14,528 results for University of Canterbury Library

  • Collateral exposure: the additional dose from radiation treatment

    Fricker, Katherine (2012)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    For patients receiving radiation therapy, there is a risk of developing radiation induced carcinomas, especially if they have a long life expectancy. However, radiotherapy is not the only contributor of radiation exposure to healthy tissue. With the introduction of highly conformal treatment techniques comes the increase in pretreatment imaging necessary to accurately target tumour volumes and consequently, radiation exposure to healthy tissue. In this work the radiation dose delivered to radiosensitive organs from a number of treatment planning techniques was evaluated and the risk of radiation induced cancer was assessed. MOSFET detectors and Gafchromic film were used to measure the accumulative concomitant dose to the thyroid and contralateral breast from early stage breast carcinoma radiotherapy and to the contralateral testis from seminoma radiotherapy, with dose contributions from CT imaging for treatment planning, pretreatment imaging (CBCT) and treatment delivery peripheral dose. To the author's knowledge this is the first work investigating the total concomitant treatment related dose and associated risk to these treatment sites. Peripheral dose contributed the largest concomitant dose to the healthy tissue, measuring up to 0.7, 1.0 and 5.0 Gy to the testis, thyroid and contralateral breast, respectively. The highest testicular, thyroid and contralateral breast carcinoma risk was found to be 0.4, 0.2 and 1.4%, respectively. In conclusion, the risk of radiation induced carcinoma to the assessed radiosensitive tissues was found to be minimal, however, when considering treatment techniques and/or introducing pretreatment imaging protocols, the dose to the normal tissue should be kept as low as reasonably achievable.

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  • Structure and function of food webs in acid mine drainage streams

    Hogsden, Kristy Lynn (2013)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) is a significant environmental issue worldwide, which often causes severe contamination and marked species losses in receiving streams. However, little is known about how this stress alters food webs and ecosystem function. I conducted a literature review, which revealed that AMD-impacted streams generally had depauperate benthic communities dominated by a few tolerant species and impaired ecosystem processes. Next, using survey and experimental-based approaches, I investigated food web structure and energy flow in these highly stressed streams, which typically have low pH (< 3), high concentrations of dissolved metals (Al, Fe), and substrata coated with metal hydroxide precipitates, on the South Island, New Zealand. Inputs of AMD caused substantial loss of consumers and reduced the overall number of links between species generating small and simplified food webs, with few invertebrates and no fish. Comparative analysis of food webs from a survey of 20 streams with either anthropogenic or natural sources of acidity and metals, indicated that anthropogenic sources had a stronger negative effect on food web properties (size, food chain length, number of links); an effect driven primarily by differences in consumer diversity and diet. However, the presence of fewer trophic levels and reduced trophic diversity (detected using isotopic metrics), were common structural attributes in AMD-impacted webs along a pH gradient, regardless of impact level. Furthermore, complementary dietary analyses of consumer gut contents and stable isotope signatures (δ13C and 15N) confirmed that primary consumers fed generally on basal resources and that there were few predatory interactions, which reflected low densities of small-bodied chironomids. This suggests that food quantity was unlikely to limit primary consumers but that reduced prey availability may be an additional stressor for predators. In these radically re-structured food webs, trophic bottlenecks were generated at the primary consumer level and energy flow to higher consumers was disrupted. However, streams still retained some limited function, including slow leaf litter breakdown, which provided detrital resources and supported the small food webs. Overall, my findings have furthered our understanding of these highly stressed stream ecosystems by providing new insights into interactions among species and trophic levels that structure food webs and enable function.

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  • A correlational study of cough sensitivity to citric acid and radiographic features of airway compromise

    Moore, Sara Louise (2012)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Patients with an impaired reflexive cough response are at increased risk of pneumonia. This study examined the correlation between cough sensitivity to citric acid and radiographic features of airway compromise. Eighty patients referred for a radiographic assessment of swallowing at an acute hospital over an 8-month period participated in the study. Nebulised citric acid diluted in 0.9% sodium chloride was inhaled through a facemask at four concentrations to assess cough sensitivity. These data were then compared to Penetration Aspiration Scale scores based on radiographic swallowing studies. There was a statistically significant correlation between cough response/lack of response and the radiographic features of airway compromise; that is, patients who had a weak or absent response to inhalation of citric acid were also likely to aspirate silently during radiographic assessment. Sensitivity for identifying absent cough was found to be high at all 4 concentrations (0.750, 0.833, 0.941, 1.000), however specificity was consistently quite low (0.344, 0.456, 0.238, 0.078). The significant findings of this research suggest that clinicians adopting cough reflex testing into their clinical practice will have a reliable screen for silent aspiration at bedside. Clinicians will be able to identify patients who require instrumental assessment and are at high risk of pneumonia. This will likely, in turn, decrease length and cost of hospital admissions as well as decrease aspiration pneumonia related morbidities.

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  • God wills it? A comparison of Greek and Latin theologies of warfare during the Medieval period.

    Newman, Timothy John (2013)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The history of the Church’s participation in, and attitudes towards warfare have been well-documented in several fields of research. The development of the doctrine of just war and the medieval crusades within Western Christianity, have been the subject of a considerable amount of scholarship. There has also recently been an increasing amount of research done by historians, theologians and political theorists comparing the status of warfare within the Christian and Islamic traditions. However, the current state of the historiography is focused almost entirely on Western Christianity, and does not address in any depth the attitudes toward warfare present in Eastern Christianity within the Byzantine Empire in the Middle Ages. This thesis seeks to address this historiographical imbalance by comparing the development of the Eastern and Western Church’s positions on warfare throughout the medieval period. The thesis examines the factors that led to the divergence of the two Churches’ attitudes towards warfare, and the development and impact of their differing theologies during the medieval period. It is argued that the fundamental point of divergence between the Eastern and Western Church’s attitude to warfare is linguistic and theological in nature. The linguistic differences between the Greek and Latin Churches, led to different theological interpretive frameworks regarding the subject of warfare. These different fundamental theological assumptions would lead the two Churches down different developmental paths and would prevent the development or acceptance of Western theories of just war and holy war in the Eastern Church.

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  • A home away from home? : the transitions of older people within two new zealand retirement villages.

    Hayward, Christine R (2012)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This study explores the experiences of retirement village residents as they move from an independent to a supported living environment within a retirement village. It focuses on residents’ perceptions of their transitions and adopts a qualitative approach to understand the nature of their transitions and the way in which they are experienced. A grounded theory framework is used in order to capture the meanings that participants apply to concepts such as home, and to the physical, social, personal and veiled spaces in which they live. The findings from the study reveal that as residents’ health fails, the impact of increasing dependence is such that their sense of social and personal autonomy is gradually eroded. The research also provides insights into residents’ expectations and fears surrounding end of life. In many ways the experiences of the residents in supported living environments do not differ greatly from those of residents in any aged care facility. One major finding of this research, however, is the debilitating impact on well-being that occurs as a consequence of these transitions from independent to supported living, taking place within one physical location – the retirement village – a physical space which promises prospective residents the opportunity for active and positive ageing.

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  • Restricted Verb Phrase Collocations in Standard and Learner Malaysian English

    Abd Halim, Hasliza (2014)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The English used in Malaysia is one of the varieties of New Englishes and this variety has emerged due to the spread of English around the world (Platt, et al., 1983; Pillai, 2006). In the case of Malaysia, Malay is the national language and standard English exists to be the language of an elite (Bao, 2006), also as a language of interaction. Over years of playing its various roles as a language of interaction, there has emerged a variety of English that is distinctively Malaysian (Asmah, 1992). Baskaran (2002) points out that English is now adopted and adapted in the linguistic ecology of Malaysia, and all Malaysians should be proud of it with all its local ‘nuances and innuendos’. Malaysian English today is ‘a rich tapestry of a typical transplanted variety of English’. Malaysian English (ME) is one of the new varieties of English, with some distinct features include the localized vocabulary, pronunciation, grammar as well as pragmatic features (Pillai, 2006; Pillai and Fauziah, 2006, p.39). The present study has embarked on a specialised study of vocabulary. In particular, it examined the English collocations produced by non-native speaker English users in Malaysia. The study provided insight into the nature of the internal norms of English used in Malaysia to see how these English restricted collocations being used by this group of learners. The investigation focused on the learners’ productive knowledge of Verb-Noun collocations of their written English with the impact of exposure and frequency. Nesselhauf (2003) has the opinion that verb-noun combinations are the most frequently mistaken so they should perceive particular attention of learners. Investigating collocation in English language learning is paramount as such study may inform us on the use of restricted collocations in English language teaching and learning in Malaysian context. The findings in Chapter 4 and 5 suggest that the frequency of the cloze verb does have an effect as predicted by Kuiper, Columbus and Schmitt (2009). This is so because frequency is a measure of likely exposure. The more frequent an item is in corpora, the more likely a learner is to be exposed to it. What is needed is a much more nuanced notion of exposure. The findings in Chapter 6 proves that the malformed collocations make sense could be a way of making the World English perspective relevant after all. A new testing approach is proposed; semantic plausibility metric, which is used as a tool for this study, can be useful used as a measure of vocabulary acquisition as well as looking at learners’ test taking strategies. The findings of the present research on Malaysian English collocations contribute new knowledge to the existing understanding and literature on the acquisition of collocations.

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  • The effects of a combined conflict resolution-mindfulness intervention on the positive peer interactions of primary school aged children

    Mueller, Tara (2014)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Research suggests that pro-social skills and self-regulatory abilities are necessary for healthy child development and are prerequisites for interacting in the school classroom in ways that avoid disruption and distress. Children without pro-social skills struggle to engage in positive social interaction with peers and may respond disruptively to classroom challenges. Increasing concerns in schools regarding problem behaviour displayed by students such as kicking, hitting and talking out of turn have been reported in the research. These behaviours often lead to a disruptive classroom environment, negative peer interaction and, according to teachers, remain the most challenging aspect of classroom management. Schools typically deal with problem behaviour by implementing rules and expectations for desired student behaviour. While these expectation-focused approaches have shown some positive effects, they do not directly teach skills for positive interaction and effective self-management of emotions. Conflict resolution education and mindfulness programmes have shown positive effects for improved pro-social skills and self-regulatory abilities in children. This thesis describes a combined conflict resolution-mindfulness group intervention that was implemented in one primary school classroom with children aged between six and seven years. The intervention involved teaching children four skills for effective conflict resolution and self-regulation over a period of four weeks. Repeated measures and teacher ratings of positive and negative peer interaction were used to assess programme effects. A single case AB replication design was used. The repeated measures findings indicated no change in positive or negative peer interactions for all nine focus children. Teacher reports of behaviour related to positive and negative peer interaction for all children in the classroom showed good effects. Possible reasons for the lack of change in the repeated measures findings include the young age of the children and an insufficient number of sessions and skill practice opportunities.

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  • The state and income redistribution: a study of the social wage and taxation in New Zealand 1949-1975

    Reveley, J. W. C. (1990)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This thesis examines the role of the state in redistributing income between social classes in New Zealand during the years 1949-1975. It applies an innovative methodology, developed by E. Ahmet Tonak, to a set of data drawn from New Zealand's national accounts and estimates a quantity labelled 'net-tax', defined as the taxes that the working class cede to the state less the expenditure that the working class receives from the state in the form of a social wage. A detailed theoretical discussion precedes the empirical analysis. Insofar as Tonak's method requires that the social wage (the portion of state expenditure consumed by the working class) be identified as an empirical quantity, the argument that all taxes, and hence all state expenditures, originate from surplus value is confronted. The views of the main representatives of this contemporary school of thought are subjected to detailed scrutiny. They are rejected in favour of the views of a school which considers the portion of taxes funding the state expenditure that constitutes the social wage to originate in 'wages'. A model which theoretically 'grounds' the comparison of taxes paid to state expenditure received, effected in the remaining chapters of this study, is then formulated. In the empirical analysis, the empirical referent of the 'net-tax' concept is calculated for the years 1949-1975. The net-tax data set is then used to construct a transference ratio, which indicates the degree and direction of income redistribution effected by the state. The main finding to emerge is that, in all but one of the twenty-seven years surveyed in this study, the working class has surrendered more wealth in taxes to the state than it has received back from the state as a social wage. In light of these results, it can be concluded that the welfare state has not materially benefitted the working class in New Zealand. Moreover, insofar as income has consistently been redistributed from the working class to 'non-labour' (the capitalist class and the state itself), the state can be considered to owe the working class a debt in the amount of 3671.26 million (constant 1975) dollars.

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  • Shift happens? exploring the exception question in solution-focused therapy.

    Henson, Kay Jennifer (2014)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Solution-focused therapy is appropriate for students in secondary schools as it works to revive children’s problem solving abilities. A key technique in solution-focused therapy involves asking the client the Exception Question, that is, inviting them to consider and talk about a time when their problem is or was less severe and dealt with in a satisfactory way. There is a scarcity of research exploring this technique from the client’s perspective. The aim of my study was to tell the stories of how students in a high school setting experience creative uses of the solution-focused, Exception Question. During the study, however, I found that this could not be researched without also including the way(s) that the use of Exception Questions influenced my counselling and ongoing learning as a counsellor. Solution-focused therapy was used in the counselling sessions and my research brought together students’ personal stories of their counselling experience and

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  • Symbols of recovery : the impact of earthquake images on vigilance

    Hancock, Nicola Jane (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This study explores the impact post-earthquake images from Christchurch, New Zealand inserted into a task requiring sustained attention or vigilance have on performance, selfreports of task-focus, and cerebra activity using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). The images represent the current state of Christchurch; a city struggling to recover from devastating earthquakes that peaked in February, 2011, killing 185 people, injuring hundreds more and causing widespread and massive damage to infrastructure, land and building in the region. Crowdsourcing was used to gather a series of positive and negative photos from greater Christchurch to be employed in the subsequent experiment. Seventy-one Christchurch resident participants (51 women, 20 men) then took part in a vigilance task with the sourced images embedded to assess possible cognitive disruptions. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: embedded positive pictures, embedded negative pictures, or embedded scrambled image controls. Task performance was assessed with signal detection theory metrics of sensitivity A’ and β’’. Individuals viewing the positive images, relating to progress, rebuild, or aesthetic aspects within the city, were overall more conservative or less willing to respond than those in the other conditions. In addition, positive condition individuals reported lower task focus, when compared to those in the control condition. However, indicators of cerebral activity (fNIRS) did not differ significantly between the experimental groups. These results combined, suggest that mind wandering events may be being generated when exposed to positive post-earthquake images. This finding fits with recent research which indicates that mind-wandering or day dreaming tends to be positive and future oriented. While positive recovery images may initiate internal thoughts, this could actually prove problematic in contexts in which external attention is required. While the actual environment, of course, needs to recover, support agencies may want to be careful with employing positive recovery imagery in contexts where people actually should be paying attention to something else, like operating a vehicle or machinery.

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  • The impact of the Internet on small firms

    Martin, Ross A. (1998)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Several researchers have designed frameworks to model and analyse impacts of the Internet on firms. This research takes one such framework aimed at small firms (Lymer et al., 1997b) and attempts to validate its usefulness by comparing it to similar and conflicting models, and by applying it to impacts collected from both the literature and from four case studies of small firms. The findings suggest that several changes to Lymer et al.'s (1997b) framework are necessary to make the model more effective and more practical for researchers and practitioners. A revised Internet impacts model is proposed that incorporates these changes. Preliminary evaluation has been performed on the revised model, resulting in the conclusion that the study makes a valuable contribution to the area of Internet research by significantly enhancing the usability and analytical usefulness of Lymer et al.'s (1997b) Internet impacts model.

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  • Spatial patterns in excess winter morbidity among the elderly in New Zealand

    Brunsdon, Nicholas David (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    It has been established in New Zealand and internationally that morbidity and mortality tends to rise during colder winter months, with a typical 10-20% excess compared to the rest of the year. This study sought to investigate the spatial, temporal, climatic and demographic patterns and interactions of excess winter morbidity (EWMb) among the elderly in New Zealand. This was achieved through analysis of acute hospital admissions in New Zealand between 1996 and 2013 for all patients over the age of 60 with an element of circulatory or respiratory disease (N=1,704,317) including a primary diagnosis of circulatory (N=166,938) or respiratory (N=62,495) disease. A quantitative approach included ordinary least squares and negative binomial regression, graphical analysis and age standardisation processes. Admission rates and durations were regressed against a set of 16 cold spell indicators at a national and regional scale, finding significant spatial variation in the magnitude of EWMb. EWMb was ubiquitous across New Zealand despite climatic variation between regions, with an average winter excess of 15%, and an excess of 51% for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Statistically significant relationships were found between hospital admission durations and cold spells up to 28 days prior; however the magnitude would not be expected to have a significant impact on hospital resources. Nonetheless, there is potential for preventative public health strategies to mitigate less severe morbidity associated with cold spells. Patients over the age of 80 were particularly vulnerable to EWMb; however socioeconomic deprivation and ethnicity did not affect vulnerability. Patients residing in areas of high socioeconomic deprivation or identifying with Maori or Pacific Island ethnicity experienced significantly shorter admissions than other groups, and this warrants further investigation. Further investigation into winter COPD exacerbations and non-climatic factors associated with the EWMb are recommended. A comprehensive understanding of EWMb will enable preventative measures that can improve quality of life, particularly for the elderly population.

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  • Sustainability and neoliberalisation in the political blogosphere

    Zhou, Zhou (2012)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The following research analyses popular political blogs from the US and New Zealand, focussing on the way environmental sustainability is conceptualised and the way neoliberalism is embedded within these conceptualisations. This study follows from the recognised importance of sustainability, its tense relationship with neoliberalisation, the significance of media in communicating sustainability, and the emergence of political blogs as both purported supplement to, and contester of, mainstream media.

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  • Foraging behaviour of female Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii) during lactation: new insights from dietary biomarkers

    Lenky, Crystal (2012)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Despite extensive studies on Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii) in McMurdo Sound since the 1960s, uncertainty still remains regarding female foraging habits during the lactation period. Based on their large body mass at the start of lactation and large relative mass loss at the end, the current hypothesis is that Weddell seals fast or feed to a neglible extent during lactation. However, this hypothesis has not been fully tested to date, as evidence for foraging is indirect and is based primarily on dive behaviour. The work presented in this thesis describes the development of a new dietary method, the biomarker method, and its application for studying the foraging behaviour of female Weddell seals during lactation. Biomarkers were used to (1) monitor the onset of feeding in individual animals, and (2) determine what prey females were feeding on using characteristic/taxon-specific biomarker patterns. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H NMR) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assays were developed to detect and quantify dietary biomarkers in biological samples, mainly tissues, serum and plasma. Trimethylamine N-oxide, arsenobetaine, dimethylsulfoniopropionate, homarine and glycine betaine were first measured in thirty-three prey and potential prey species of Weddell seals collected from the Ross Sea and McMurdo Sound regions of Antarctica. These same compounds were then measured in the plasma of twelve female Weddell seals over the lactation period at the Hutton Cliffs seal colony, McMurdo Sound in 2006. Time-depth recorders monitored seal dive activity over the same period. The data obtained from both NMR and LC-MS/MS assays showed that biomarkers in Antarctic species varied both in content and concentration. The compound homarine, which occurs primarily in cephalopods, is suitable for distinguishing between major food groups of known prey of Weddell seals (i.e., fishes versus cephalopods). DMSP, a compound that occurs primarily in fish common in McMurdo Sound (e.g., Trematomus bernacchii and Pagothenia borchgrevinki) but not in significant amounts in Dissostichus mawsoni or Pleuragramma antarcticum, two main prey items for Weddell seals, may also be a suitable biomarker for distinguishing between major and minor prey types. The detection of plasma TMAO, AsB and homarine indicated that 75% of Weddell seals studied fed during lactation. The presence of these three compounds indicates the seals were preying upon a combination of fish and cephalopods. Two lactating females started foraging as early as 9 to 12 days postpartum and elevated biomarker levels were concurrent with increased dive activity. The onset of foraging and dive behaviour amongst individuals was highly variable; however, the results suggests that the number of females who feed during lactation may be more prevalent and initiated at an earlier stage than previously thought. This may have implications for future reproductive success given effects of climate change on sea ice abundance and resource availability. Overall, the work presented in this thesis provides new insights into the foraging behaviour of female Weddell seals during lactation and has added to the current knowledge of the biomarker distribution within the Antarctic ecosystem.

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  • Cellular and molecular mechanisms of salinity acclimation in an amphidromous teleost fish

    Lee, Jacqueline Amanda (2012)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Inanga (Galaxias maculatus) is an amphidromous fish species that is able to successfully inhabit a variety of salinities. Using an integrated approach this thesis has characterised for the first time the physiological characteristics that facilitate acclimation in inanga. Structural studies using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) revealed freshwater-acclimated inanga have a high density of apical pits and freshwater-type mitochondria-rich cells (MRCs) that can facilitate ion absorption from the hypo-osmotic environment. In seawater, inanga remodel their gills by increased proliferation of seawater-type MRCs to facilitate ion secretion in the hyper-osmotic environment. Concentration-dependent sodium (Na+) kinetic analysis revealed that at a whole body level, inanga regulate Na+ using a saturable, high affinity, low capacity uptake system which makes them extremely adept at extracting Na+ from very dilute freshwater environments. In fact inanga displayed an uptake affinity (Km) of 52 ± 29 µM, which is one of the lowest ever recorded in freshwater fish. The sodium/potassium ATPase transporter (NKA) is central to Na+ regulation within the gill. In high salinties inanga displayed increased NKA activity (6.42 ± 0.51 µmol ADP mg protein-1 h-1) in an effort to excrete the excess Na+, diffusively gained from the hyper-osmotic environment. This increase in NKA was most likely a reflection of the proliferation of NKA-containing MRCs. The NKA activities seen in freshwater- and 50% seawater-acclimated inanga were similar (2.54 ± 0.19 and 2.07 ± 0.22 µmol ADP mg protein-1 h-1 respectively) to each other suggesting the inanga gill is capable of supporting ion regulation in brackish waters without a significant increase in NKA activities, and the energetically-expensive changes in gill structure and function that accompany such a change. Molecular investigation of NKA isoform expression using quantitative PCR (qPCR) showed that inanga displayed salinity-induced changes in the expression of the three α NKA isoform variants investigated. Isoform α1a exhibited a pattern consistent with an important role in freshwater, confirming results from other fish species. While it is generally accepted that α1b isoform is the predominant NKA isoform in seawater, inanga did not display this pattern with a freshwater dominance seen. None of the salinity-induced changes could quantitatively explain the increased NKA activity in seawater suggesting that different isoforms may convey different activities, that there is also regulation of NKA at a post-transcriptional level, and/or other isoforms or subunits may have a significant role. The importance of the osmoregulatory hormone cortisol and prolactin is widely accepted and inanga were treated with cortisol, prolactin and a combination of the two in an effort to further elucidate their role. NKA activity and NKA isoform expression were assessed but no specific patterns were deduced, except for a decrease in both NKA activity and isoform expression in 100% seawater-acclimated inanga treated with cortisol and prolactin. The reasons for this decrease were not evident, although the impact of stress induced by the injection protocol was likely to be a confounding factor. The development of a new confocal-based technique in this study was able to describe, for the first time, intracellular sodium levels ([Na+]i) as a function of salinity in an intact euryhaline fish gill cell. Using the fluorescent Na+ indicator dye CoroNa Green this study demonstrated the ability of inanga gill cells to maintain [Na+]i in the face of environmental change. Freshwater-acclimated inanga displayed basal [Na+]i of 5.2 ± 1.8 mM, with 12 ± 2.3 mM and 16.2 ± 3.0 mM recorded in 50% seawater- and 100% seawater-acclimated cells, respectively. Low [Na+]i is advantageous in hypo-osmotic environments as it provides a gradient between the cell and the blood which is essential for generating electrochemical gradients cell volume regulation and other cellular homeostatic mechanisms. A slightly elevated [Na+]i seen at the higher sanities would help minimise the diffusive gradient for passive influx from the environment which would be of benefit in hyper-osmotic environments. Upon salinity challenge 50% seawater cells were equally adept at maintaining a constant [Na+]i at any salinity, suggesting these cells are have the necessary constituents to regulate Na+ in both lower and higher salinities. This novel LSCM approach is advantageous relative to existing transport models as it will allow the observation of cellular ion transport in real time, within a native filament structure displaying functional interaction of different cell types. The extreme ion uptake characteristics of the inanga and their amenability to in situ confocal-based studies demonstrated in this study, confirm inanga as a valuable model species for future research. 

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  • Investigating the Enigmatic Orbit of the Suspected 2.5 MJ Planet in the Nu Octantis Binary System

    Dallow, Andrew Thomas (2012)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    ν Octantis is a spectroscopic binary with a semi-major axis and period of 2.55 AU and 2.9 years, respectively. Ramm et al. (2009) discovered a 52 ms^(-1) radial-velocity (RV) perturbation with a period of 417 days in this system. All evidence, both photometric and spectroscopic, suggests the perturbation is the result of a 2.5 MJ planet orbiting the primary star. However, when assuming a “normal” prograde coplanar orbit, celestial mechanics predicts this orbit is unstable, contradicting the observed stability. Simulations by Eberle and Cuntz (2010) showed a retrograde orbit for the planet to be stable for at least 10^7 years. In this thesis, we performed a 10^8 -yr simulation of the retrograde orbit, and found it remained stable. Simulations over a range of planetary semi-major axes, eccentricities, and primary/secondary masses showed that stable retrograde orbits are not possible past a semi-major axis of 1.315 +/- 0.092 AU . Therefore, planetary retrograde orbits are most likely inherently more stable than prograde orbits owing to the absence of stability at known mean-motion resonances. Eccentricity simulations showed that the period of the planet's dominant eccentricity variation is related to the planet's semi-major axis by a second order exponential. However, retrograde orbits tend to have longer eccentricity periods than prograde orbits at the same semi-major axis. There is also evidence that this eccentricity period is connected to the orbital stability. By fitting a keplerian to both Ramm et al. (2009) and current radial velocities, the period of the ν Octantis binary was determined to be 1050.04 +/- 0.02 days with an eccentricity of 0.2359 +/- 0.001 . The planetary orbital solution for just the data reduced in this thesis gave a period of 416.9 +/- 2.1 days and an eccentricity of 0.099 +/- 0.015 , with an RMS scatter of 9.6 ms^(-1). Therefore, the orbital elements are within 1σ of the Ramm et al. (2009) elements. Assuming a retrograde coplanar orbit about the primary star then the planet has a mass of M_pl = 2.3 M_J and a semi-major axis of a_pl = 1.21 +/- 0.09 AU.

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  • Intervention for emotion knowledge and behaviour problems in children with developmental disabilities.

    Randall, Aimee (2012)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Children with impaired emotion knowledge are likely to also experience difficulties with social skills (Bukato, 2008) and internalising and externalising behaviour problems (Trentacosta & Fine, 2009, Fine et al, 2003). Given that children with developmental disabilities are both at risk of developing behaviour problems (Roberts & Lawton, 2001), and may have impairments in emotion knowledge (Wishart et al, 2007, Kasari et al, 2001, Sinzig et al, 2008; Bal et al, 2010), teaching emotion knowledge skills is likely to be beneficial in helping to ameliorate the risks faced by these children, for developing behaviour problems. The research question investigated in this study was; can using an adapted version of the PATHS programme with children and adolescents aged between 9 and 18, who have developmental disabilities, improve both their emotion knowledge and their behaviour problems? Four participants were recruited, aged between nine and 18 who had developmental disabilities, one of whom served as a pilot participant. The intervention was carried out in the participants’ homes, with two one hour-long sessions a week. The measurements used included the Vineland-II, a behaviour diary and the Emotion Knowledge Test (EKT) - designed specifically for this research by the researcher. All participants included in the main study made improvements on the sentence-labelling task but not on the photograph-labelling task of the EKT. Participants 2 and 4 improved in regards to the number of problem behaviours displayed each week, Participant 3’s problem behaviours did not occur often enough to determine whether improvements had been made. Participant 2 improved on both of the Socialisation and Maladaptive Behaviour domains of the Vineland-II, Participant 3 improved on the Socialisation domain and Participant 4 improved on the Maladaptive Behaviour Domain, however all improvements made were small. The results indicate that there may be promise with using the PATHS programme with children with developmental disabilities, in one-to-one settings. However this research involved several limitations, such as the reliability and sensitivity of the measures used and the short length of the baseline and intervention periods. More research is needed in this area, as there are many possible social, emotional and academic benefits for these children, using the skills taught in the PATHS programme.

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  • The English of Māori speakers: changes in rhythm over time and prosodic variation by topic.

    Vowell, Bianca (2012)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This thesis investigates the rhythm and mean pitch of the English of Māori speakers. Recordings are analysed from speakers who have varying degrees of fluency and socialisation in Māori. The rhythm and mean pitch of their English language recordings are measured and analysed in order to address two questions. The first part addresses the question, ‘Has the distinctive syllable-timed rhythm of modern Māori English developed from the mora-timed rhythm of the Māori language?’ Changes in the rhythm of the English of Māori speakers are measured over time. The rhythm of these speakers is then compared with age-matched Pākehā English speakers. The results show that the distinctive syllable-timed rhythm has indeed developed from the mora-timed rhythm of the Māori language and the use of this rhythm is related to the degree of Māori identity felt by the speaker. The second part is also concerned with prosody and addresses the question, ‘Are rhythm and mean pitch influenced by topic?’ This is investigated by topic tagging the recordings and comparing the rhythm and mean pitch of each tagged section of speech. Two sets of topic tags are used; Set One has tags representing five categories (Subject, Referent, Location, Time and Attitude) and Set Two has only one tag per topic. The results suggest that mean pitch is not influenced by topic but is higher in sections of quoted speech than in regular speech. The subtle variations observed in rhythm are highly individualised and are influenced most strongly by the referent of the topic and the degree of affinity felt towards that referent.

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  • Evaluating the Significance of Framing in Public Diplomacy: A Case Study of American, Chinese and Vietnamese News Frames

    Cox, Whitney Elen (2012)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    News frames represent the way an issue is processed and presented by the media. As such, news frames have great influence over public opinion and could therefore be useful in controlling a country’s image abroad. This study builds upon existing literature and theories in an attempt to bring scholarship closer to an understanding of what frames are most likely to be effective for use in public diplomacy by identifying what frames and frame types currently influence audiences internationally. Specifically, The study examines what structures are commonly used to frame international issues, what frame content may not be accepted by a foreign audience and the extent to which elites control the local framing competition. This thesis uses both a framing discourse analysis and a content analysis to evaluate news stories from American, Chinese and Vietnamese outlets as well as American elites. The results found that while elites appear to control the general direction of framing in a country, American journalists are willing to suggest other frames as long as they enhance the drama of the narrative. However, this storytelling imperative is not likely to cross a line into questioning the legitimacy of the media’s home country, indicating that such challenging messages should be avoided in public diplomacy. Frequency of frame structure (conflict, responsibility and consequence) use was also identified, and a positive correlation found between privately owned media and use of consequence frame types. Given the less antagonistic nature of these frame structures, they may be extremely effective in public diplomacy communications - as long as the right consequence is emphasised. It is hoped that these findings will aid scholars and practitioners of public diplomacy in identifying effective ways to communicate messages across countries, and that it will strengthen the argument for the role of ‘listening’ in public diplomacy.

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  • Democratic Vanguardism: Modernity, Intervention and the making of the Bush Doctrine

    Harland, Michael Ian (2013)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 transformed the way in which Americans and their leaders viewed the world. The tragic events of that day helped give rise to a foreign policy strategy commonly referred to as the “Bush Doctrine.” At the heart of this doctrine lay a series of propositions about the need to foster liberal democracy as the antidote to terrorism. President George W. Bush proclaimed in a variety of addresses that democracy now represented the “single surviving model” of political life to which all people aspired. In the course of making this argument, President Bush seemed to relate his policies to an overarching “teleology” of progress. This discourse implied that the United States might use force to hasten the emergence of liberal norms and institutions in selected states. With a sense of irony, some commentators soon referred to the Bush administration’s position as “Leninist” because of its determination to bring about the so-called “end of history” today. Yet, surprisingly, these critics had little more to add. This thesis is an attempt to assess in greater depth the Bush administration’s claim to comprehend historical eschatology. Developing a concept termed “democratic vanguardism,” this study investigates the idea of liberal modernity, the role of the United States as a force for democracy, and the implications of using military intervention in the service of idealistic ends. It examines disputes among political theorists, public intellectuals and elected statesmen which help to enrich our understanding of the United States’ efforts under President Bush at bending history to its will.

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