop plants.

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  • Using computer assisted instruction to build fluency in multiplication : implications for the relationship between different core competencies in mathematics.

    McIntosh, Brinley Rachel (2014)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Dyscalculia is a specific learning disability that affects an individual’s core skills in mathematics, including calculation, recall of number facts, and approximating/comparing number. Research into the origins and aetiology of dyscalculia have suggested the presence of two different networks in the brain used for mathematics; one for verbal (symbolic) tasks such as recalling number facts, and one for non-verbal (non-symbolic) tasks such as approximation and number comparison. While these networks are located in different brain areas, they are often used together on calculation tasks, they are known to impact each other over the course of development, and they both appear to be impacted in dyscalculia. The current study used entertaining computer assisted instruction software, “Timez Attack”, to target the symbolic network, i.e. to improve the fluency of multiplication fact recall in three 9 and 10 year old children who were performing below the expected level on multiplication. An ABA (applied behaviour analysis) multiple-baseline across subject design was used to track participants’ performance on multiplication, addition, and number comparison over the course of the intervention. Results showed improved fluency of multiplication fact recall in all three participants; however this improvement did not generalise to addition or number comparison. This finding suggests that the symbolic and non-symbolic brain networks involved in mathematics are largely independent from each other by middle childhood, and that training targeting one network does not affect the other.

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  • Development and evaluation of CPT-Vs correlation for Canterbury, New Zealand soils of the shallow Christchurch and Springston formations

    McGann, C.R.; Bradley, B.A.; Cubrinovski, M.; Taylor, M.L.; Wotherspoon, L.M. (2014)

    Reports
    University of Canterbury Library

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  • Worm on the Run – A versatile force-sensing platform for the study of freely moving nematodes

    Nock, V.; Alkaisi, M.M.; Wang, W.; Johari, S. (2015)

    Conference Contributions - Other
    University of Canterbury Library

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  • Model-specific tests on variance heterogeneity for detection of potentially interacting genetic loci

    Hothorn, L.A.; Libiger, O.; Gerhard, D. (2012)

    Journal Articles
    University of Canterbury Library

    Background: Trait variances among genotype groups at a locus are expected to differ in the presence of an interaction between this locus and another locus or environment. A simple maximum test on variance heterogeneity can thus be used to identify potentially interacting single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Results: We propose a multiple contrast test for variance heterogeneity that compares the mean of Levene residuals for each genotype group with their average as an alternative to a global Levene test. We applied this test to a Bogalusa Heart Study dataset to screen for potentially interacting SNPs across the whole genome that influence a number of quantitative traits. A user-friendly implementation of this method is available in the R statistical software package multcomp. Conclusions: We show that the proposed multiple contrast test of model-specific variance heterogeneity can be used to test for potential interactions between SNPs and unknown alleles, loci or covariates and provide valuable additional information compared with traditional tests. Although the test is statistically valid for severely unbalanced designs, care is needed in interpreting the results at loci with low allele frequencies.

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  • Building natural disaster response capacity: sound workforce strategies for recovery and reconstruction in APEC economies

    Chang-Richards, A. Y.; Seville, E.; Wilkinson, S.; Walker, B. (2013)

    Reports
    University of Canterbury Library

    This report examines and compares case studies of labour market policy responses in APEC economies to natural disasters. It first reviews the policies and practice within APEC economies and internationally in managing the labour market effects of natural disasters. By using comparative case studies, the report then compares recent disaster events in the Asia-Pacific region, including: - the June 2013 Southern Alberta floods in Canada; - the 2010 and 2011 Queensland floods in Australia; - the 2010 and 2011 Canterbury earthquakes in New Zealand; - the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami in Japan; and - the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake in China.

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  • The Commonwealth Trans-Antarctic Expedition 1955-58 - How the crossing of Antarctica moved New Zealand to recognise its Antarctic heritage and take an equal place among Antarctic nations

    Hicks, Stephen Walter (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The thesis analyses the expedition (TAE) led by Dr.Vivian Fuchs and Sir Edmund Hillary from three vantage points: 1)the years from 1948 to 1955 leading up to the expedition 2) the interaction between the IGY and the TAE projects and 3) the role of the US Navy as the expedition unfolded. The thesis also investigates key events including the purchase of the ship Endeavour from Britain, the competition for leadership of the UK and NZ parties, the 'dash to the Pole' by Hillary, and the search for base sites and routes to the Polar Plateau. The thesis contains an overview historical introduction, a comprehensive literature review as well as a broad-based set of conclusions.

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  • Pocket beach wave processes and current systems investigated via field and numerical modelling studies: A case study of Okains Bay

    Eisazadeh Moghaddam, Arash (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Confined coasts in general, and pocket beach environments in particular, are under huge development pressures worldwide, not least due to their sheltered nature and perceived shoreline stability. However, understanding of their physical functioning is poor in comparison to that of open coast beaches. This study aims to improve understanding in terms of the existing gaps in knowledge of wave processes and nearshore currents, and also to examine the importance of local wind and tide factors in generating nearshore currents, in micro-tidal pocket beaches. The boundaries of embayments are generally recognized as important controls of their beach processes and responses, yet little detailed knowledge exists of how the exact embayment dimensions and characteristics influences these processes. One key embayment feature the influence of which is poorly understood is the downcoast headland. In this thesis, field observations plus Zanuttigh and Van der Meer’s (2008) approach, and the SWAN wave model were used to evaluate the downcoast headland effects on wave processes within Okains Bay, an example pocket beach environment. The results showed that incident wave heights and directions were significantly influenced by wave reflection processes from the downcoast headland inside the bay. The intensity of reflection effects on wave characteristics inside the pocket beach varied according to approaching wave direction. Reflection effects reduced when waves approached from angles close to parallel to the headlands, increasing towards headland-perpendicular wave approaches. Field observations and the XBeach model were used to examine whether or not tides can significantly influence nearshore currents within example and model pocket beach environments. Results indicated that tides can be the primary driver of nearshore currents close to the bed inside micro-tidal pocket beaches, depending on incident wave conditions. In areas of micro-tidal pocket beaches exposed to direct approaching waves, currents were wave driven, while in areas further into the bay that experienced headland filtering of their wave environment, currents were mainly tide generated. The results of this study demonstrated how the current circulation system within micro-tidal pocket beaches is related to the incoming directions of offshore waves. If high energy waves approach oblique or normal to the shoreline (with the assumption that the shoreline is at 90° to the headlands), the current system was found to consist of longshore currents influenced by headlands, plus a rip current in the center of the shoreline or a toporip in proximity to headlands. The location of the rip current or toporip was determined by the direction of approaching incident waves. This study also examined the behavior of local winds in a pocket beach environment and their consequent effects on nearshore currents. Results for Okains Bay show that local winds tended to blow in offshore and onshore directions, as the bay is located in a valley, so orographic effects channel and shift the wind directions to angles close to offshore and onshore directions inside the bay. Results also indicated that local winds influence the hydrodynamic currents of pocket beaches that are confined by elevated topography, producing semi-cross shore influences since the winds are topographically channelled to blow in predominantly offshore and onshore directions. This research significantly refines our understanding of micro-tidal pocket beach wave and current processes, including quantification of the filtering effects of headlands on their wave environments, revealing the various and variable influences of tides and winds compared to in open coast beaches; and, significantly, highlighting the role of downcoast headland wave reflection effects. With regard to the latter, this research elucidates some key process differences between pocket and embayed beaches and clarifies reasons why the application of embayed beach models that include refraction and diffraction but exclude reflection effects to the study of pocket beaches is inappropriate for studying pocket beaches. This research also provides methodological and topic suggestions for future research on pocket beach environments, including how to use the improved hydrodynamic knowledge of this study in future studies seeking to better understand pocket beach sediment systems, a topic that was beyond the scope of the current research.

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  • 'The Inside View' Investigating the use of Narrative Assessment to Support Student Identity, Wellbeing, and Participation in Learning in a New Zealand secondary school.

    Guerin, Annette Patricia (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    New Zealand education policies and documents (Ministry of Education, 2007, 2009, 2010, 2011a, 2014a) situate students at the centre of assessment processes that are underpinned by the New Zealand Curriculum. They identify building student assessment capability as crucial to achieving improvement in learning. Documents recognize the impact of quality interactions and relationships on effective assessment. However these core beliefs about assessment are not observed to guide teaching practices for all students. Disabled students remain invisible in assessment data and practices within New Zealand secondary schools. There appears to be little or no assessment data about learning outcomes for this group of students. This thesis investigates possible ways to recognize the diversity of student capability and learning through the use of narrative assessment. It challenges the absence of disabled students in assessment landscapes as educator roles and responsibilities within assessment, teaching and learning are framed within an inclusive pedagogy. This research project focuses on how a team of adults and two students labeled as disabled make sense of assessment and learning within the context of narrative assessment in the students’ regular high school. The project examines the consequences of narrative assessment on student identity, wellbeing and participation within learning. The study offers opportunities to observe how specialists from outside of the school respond to the use of narrative as they work with the two student research participants. This study undertakes a critical inquiry that recognises the principles of the Treaty of Waitangi – partnership, protection and participation – as pivotal to inclusive practice where all students are valued as learners. It investigates how narrative assessment can honour these principles in everyday teaching practice. The project aims to inform education policy and practice, with a view to enriching learning outcomes and opportunities for disabled students who are frequently marginalized by inequitable assessment processes. It is argued that narrative assessment can support the construction of student identity and wellbeing. It can support the recognition of disabled students as partners in their learning. However the value of narrative assessment can be undermined by the responses of educators and other professionals who continue to work within deficit models of assessment, teaching and learning. Within this thesis adult participants from family and education contexts have clear ideas about the value and validity of assessment practices and processes that do not respect a presumption of competence or a need to establish a relationship with a student being assessed. Their views challenge everyday practices that fulfill assessment contracts, but ignore Treaty of Waitangi and New Zealand Curriculum commitments. Their views can inform better ways of working between specialists and schools supporting disabled students.

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  • Economic policy in New Zealand 1936-1939

    Oxnan, D. W. (1941)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The aim of this survey is twofold. First, it attempts to describe and analyse the more important aspects of the Labour Government’s economic policy, and second, it attempts to demonstrate how the achievement of this policy is conditioned by the characteristics of the New Zealand economy. The economic policy of the Labour Government is important for several reasons. First, both the “recovery measures” of the previous Government during the depression, and Labour’s policy after the depression tend to show that New Zealand, in common with other countries, is experiencing a definite trend towards an extension of State control of economic life. Secondly, since the 1890’s the Dominion has indulged in economic and social experiments which have attracted the attention of economists not only in New Zealand but also abroad. The economic and social policy of the Labour Government thus appears to be an acceleration of this long term trend. In addition it is generally recognised that conditions in New Zealand are more favourable to economic experimentation than those existing in most other countries. In examining this policy it is of fundamental importance to realise that the Ottawa Agreements of 1932, mark the end of an era when New Zealand could confidently rely on a large and expanding overseas market for her exports. Moreover the rise of economic rationalism, the progress of agrarian protectionism, the developments in the alternative sources of supply and the declining rate of growth of population in the consuming countries, all have forcibly demonstrated the inherent weakness of the New Zealand economy. Consequently the post depression years have witnessed a conscious expansion of New Zealand’s secondary industries. Although the social and economic policy of the Labour Government is in many respects similar to that of the Liberal Administration of Balance and Seddon in the early ‘nineties’ of last century, it has certainly been carried out under far less favourable circumstances. It is mainly for these reasons that this subject provides a fruitful field for economic research. To cover the whole of the policy in detail and would be beyond the limits of a brief survey of this nature. It would be possible to write a detailed survey on any one aspect of the policy. Nevertheless, it is felt that a broad treatment of policy is not entirely unfruitful. On the contrary a wide survey has much to commend it, for a detailed analysis of one aspect only tends to lose sight of the nature of the policy as a whole. Thus the first two chapters are devoted to an analysis of the Labour Government’s Programme and the economic factors limiting the achievement of this programme. The remaining chapters are concerned with the development of policy. Separate chapters deal in turn with Monetary Policy, Marketing, Transport, Rationalisation of Industry, Import and Exchange Control, and Labour and Social Legislation. In a concluding chapter, the threads are drawn together and an evaluation of the policy attempted. It should be noted that the period under review extends from 1936 to 1939 inclusive. It does not deal with the policy after the outbreak of war in September 1939, because this has created new problems and has thus modified to a certain extent the direction of Government policy. At the outset, originality is disclaimed. Much has already been written on particular aspects of policy, but little if any, on the policy as a whole. The material has been collected from all available relevant literature, consisting of numerous pamphlets, periodicals, articles and officials publications. A detailed account of references is given in the bibliography. Finally it is not proposed to reveal anything which is not already known to competent economists. This survey merely aims to make a comprehensive and critical analysis of the economic policy followed by the Labour Government in the years 1936-39.

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  • The failure of corporate failure models to classify and predict : aspects and refinements

    Alexander, P. B. (1991)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Much has been written about the use of multiple discriminant analysis in corporate distress classification and forecasting. Classification and prediction models are notoriously difficult to establish in such a way that they will stand the ultimate test of time. Many articles severely criticise the use of the technique yet there are aspects which may improve our ability to develop satisfactory models. We are probably yet a long way off from being able to do so with any great degree of satisfaction, yet it behoves us to try to develop models that do justice to the assumptions and the theory. This thesis explores several important aspects of the model-building process and concludes that some of the more conventional criticisms of the models developed so far are less important than claimed. It suggests that more critical than the failure to meet the conditions of multivariate normality, the equality of the variance-covariance matrices, and the use of a priori probabilities are the need for: a satisfactory model specification that can be theoretically justified, the strict use of random sampling, the efficient use of sample data, the search for stable mean vectors which are significantly different from each other, and ex ante validation. If these requirements are met then the MDA technique is robust enough to cope with breaches of the assumptions.

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