14,528 results for University of Canterbury Library

  • Interactive effects of land use, temperature, and predators determine native and invasive mosquito distributions

    Hunt SK; Galatowitsch ML; McIntosh AR (2017)

    Journal article
    University of Canterbury Library

    1. Land-use and climate change could alter the distribution of both native and exotic mosquitoes by changing abiotic and biotic characteristics of freshwater habitats. We initially studied the influence of land use on standing water habitats, and the subsequent effects on native and exotic mosquito and mosquito-predator presence. 2. Associated with abiotic habitat characteristics, mosquito predator richness was highest in aquatic habitats of natural land uses (forest and grassland), and lowest in human-modified land uses (pastoral and urban), and the opposite relationship was true for mosquito presence. 3. Based on the outcome of the field survey we investigated the potential effects of climate-induced habitat warming and drying on interactions between invasive Aedes notoscriptus and native Culex pervigilans mosquitoes and native invertebrate predators affected by the land-use gradient. 4. Predator presence, which is directly affected by both climate and land-use change, influenced both mosquito survivorship and behaviour. We found predation rates increased with temperature, but the magnitude of changes depended on both predator and prey identity. In general, higher temperatures increased mosquito pupation rates, but also made mosquitoes more susceptible to predation. Although invasive Ae. notoscriptus were more susceptible to predation, increased temperature resulted in shorter life cycles, thereby reducing the net effect of increased predation caused by higher temperatures. 5. Overall, our results suggest interactions between temperature, land use and predator identity will be important in determining mosquito distributions, and will likely differ between mosquito species. Such interactions and species-specific responses will be particularly important if environmental changes facilitate range expansion of invasive mosquito species that vector disease.

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  • Using hybrid physiological/mensurational modelling to predict site index of Pinus sylvestris L. in Sweden: a pilot study

    Mason EG; Holmström E; Nilsson U (2017)

    Journal article
    University of Canterbury Library

    Precision and bias of a model designed to predict site index of Scots pine (P. sylvestris L.) from site variables in Sweden were tested using data from 1985 inventory plots. The model was biased and relatively imprecise with a standard error of 3.7 m. A new model was constructed using a fitting subset of the data, employing the sum of mean monthly estimates of photosynthetically active radiation modified by local monthly climatic conditions as a primary independent variable. The best model used a day-time temperature modifier to calculate potential radiation use efficiency. Modifiers for vapour pressure deficit and soil water did not add significantly to the model. Elevation and distance to the sea added small but significant improvements to the predictions. Phytometer indicators of nutritional fertility also slightly improved the fit. The final model had a standard error of 2.06 m for predictions of site index that ranged from 18-30 m at age 100. When applied to a validation subset of plots the model displayed a standard error of 2.09 m and very similar residual patterns to those observed during fitting. The new model represents a significant improvement over the older model, and further improvements may be feasible when historical climatic estimates and a higher resolution digital elevation model become available.

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  • A crying shame : affect, emotion and welfare receipt in New Zealand.

    Gray, Claire (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This thesis focuses attention on the welfare setting in New Zealand where welfare policy is administered and put into practice. Within the thesis, I analyse focus groups interviews with 64 New Zealand lone mothers receiving welfare in order to consider how participants made sense of their interactions with the national welfare provider Work and Income New Zealand. The research illustrates the emotional complexity of the welfare environment. This environment, in which the design and delivery of welfare provokes strong feelings, is steeped in emotion. In this thesis I draw upon recent writing in relation to "affect" to argue that, while negative feeling was the origin of many of the troubles the women in my research experienced in the welfare context, emotion also offered participants a way of responding to these difficulties. Welfare mothers have long been framed by social and historical discourses that constitute them as a "social problem" and a threat to the moral order of this country. In New Zealand these discourses also link ethnicity to welfare dependency, and my analysis pays specific attention to the experiences of Maori and Pasifika women who took part in the research. In this thesis I argue that participants' experiences of welfare receipt were dominated by the negative affect inherent in welfare discourse, and that this had a disciplinary function in the welfare environment. While negative affect shapes this thesis, my analysis also draws attention to other less predictable emotions that formed the "affective practices" (Wetherell, 2012) of research participants as they discussed their experiences of welfare receipt. My interest is in the way that emotion was reconfigured in participants' narratives of these experiences. I argue that attending to affect and emotion can offer a way of understanding its role in the maintenance of dominant welfare discourses, and also a means of exploring possible sites for transformation.

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  • Normalized naive set theory.

    Istre, Erik (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The broad goal of this thesis is the realization of a mathematically useful formal theory that contains a truth predicate, or as it's called in the literature, a "naive theory". To realize this goal, we explore the prospects for a naive set theory which can define a truth predicate. We first consider some of the promising developments in naive set theories using various non-classical logics that have come before. We look at two classes of non-classical logics: weak relevant logics [58, 59] and light linear logics [52]. Both of these have been used in the development of naive set theories. We review the naive set theories using these logics then discuss the strengths and weaknesses of these approaches. We then turn to the primary contribution of this thesis: the development of a robust naive set theory by accepting only normalized proofs, an idea first proposed by logician Dag Prawitz [25, 39]. It is demonstrated that this theory meets our need of logical strength in a system, while possessing more expressiveness in a foundational system than has come before. All of Heyting Arithmetic is recovered in this theory using a type-theoretic translation of the proof theory and other unique features of the theory are discussed and explored. It is further asserted that this theory is in fact the best case scenario for realizing informal proof in a formal system.

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  • ‘A fluorophore for the future’ : design and synthesis of novel BODIPY derivatives

    Bruce, Joseph Fee (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This thesis provides insight into the chemistry of the BODIPY family of fluorophores. It describes the synthetic methods undertaken to attempt various structural modifications of the core BODIPY framework. Three different types of BODIPY themed molecules were targeted for synthesis; HBC-coupled BODIPY derivatives, metal coordinating ligand-type BODIPY molecules, and dual BF2 core containing frameworks. Chapter One, describes the background of BODIPY molecules, their chemistry and their large role within fluorescence based research and applications. This chapter also provides a short review of all relevant BODIPY derivatives and the related research. Chapter Two introduces the synthetic schemes investigated for forming HBC appended BODIPY derivatives and the results achieved here. Chapter Three presents the research into developing the relatively novel metal coordinating BODIPY molecules, and the promising syntheses carried out to form multiple BODIPY derivatives with metal interactive capability. Chapter Four outlines the research around creating BODIPY themed, dual BF2 core systems, expanding on the fairly recent discovery of the BOPHY framework within the BODIPY research community. Chapter Five summarise the results and outlines the conclusions gained from the project along with the potential future direction of the research. Chapter Six, describes the experimental methodology of all adapted and newly formed syntheses of molecules formed throughout the thesis. One novel derivative is described, with the full crystal structure and analytical characterisation, along with several new methods for synthesis and purification of established BODIPY compounds.

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  • A cross-sectional survey of people with stroke, their family members and Multi-Disciplinary Team (MDT) health professionals regarding the value of the information book Life after stroke : a guide for people with stroke and their families.

    Thapaliya, Gargi Sharma (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Life after Stroke: a Guide for People with Stroke and their Families is a book first published by the Stroke Foundation of New Zealand in 1998, reprinted in 2004, with a second edition published in 2013. The book was produced to meet the information needs expressed by stroke survivors and their family members. The book provides information about stroke, its impact, and implications on stroke survivors’ lives. The book is available in both hard and soft copy format. People with stroke and their families are given this book in hospitals and in the community. The aim of the thesis is to ascertain the value of the book Life after Stroke: a Guide for People with Stroke and their Families. A cross-sectional survey was used with people with stroke, their family members/caregivers, and health professionals to determine the value of the information book Life after Stroke: a Guide for People with Stroke and their Families. The survey was designed to see how the patients and their family members found the book in regard to ease of reading/understanding, accessibility, usefulness, and value. Two sets of questionnaires were developed: one for health professionals and another for stroke patients and family members/caregivers. The study was undertaken in a stroke rehabilitation ward. The data collection period was from June to October 2016. Data analysis was done using the computer program SPSS. The study reported two thirds of participants (50/75) have read the book. Among them 14 were patients, 12 were family members/caregivers, and 24 were staff. Seventy percent of the participants who rated the book found the book was very useful with only 2% of participants reporting it was not useful. Eighty-three percent of participants thought the book had the right amount of information, 91% of respondents felt the words and sentences in the book were easy to understand, and 93% of respondents felt the size of the letters in the book were easy to read. As a result of reading the book 73% (19/26) of respondents felt they had a better understanding of their role in rehabilitation, 14 felt they became more knowledgeable, and 12 felt more confident in rehabilitation. Two thirds of participants were not aware of the existence of an electronic version of the book and 90% participants (patients and family members/caregivers) preferred to read paper resources. Although the book was meant to have been distributed to the survey participants, just over a third (39%) of respondents reported that they had not received a copy of a book. The reason behind this included: staff reported that they did not know about the book or where the books were kept, were not involved in admission process because they are casual staff, believed that it was not their job to distribute the book and patients and family members never asked them for a copy of the book. Staff who had worked longer in their role were more likely to distribute the book compared to new staff members. Although most people considered that the book was very useful, still half of the participants reported that the book could be presented in different formats, such as on television screens in the hospital and at General Practitioners (GP) practices, as posters, at a social group meeting, on a CD (talking book) or by a person reading the book to patients. Participants also suggested some areas to improve the book, such as being shorter and producing a simplified version, provide more information about stroke clubs, and what they offer, information about grants and financial assistance, diagrams to demonstrate different recovery stories associated with different types of stroke, to break the book into tabulated sections, and to include pull out sections. In conclusion, the study was able to find the book Life after Stroke: a Guide for People with Stroke and their Families was valuable to stroke patients and their family members. However, still some development is needed to make the book more accessible and valuable. This can be done by providing training to staff about who is the responsible person to distribute a book and where are they kept and by editing the book considering the feedback from stroke patients, their family members and the health professionals working in the stroke ward.

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  • The effectiveness of Virtual Reality for pre-treatment of children in Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Ahmad Zamri, Tahfiz Taffazani (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The purpose of this research is to explore the potential of using Virtual Reality (VR) to reduce anxiety among children aged 4-6 while undergoing Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scans. To achieve this, VR was compared to play therapy, which is the current methodology for reducing anxiety in children. A VR game was designed to mimic the actual MRI room at Christchurch Hospital in New Zealand. The purpose of the VR game is to expose the user directly to the source of their potential anxiety. A study was conducted to test the effectiveness of the VR game. In the study, the participants played the VR game for 10 minutes. As soon as the VR session ended, the participant was led into the actual MRI room to prepare for an MRI scan. The success/failure of the MRI scan was recorded, then compared with results from play therapy. The play therapy data was obtained from Christchurch Hospital’s past patients’ data. The results suggest that VR appears to be better than play therapy. VR and play therapy have a success rate of 91.3% and 66.7% respectively. However, given the lack of time, and the sparsity of past patient data, insufficient data was available for play therapy to confirm that VR performs better than play therapy. Despite that, VR is significantly faster in preparation compared to play therapy. In addition to its low cost and portability, it suggests that VR could be a viable clinical alternative.

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  • A least invasive method to estimate the residual strain capacity of steel reinforcement in earthquake-damaged buildings.

    Loporcaro, Giuseppe (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Capacity design and hierarchy of strength philosophies at the base of modern seismic codes allow inelastic response in case of severe earthquakes and thus, in most traditional systems, damage develops at well-defined locations of reinforced concrete (RC) structures, known as plastic hinges. The 2010 and 2011 Christchurch earthquakes have demonstrated that this philosophy worked as expected. Plastic hinges formed in beams, in coupling beams and at the base of columns and walls. Structures were damaged permanently, but did not collapse. The 2010 and 2011 Christchurch earthquakes also highlighted a critical issue: the reparability of damaged buildings. No methodologies or techniques were available to estimate the level of subsequent earthquakes that RC buildings could still sustain before collapse. No repair techniques capable of restoring the initial condition of buildings were known. Finally, the cost-effectiveness of an eventual repair intervention, when compared with a new building, was unknown. These aspects, added to nuances of New Zealand building owners’ insurance coverage, encouraged the demolition of many buildings. Moreover, there was a perceived strong demand from government and industry to develop techniques for assessing damage to steel reinforcement bars embedded in cracked structural concrete elements. The most common questions were: “Have the steel bars been damaged in correspondence to the concrete cracks?”, “How much plastic deformation have the steel bars undergone?”, and “What is the residual strain capacity of the damaged bars?” Minimally invasive techniques capable of quantifying the level and extent of plastic deformation and residual strain capacity are not yet available. Although some studies had been recently conducted, a validated method is yet to be widely accepted. In this thesis, a least-invasive method for the damage-assessment of steel reinforcement is developed. Based on the information obtained from hardness testing and a single tensile test, it is possible to estimate the mechanical properties of earthquake-damaged rebars. The reduction in the low-cycle fatigue life due to strain ageing is also quantified. The proposed damage assessment methodology is based on empirical relationships between hardness and strain and residual strain capacity. If damage is suspected from in situ measurements, visual inspection or computer analysis, a bar may be removed and more accurate hardness measurements can be obtained using the lab-based Vickers hardness methodology. The Vickers hardness profile of damaged bars is then compared with calibration curves (Vickers hardness versus strain and residual strain capacity) previously developed for similar steel reinforcement bars extracted from undamaged locations. Experimental tests demonstrated that the time- and temperature-dependent strain-ageing phenomenon causes changes in the mechanical properties of plastically deformed steels. In particular, yield strength and hardness increases, whereas ductility decreases. The changes in mechanical properties are quantified and their implications on the hardness method are highlighted. Low-cycle fatigue (LCF) failures of steel reinforcing bars have been observed in laboratory testing and post-earthquake damage inspections. Often, failure might not occur during a first seismic event. However, damage is accumulated and the remaining fatigue life is reduced. Failure might therefore occur in a subsequent seismic event. Although numerous studies exist on the LCF behaviour of steel rebars, no studies had been conducted on the strain-ageing effects on the remaining fatigue life. In this thesis, the reduction in fatigue life due to this phenomenon is determined through a number of experimental tests.

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  • Investigation of modelling methods for buildings with non-structural elements

    Lee CL; Kerr CE; Proudfoot DG (2017)

    Conference Contributions - Published
    University of Canterbury Library

    The modelling of non-structural elements is becoming increasingly important. It has been found that during seismic events modern buildings can incur significant downtime due to the damage of contents, even when the building is performing well structurally. This report details an investigation into the validity of the cascade modelling method for the design of buildings with non-structural elements. The cascade method is a way of modelling a building without using specific details of non-structural elements, and then later performing a separate analysis in order to design the contents. It was found that the cascade method may be an appropriate method for modelling non-structural elements. However, as the non-structural mass increases, the error becomes more significant. Currently, most cascade modelling considers only translational motions. Rotational motion, if present and relevant, should be considered as part of the modelling input.

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  • Why risk helping? : an investigation into the relationship between safety and two motivators of new employees helping behaviour.

    Glover, Katherine (2016)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Objective. The primary objective of this study was to investigate, within the context of new employees’ and workplace safety, two motivators of employee’ helping related behaviours; job security and need for respect. Design. Correlational cross-sectional design. Setting/Participants. New Zealand; high risk work industries. 80 eligible participants were recruited from employees in various organisations and associations, with 22 participants excluded due to 10%, or greater, missing data. Main Outcome Measures. Organizational Citizenship Behaviours and Safety Risky Helping Behaviours. Results. The study’s objective, and subsequent hypotheses, were empirically tested using correlation analyses in SPSS. These analyses showed that employees tenure was not directly related to either the need for respect motivator (α = 0.05), or the job security motivator (α = 0.05). The analyses also indicate that both motivators were positively related to employees’ Organizational Citizenship Behaviours (p < 0.05 level, one-tailed), but not related – be that positively or negatively – to their Safety Risky Helping Behaviours (p < 0.05 level, one-tailed). Conclusions. The results of this study suggest that the two motivators examined are directly related to Organizational Citizenship Behaviours, but not to tenure or to Safety Risky Helping Behaviours. As this study is amongst the first to examine these motivators within this context, these findings suggest that further investigation into these motivators, and indeed to the overall model of employee-employee helping, is needed before further consideration is given to implications or practical applications.

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  • The electronic word-of-mouth effects of review valence, review volume, and product type on consumer purchase behaviour.

    Wallace, Chloe Suzanne (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This thesis aims to examine the mediating role of product type (i.e., product-luxury perceptions) on consumer response to online reviews and the subsequent effect on purchase behaviour. Specifically, this thesis explicates the influence of review valence and review volume in shaping the consumers’ product evaluation, which in turn affects their purchase intentions for the focal product. An experimental design is adopted for this research. To examine the possible effects of product type and online reviews on consumer response, an online experiment based on a review website platform is conducted, using a 2×2×3 between-subjects factorial design. In the experiment, participants were exposed to one of twelve conditions involving the manipulation of the three independent variables (review valence, review volume and product type). A total of 432 participants were included in the final analyses, which were recruited via online convenience sampling on Amazon’s Mechanical Turk. Factorial ANCOVA analysis was conducted to test the hypothesised relationships. The results indicated three interaction effects between review valence, review volume and product type on consumer decision-making. A two-way interaction effect of review valence and product type, confirmed that product type mediates the influence of review valence on product attitude, product evaluation and purchase intent. Results also indicated that luxury products are less susceptible to the influence of review valence, which equates to lower purchase intentions than the non-luxury counterpart when exposed to positive reviews. A recurrent main effect of review valence was present, with results indicating a negativity bias on the perceived informative value and persuasiveness of online reviews, which was also salient in information adoption. Review volume had one main effect and tended to emerge as significant through mediating variables. Moreover, product type elicited a main effect for six dependent measures. Product involvement, susceptibility to interpersonal influence (i.e., social learning and social belonging) and materialism were found to have exogenous effects (covariates). The managerial and theoretical implications are discussed for this research, along with suggested directions for future research.

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  • Social networks, identity and contexts : a narrative ethnography of a group of College English (CE) teachers’ social learning process amid the research discourse.

    Zeng, Wei (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This research is a narrative ethnography about a group of College English (CE) teachers working at a university in China. As one of them, I, together with my CE colleagues, lived and told our stories of dealing with the increasing research demand from the workplace. I sought to explore how our workplace mediated the social process of our learning during educational change. The research is conceptualized within the theoretical framework of community of practice and draws on social network perspective. It also adopts a poststructuralist perspective to present the dynamic socio-cultural process of how these teachers experienced and made meaning of various discourses about their teaching, researching and personal lives. The discourses from the workplace, the social context and teachers themselves make these CE teachers’ social networks and identities a site of ambivalence and struggles. Entrenched in a lower-status department, CE teachers struggled with various meanings of knowledge: the officially-valued research, the teaching-research, linguistics/western literature research, non-linguistics/western literature research, quantitative research and qualitative research. They also grappled with competing duties from both the workplace and the family. The research delves into CE teachers’ lived experiences, offering implications for enhancing CE teachers’ learning as well as international understanding of academics who might experience similar educational change. Finally, the study contributes to advancement of social learning theories, in particular, the theory of community of practice and social network theories.

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  • #BringBackOurGirls : solidarity or self-interest? online feminist movements & third world women.

    Murphy, Emma Grace (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Due to global interconnectedness and the rise of social media, humanitarian communication is said to have shifted from its groundings in the Politics of Pity towards Ironic Solidarity. Ironic Solidarity maintains participants act not to alleviate distant others’ suffering, but to perform their own identities; thus, perpetuating the very problems they aim to eliminate. This thesis seeks to examine this claim in the context of Online Feminist Movements, using the #BringBackOurGirls movement as a case study. This hashtag rose to global prominence following the mass abduction of female students in Chibok, Nigeria, by the militant group, Boko Haram. This movement is examined indepth to determine what led to its global prominence. Also examined is the impact of social media and mainstream media on the movement; the influence of its feminist ideals; and whether participants’ actions were solidary or in self-interest. To address these aims, a selection of relevant Twitter tweets and mainstream media newspaper articles from four distinct periods were analysed through Critical Discourse Analysis. The results of this study found overarching discourses of the #BringBackOurGirls movement that suggest it primarily relied upon power dynamic discourses, which served to enforce the hegemonic relationship between the west and global south. Additionally, such power dynamic discourses within a third world feminist movement demonstrated that western first world feminism had usurped the movement, thereby further disenfranchising third world women. The power dynamic discourses showed the presence of the Politics of Pity within this humanitarian movement, showcasing that this remains a firm feature of humanitarian communication. However, Ironic Solidarity was additionally present, indicating that the two humanitarian communication approaches can exist concurrently. The presence of Ironic Solidarity also indicated that participants acted primarily in selfinterest in their engagement with the #BringBackOurGirls movement.

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  • Inclusive education aspirations: exploration of policy and practice in Bangladesh secondary schools

    Rahaman, Muhammed Mahbubur (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    In accordance with global policies and pressures Bangladesh has incorporated inclusion as a change agenda in its education system and has consequently legislated a number of policies supporting inclusive education for children with disabilities in mainstream education. Secondary schools in Bangladesh are gradually initiating inclusive teaching and learning approaches to respond to the significant shifts in policy. This research examines the relationships between global pressures, national policies for the inclusion of children with disabilities and the aspirations, practices and needs in secondary schools in Bangladesh. In particular, it examines political rhetoric concerning valuing diversity within Bangladesh and juxtaposes this rhetoric with case studies of the practice of five selected schools. There is very little comprehensive research in this field in Bangladesh, so this project encompasses an exploration and review of policy and of policy context as well as an exploration of the grounded realities of education practices. It addresses the main research question: How do Bangladesh’s current policies for students with disabilities in secondary schools align with practice, resources and perceived needs? The study utilised a qualitative case study methodology. The overarching case is that of inclusive education in Bangladesh. Within this, there are a number of embedded cases examining the practices of particular schools and the perspectives of policymakers. The study was conducted in two stages. The first stage was designed to get information on policy from documents and interviews with professionals including academics, teacher educators, policy administrators, policymakers, and education policy experts. The purpose of this phase was to investigate the policy options for educating children with disabilities in mainstream/inclusive setting and to understand the influences of global policies on Bangladesh policies and legislation. The second phase involved case studies of five selected secondary schools to investigate how such policies are translated into practices. The study identified a gap between policies and practices that arose from the dominant influence of international drivers as well as the lack of strategic implementation processes. The findings from the study lead to the conclusion that schools were claiming to be implementing inclusive education despite their teachers having not received training in inclusive educational practices or having sufficient resources. As a consequence staff were often unaware of how to meet the needs of students with disabilities and of how to integrate them into class. It further identified the range of challenges that still exist. The findings are significant for the Bangladesh context as the country strives to achieve the goal of inclusive education, and as a contribution to the wider debates of inclusion and inclusive education practices. Their implications are discussed in relation to further policy formation and to the development of strategies and resources for improving teaching learning practices in inclusive classrooms. The thesis concludes that the road to inclusion for Bangladesh secondary schools may well have begun but it requires further reformation of not only schools but also national strategies of policy development.

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  • Water policy and governance in Guyana, “the land of many waters”

    Baptiste, Onika M. (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Effective water policies and good governance strategies are essential for sustainable development. Successful management of fresh water resources also requires the integration of the different sectors that use this resource. Therefore, water resource management policies should have an integrated approach that involves social, economic and environmental factors. Guyana, an American Indian word for “land of many waters”, officially the Co-operative Republic of Guyana, is located on the north-east coast of South America. It can be said that water is part of the country’s identity, because of its inclusion in the definition of the country’s name and because of the abundance of this natural resource within the country’s borders. Additionally, the agriculture sector, which contributed 21.8% of Guyana’s annual GDP in 2016 uses 94.4% of the annually extracted freshwater. Effective policies and governance strategies are therefore important for the sustainable development of Guyana. This research investigated the current water policy and governance strategies of Region 4, Guyana. The study assessed how the water threats of the Region are outpacing existing water management policies. It also analysed policy gaps in the existing legislation through the lens of the adaptive integrated water resource management (AIWRM) process. This was done by using data from semi-structured interviews and by analysing existing laws. This study thus advances understanding of using the AIWRM process for policy development and implementation in Region 4, Guyana. The results show that there are multiple challenges to water policy in Guyana and that the existing laws are not effectively addressing these policies, because of several factors, such as the age of the legislation, the technical nature of the management strategy proposed by these laws, and the general top-down governance structure established by these Acts. These factors limit the ability of existing laws to effectively manage current and future water challenges in Region 4, Guyana. The results also show that some of the laws have aspects of AIWRM; however, policies that will give effects to these laws have not been developed, therefore the benefits derived by including the principles of AIWRM into water policy have not been realised. It is concluded that the findings offer insights into how the existing laws can be combined with the AIWRM process to address the current and future water challenges of Region 4, Guyana. Keywords: Water policy, governance, adaptive management, integrated water resources management, Guyana.

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  • Lived experiences of Bhutanese former refugee youth : coping, resilience and mindfulness infused counselling

    Rodrigues, Neville (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This thesis explores the lived experiences of a group of young Bhutanese former refugees between the ages of 18 to 24 years who were resettled in Christchurch between 2008 and 2010 – prior to the first major earthquake. The main goal of the thesis was to gain an understanding of their ways of coping and a second goal was to explore whether their participation in up to five mindfulness infused counselling sessions had influenced their ways of coping. A qualitative research methodology was used to guide the thesis. Participants were interviewed about the major events in their life and how they coped with them. They were then invited to participate in five sessions of mindfulness infused counselling. Approximately five weeks after their final session had ended they were invited to one final interview to explore the influence of the sessions on their ways of coping. Interviews were recorded and transcribed and research notes were taken of the mindfulness infused counselling sessions. Max van Manen’s method of phenomenology was adopted to interpret the narratives of the youth. Three main themes emerged from the data analysis and these are described as essences of lived coping experiences. The first captures their strong sense of community back in the refugee camp. The second presents the sense of resilience that exists among the Bhutanese former refugees. The third essence indicated the inner strengths of the participants which they said helped them deal with the challenging circumstances that life cast in their direction. This meant that their first experience of an earthquake was not considered the biggest event in their lives. After attending the mindfulness infused counselling sessions’ participants reported positive benefits from giving non-judgemental attention to their thoughts and feelings and they found themselves dealing with their issues proactively. For some participants their ‘accepting’ attitude facilitated better control over their emotions while others reported being able to form deeper connections with nature and other people as a result of being mindful. Other participants reported being able to make peace with the events in their past and even found that they were able to forgive those who tormented their community. However, in the absence of any major event in any of the participants’ lives in the time period following their final counselling session, the research was not able to definitely conclude that using mindful-based counselling facilitates better coping in the face extremely stressful events. There is currently very little research that focuses on the experiences of former refugee youth within New Zealand and how they utilize their capacities to deal with adversities. When this thesis commenced, the Bhutanese were the newest refugee community to be accepted for resettlement in New Zealand. This research partly addresses the limited voice of this community.

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  • Why does New Zealand export sawn timber to some markets and logs to others?

    Luketina, Ivan (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    New Zealand’s annual log harvest has increased rapidly from 2009 to 2017. This increase in harvest has been mostly exported as logs, rather than being processed in New Zealand into sawn timber and other products. Previous industry strategy studies have identified the need for the sawn timber processing sector to be internationally competitive, as it is both an important processing industry, and a supplier of residue to downstream manufacturers. Studies that compare New Zealand’s export log and sawn timber markets have shown that most markets import either sawn timber or logs, but rarely an even mix of both. However, most export logs are processed into sawn timber or plywood at the destination. This research uses econometric analysis to identify the drivers of these differences in market behaviour. A seven-country export demand panel model was used to analyse the effects that different variables had on demand for sawn timber and logs. Real GDP and real prices were used to explain demand for log and sawn timber imports from New Zealand. Variables for tariffs and tariff wedges (the difference between the tariff for a processed good and the tariff for its raw material), non-tariff barriers (NTB), competition effects, and local resources were used to test their effects on demand. Tariff wedges and the local harvest of softwood timber were found to have a significant negative effect on demand for sawn timber, while only a softwood harvest was found to negatively affect demand for logs. The presence of tariff wedges was found to be negatively correlated with the sawn timber demand, but did not fully explain the difference in demand between logs and sawn timber. Research suggests that NTBs have a large impact, but they are difficult to measure and therefore analyse in this context. The existence of a softwood timber resource was found to be negatively correlated with demand for softwood imports. There was no significant negative effect found for competition effects.

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  • Modeling supply chain risks and ways to ameliorate negative effects on the supply chain performance and reputation of firm in the dairy industry

    Abraham, Vivek Oomen (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Supply chain risk has become an issue of significance for many dairy firms across the globe. The complexity of the supply chain has increased due to various levels of raw material sourcing, uncertain market conditions, competition and ever changing customer demands. The aim of this literature-based study is to investigate how the literature suggests supply chain risks are approached in a dairy industry and the methods that have been found to mitigate or ameliorate negative impacts of events that compromise supply chain performance and reputation of firm. A conceptual framework for supply chain risk management is discussed for better handling of risks in a dairy supply chain. The main focus of the study will be on how supply chain risk management is approached in the literature, what are the various kinds of supply chain risks in a dairy industry, perception of supply chain risks in a dairy firms and its effects on the proper functioning of the firm, the role of trust, communication and relationship between supply chain partners as the main parameters for better handling of risks in a dairy supply chain. Importance is also given to understand what the existing literature suggests on ways to mitigate and ameliorate negative effects of risks for better supply chain performance and reputation of firm. These are some of the questions on which the research is built. Comprehensive literature review along with case study analysis has been used as the main approach for data collection. A three stage research approach was used to answer the research questions. Stage one was focusing on the existing literature on supply chain risk management. Four cases (stage two) on supply chain failures in dairy firms are used to analyse the supply chain risks and how it could be managed well by the organization for a better performance and reputation of the firm. Finally, a matrix (stage three) is developed from the input received from the cases which is linked to the literature review on supply chain risk management and also explains how these risks can be ameliorated for a greater supply chain performance. Risk and uncertainties can obstruct the smooth flow of supply chain activities which has an effect on its performance. Proper identification and assessment of risk is of major importance in a proper supply chain risk management. Supply chain risk management is built on the foundation of trust, commitment, frequent information sharing and a perfect relationship. Key words – Supply chain management, supply chain risks, risk management, performance management, dairy firm, Supply chain and communication, relationship and trust.

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  • Modelling, Speckle Simulation and Quality Evaluation of Synthetic Ultrasound Images

    Singh P; Mukundan R; de Ryke R (2017)

    Conference Contributions - Published
    University of Canterbury Library

    Speckle noise reduction is an important area of research in the field of ultrasound image processing. Several algorithms for speckle noise characterization and analysis have been recently proposed in the area. Synthetic ultrasound images can play a key role in noise evaluation methods as they can be used to generate a variety of speckle noise models under different interpolation and sampling schemes, and can also provide valuable ground truth data for estimating the accuracy of the chosen methods. However, not much work has been done in the area of modelling synthetic ultrasound images, and in simulating speckle noise generation to get images that are as close as possible to real ultrasound images. This paper discusses these aspects, presents novel algorithms for speckle simulation and modelling based on three sampling schemes, and also evaluates the quality of the outputs using image quality metrics. Detailed experimental analysis including both quantitative and subjective assessments are also presented.

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  • Transport infrastructure performance and management in the South Island of New Zealand, during the first 100 days following the 2016 Mw 7.8 “Kaikōura” Earthquake

    Davies AJ; Sadashiva V; Aghababaei M; Barnhill D; Costello SB; Fanslow B; Headifen D; Hughes MW; Kotze R; Mackie J; Ranjitkar P; Thompson J; Troitino DR; Wilson TM; Woods S; Wotherspoon LM (2017)

    Journal article
    University of Canterbury Library

    At 00:02 on 14th November 2016, a Mw 7.8 earthquake occurred in and offshore of the northeast of the South Island of New Zealand. Fault rupture, ground shaking, liquefaction, and co-seismic landslides caused severe damage to distributed infrastructure, and particularly transportation networks; large segments of the country’s main highway, State Highway 1 (SH1), and the Main North Line (MNL) railway line, were damaged between Picton and Christchurch. The damage caused direct local impacts, including isolation of communities, and wider regional impacts, including disruption of supply chains. Adaptive measures have ensured immediate continued regional transport of goods and people. Air and sea transport increased quickly, both for emergency response and to ensure routine transport of goods. Road diversions have also allowed critical connections to remain operable. This effective response to regional transport challenges allowed Civil Defence Emergency Management to quickly prioritise access to isolated settlements, all of which had road access 23 days after the earthquake. However, 100 days after the earthquake, critical segments of SH1 and the MNL remain closed and their ongoing repairs are a serious national strategic, as well as local, concern. This paper presents the impacts on South Island transport infrastructure, and subsequent management through the emergency response and early recovery phases, during the first 100 days following the initial earthquake, and highlights lessons for transportation system resilience.

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