14,670 results for University of Canterbury Library

  • Predictors of Punjabi, Hindi and English reading comprehension among multilingual children in the Punjab Region of India

    Gautam, Seema (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The research reported in this thesis investigated cognitive-linguistic predictors of reading comprehension (both within and across languages) among multilingual primary school children in the Punjab region of India. The participants of this study learn three languages: Punjabi, Hindi and English; and are exposed to all three from the initial stage of literacy acquisition. Unlike English, the Punjabi and Hindi orthographies are written nonlinearly with a horizontal bar on the top of the aksharas that connects aksharas within a word, and include vowel symbols that have independent and dependent forms. Both Punjabi and Hindi are alphasyllabic orthographies, whereas English is an alphabetic orthography. Over 400 trilingual school children in Punjab (India) from grades 2 to 5 completed a measure of text reading comprehension that comprised passages followed by questions about details in those passages. Reading comprehension levels were compared to the measures of listening comprehension, phonological processing, orthographic knowledge and speed of processing. Analyses indicated the Punjabi, Hindi and English reading comprehension levels were predicted by measure of listening comprehension and word decoding, with the latter being predicted by phonological and orthographic skills. Such findings were consistent with current models of reading derived from studies of English. However, in contrast to these models, measures of orthographic skills were also predictive of variance in reading comprehension independent of word decoding across Punjabi, Hindi and English models. Contributions of phonological processing and speed of processing were also observed in the English reading comprehension model, again independent of word decoding processes. Overall, Punjabi and Hindi reading comprehension was predicted by similar predictors, with English reading comprehension showing more variations in predictors. Further analyses investigated the influence of Punjabi and Hindi cognitive-linguistic skills on English reading levels. The findings indicated that, in the younger cohorts of students who are more likely to have less reading experience, the influence of Punjabi and Hindi measures on English was limited to word recognition. However, once these multilingual children acquire more expertise in decoding skills (i.e., in the older cohort), listening comprehension, orthographic knowledge and phonological processing in Punjabi and Hindi influenced levels in English reading comprehension. The overall findings from this thesis were used to derive three multilingual models of Punjabi, Hindi and English and one cross-linguistic model of English reading comprehension. These models suggest that a simple view of reading could be applied to Punjabi and Hindi orthographies in a similar way to English. However, additional influences of orthographic knowledge for all three languages (Punjabi, Hindi and English) in such multi-literate learners will need to be taken into account. Additionally, the influence of first and second language skills will need to be considered when developing models of third language reading comprehension. The proposed four models that includes the additional factors are discussed in light of previous research and theories/models in the field.

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  • Planning for resilient communities: and every other day: learning from the Canterbury 2010-2012 earthquake sequence

    Banwell, Karen (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    After a disaster, cities experience profound social and environmental upheaval. Current research on disasters describes this social disruption along with collective community action to provide support. Pre-existing social capital is recognised as fundamental to this observed support. This research examines the relationship between sense of place for neighbourhood, social connectedness and resilience. Canterbury residents experienced considerable and continued disruption following a large and protracted sequence of earthquakes starting in September 2010. A major aftershock on 22 February 2011 caused significant loss of life, destruction of buildings and infrastructure. Following this earthquake some suburbs of Christchurch showed strong collective action. This research examines the features of the built environment that helped to form this cooperative support. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with 20 key informants followed by 38 participants from four case study suburbs. The objectives were to describe the community response of suburbs, to identify the key features of the built environment and the role of social infrastructure in fostering social connectedness. The last objective was to contribute to future planning for community resilience. The findings from this research indicated that social capital and community competence are significant resources to be called upon after a disaster. Features of the local environment facilitated the formation of neighbourhood connections that enabled participants to cope, manage and to collectively solve problems. These features also strengthened a sense of belonging and attachment to the home territory. Propinquity was important; the bumping and gathering places such as schools, small local shops and parks provided the common ground for meaningful pre-existing local interaction. Well-defined geography, intimate street typology, access to quality natural space and social infrastructure helped to build the local social connections and develop a sense of place. Resourceful individuals and groups were also a factor, and many are drawn to live near the inner city or more natural places. The features are the same well understood attributes that contribute to health and wellbeing. The policy and planning framework needs to consider broader social outcomes, including resilience in new and existing urban developments. The socio-political structures that provide access to secure and stable housing and local education should also be recognised and incorporated into local planning for resilience and the everyday.

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  • An exploratory study of the practice of corporate planning and programme budgeting in the Government of the Kingdom of Tonga: evidence from a central government agency

    Ma’afu, ‘Ana T. (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Purpose – This research explores how corporate planning and programme budgeting are practised by the Government of the Kingdom of Tonga, focussing on their application by a central government agency, the Office of the Public Service Commission (OPSC). It addresses how corporate planning and budgeting are linked in their practice by government agencies in Tonga and why. Design/methodology/approach – A qualitative approach is used to conduct an exploratory study of how OPSC practised corporate planning and programme budgeting during the 2015/2016 financial year1 (FY). An interpretivist methodology is used to analyse both primary and secondary data that were gathered using primarily a method indigenous to Pacific research known as talanoa. Literature review, participant observation, and document analysis were used to supplement data from talanoa. Findings – The practice of corporate planning and budgeting by the Government of Tonga varies from the extensive applications documented in Western literature. Those involved in their practice are concerned with some but not all aspects of the processes depending on their positions and roles. While external consultants continually express frustrations with slow progress, indigenous government officials are somewhat confident that a lot of progress has been made. The research highlights that in the continuation of the use of corporate planning and budgeting, it must respond to prevailing needs of the country. Originality/value – There seems to be a lack of consideration of specific contexts (e.g. existing regulations, systems etc.) in the introduction and development of concepts, ideas and processes foreign to small island countries. An example is the practice of accounting and management practices termed corporate planning and programme budgeting into the Government of Tonga. There has not been any research conducted on this in the context of the Kingdom of Tonga. The research compares Western ideologies with Tongan indigenous views.

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  • The role of the military in industrial disputes : Australia and New Zealand, 1879-1921

    Gibson, Neil Reginald (1994)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This work details a relatively unexplored area of Australia's and New Zealand's military and labour history: Military Aid to the Civil Power (MACP) during industrial disputes from 1879 - 1920. It was a duty which was extremely contentious and likely to result in confrontation and protest from those workers affected by such an operation. MACP is defined by Coulthard-Clark as the 'involvement of the military, at government direction, in difficult domestic situations beyond the capacity of civil authority to deal with by normal means'. While this definition gives MACP a degree of legitimacy, it is rather different for those workers on the receiving end of armed intervention and often had a major impact on the local community.

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  • ‘Mauka makai’ ‘Ki uta ki tai’: The ecological and socio-cultural values of estuarine shellfisheries in Hawai`i and Aotearoa New Zealand.

    Kainamu-Murchie, Ani Alana (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Estuaries rank among the most anthropogenically impacted aquatic ecosystems on earth. There is a growing consensus on anthropogenic impacts to estuarine and coastal environments, and consequently the ecological, social, and cultural values. The protection of these values is legislated for within the U.S. and Aotearoa New Zealand (NZ). The respective environmental catchment philosophy ‘Mauka Makai’ and ‘Ki Uta Ki Tai’ (lit. inland to sea) of Indigenous Hawaiian and Ngāi Tahu forms the overarching principle of this study. The scientific component of this study measured shellfish population indices, condition index, tissue and sediment contamination which was compared across the landscape development index, physico-chemical gradient and management regimes. Within the socio-cultural component of this study, Indigenous and non-Indigenous local residents, ‘beach-goers’, managers, and scientists were interviewed towards their perception and experience of site and catchment environmental condition, resource abundance and changes, and management effectiveness of these systems. Both the ecological and cultural findings recognised the land as a source of anthropogenic stressors. In Kāne`ohe Bay, Hawai`i, the benthic infaunal shellfish density appears to be more impacted by anthropogenic conditions compared with the surface dwelling Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas. The latter was indicative of environmental condition. Although the shellfish fishery has remained closed since the 1970s, clam densities have continued to decline. This is the first C. gigas population survey, showing variabile distiribution, the highest abundance located at urban residential piers. The clam-bed sediment contamination concentrations exceeded the Sediment Quality Guidelines and were comparable to findings in the U.S. This requires further investigation by local authorities. Lower C. gigas condition index was associated with elevated tissue arsenic concentration. Native fish and plant life (limu) rather than shellfish were important species to harvest/gather in Kāne`ohe Bay. However, active shellfish culturing was currently being trialled or commercially operated, while the recreationally fishery has been closed for > 30 years. Introduced fishery pressures and landscape development were highlighted as key issues in the Bay. Kānaka Maoli fishery practices and traditional management systems were responses to perceived decline in native fisheries. Extensive restoration efforts were occurring in Hawai`i that may aid to reduce anthropogenic input. Interview analysis was limited by low sample size. ‘Mauka makai’ and local fishery-ecology management systems were recommended by more experienced (>20 yrs) Indigenous and non-Indigenous participants. In Canterbury, New Zealand, the New Zealand littleneck clam, Austrovenus stutchburyi, was indicative of environmental condition, while the pipi, Paphies australis, was only abundant at one site, and the dredge oyster Tiostrea chilensis were sparse and without individuals of harvestable sizes. The A. stutchburyi condition index was positively influenced by salinity and negatively with tissue Metal Pollution Index (MPI), tissue E. coli, and sediment MPI. The A. stutchburyi density negatively correlated with both tissue and sediment metal concentrations. Additionally, tissue inorganic arsenic and tissue E. coli concentrations exceeded the guidance for human consumption. The latter exceeded multiple times, and included low salinity sites at the urban and high-intensity rural estuary. Sites of elevated contaminants shared similarities that can further guide monitoring and restoration efforts. The top environmental indicators provided by interview participants aligned with the known global stressors within estuaries. The values of Ngāi Tahu were compromised more often than other cultural affiliations in New Zealand. Ngāi Tahu fishery practices and restoration efforts have responded to perceived decline in native fisheries. ‘Inland-to-sea’ management systems were recommended by Indigenous and non-Indigenous environmental specialists. The anthropogenic impacts of stressors on estuarine systems requires ongoing assessments of environmental condition, and effects on ecological and cultural values.

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  • Modelling evolving boundary problems in fluid mechanics

    Hewett, James N. (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Evolving boundary problems for which the deformation of a solid body is driven by fluid dynamics were explored using a deforming mesh method, modified to handle large volume and shape deformations. First, the substantial erosion of a cylinder in cross flow within the subcritical flow regime was simulated, where a resulting terminal form emerged that continued until the cylinder completely vanished; closely matching the findings of a corresponding experiment. The terminal shape of the originally circular cylinder was a rounded wedge, pointed upstream, which had an approximately uniform wall shear stress distribution on its surface. Next, the melting front of ice around a heated cylinder was modelled by simulating the molten ice region and tracking the water-ice interface over time. Heat transfer by conduction was dominant when the ice was near the cylinder, and then natural convection developed and enhanced the melting rate as the molten ice volume increased and vortices formed. Lastly, the morphodynamics of deposited silica in pipe flow was simulated by modelling the transport and deposition of the colloidal sized silica particles from the fluid and raising the silica bed as a function of the deposited particle flux. We found that microscale surface roughness reduced the deposition rate by 20%, and that initial protrusions on the surface would grow faster than their surrounding valleys: in agreement with experimental observations. Smoothing methods were applied for the nodes within the interior mesh to absorb the significant volume change in the computational domain. Similarly, a novel node shuffle algorithm is introduced to preserve the mesh quality of the interface boundary where it significantly transformed shape. This algorithm is both shape and volume preserving such that the mesh quality is retained, whilst not artificially contributing to the interface kinematics. We also discuss the importance of monitoring skewness of the finite volume cells in moving boundary problems, and provide insight for undertaking deforming mesh simulations.

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  • Usability issues in geoinformation science research

    Delikostidis I (2015)

    Conference item
    University of Canterbury Library

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  • Promoting sustainable urban environments using sensing technologies

    Delikostidis I (2015)

    Conference Contributions - Other
    University of Canterbury Library

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  • Philosophy in New Zealand schools : is it possible?

    Couch, Michael Peter (2004)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Ever since Socrates walked the agora of classical Athens, philosophy has involved thinking skills. Philosophy was a core part of education until the industrial revolution shifted the educational context towards specific skills/knowledge. Although the current secondary curriculum in New Zealand constantly refers to building critical thinking skills, it is narrowly channelling curiosity due to its orientation to content and outcomes. International recognition of the educational benefits of philosophy started principally in select United States primary classrooms in the 1970s. Philosophy has since spread into many secondary school curricula, with particular success in Ontario and Australia. There has been limited research in New Zealand in this area, and no equivalent call for or against a specific development of philosophy in the curriculum. International literature and educational research into philosophy in the classroom complement literature reviews and comparative studies, all grounded within an historical framework. A case study of Hagley Community College demonstrates the successful introduction of philosophy, while a consideration of psychological research indicates that it can support or oppose philosophy. Local research, based on ideas and opinions of students, teachers and lecturers, adds to the understanding of the support and challenges within the New Zealand educational environment. Questionnaire-based exploratory studies give a range of results that show student support for thinking skills and provide a range of responses that should both concern and encourage curriculum developers. Analysis of the historical and contemporary educational frameworks leads to the conclusion that philosophy has a viable role within New Zealand schools, and that there is extensive support for philosophy. As there are means to address practical concerns and there is a current opportunity to influence the content of the curriculum, this thesis recommends that supplementary research regarding the introduction of philosophy to New Zealand High schools be undertaken.

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  • "Once you move, it's a different story" : the meaning of home for 1.5 generation Afghan women of refuge background living in Christchurch, New Zealand..

    Habte, Miron Tsehaye (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    While some scholarship on refugee youth has focussed on leaving a place that is typically considered ‘home,’ there has been little attention to what ‘home’ means to them and how this is negotiated in the country of (re)settlement. This is particularly the case for girls and women. New Zealand research on refugee settlement has largely focussed on the economic integration of refugees. Although this research is essential, it runs the risk of overlooking the socio-cultural aspects of the resettlement experiences and renders partial our understanding of how particular generations and ethnic groups develop a sense of belonging to their adopted homeland. In order to address these research gaps, this thesis explores the experiences of 12 Afghan women, aged 19-29 years, of refugee background who relocated to Christchurch, New Zealand, during their childhood and early teenage years. This study employed semi-structured, one-to-one, in-depth interviews and photo-elicitation to encourage talk about participants’ experiences of leaving Afghanistan, often living in countries of protracted displacement (Iran and/or Pakistan) and making- and being-at-home in New Zealand. In this thesis, I explore the ways in which they frame Afghanistan, and the ways in which their experiences in Iran and Pakistan disrupt the dichotomisation of belonging in terms of ‘here’ (ancestral land) and ‘there’ (country of residence). Furthermore, I use affect theorising to analyse the participants’ expressions of resettlement and home in New Zealand. Feeling at home is as much about negotiating cultural and gendered identities in Western secular societies as it is about belonging to a particular community. Through their experiences of ‘living in two worlds’, the participants are able to strategically challenge cultural expectations without undermining their reputations as Muslims and as Afghan women. The participants discussed their emotional responses to double-displacement: one as a result of war and the other as a result of 2011 Canterbury earthquakes. Therefore, I suggest that for young Afghan women, Afghanistan was among several markers of home in a long embodied journey of (re)settlement.

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  • Numerical Modeling of the Bead Mobility Technique

    Taylor, Jason (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, aerosols have been the most important atmospheric cooling component in the industrial period. How- ever, the predictions of aerosol impacts are the largest individual source of uncertainty in climate models [1, 2]. Accurately representing organic aerosols (OA) in atmospheric models is one of the key requirements for understanding the climate effects of aerosols. The viscosity of OA’s has been shown to range from liquid to solid/semi-solid across the range of atmospheric relative humidity [3]. The viscosity of these atmospheric particles is currently a topic of interest due to its role in the profound effect OAs have on the environment. A method known as the ’bead-mobility technique’ has been developed by Renbaum-Wolff et al [4] which is able to quantify the viscosity of an atmospheric particle over a range of atmospherically relevant humidities by studying the motion of fluid inside small droplets placed in a flow cell. This project uses numerical simulations, in conjunction with an analytical solution, to provide validation of the technique and to investigate potential sources of error that could be contributing to the large uncertainties currently present in experimental results. As presented by Renbaum-Wolff et al, the relationship between the droplet viscosity and the droplet fluid velocity was found to fit a single term power law function of the form u = aµb, where a and b represent constants with b ≈ −1. The effect of variations in the droplet surface tension, size, contact angle and the effect of droplet drafting were analyzed over ranges relevant to the bead mobility technique. It was found that the largest contributors of error were due to the range of sizes and contact angles of droplets studied, producing variations in droplet velocity by factors of approximately 2.8 and 1.7 respectively. In light of these results, an alteration to the current technique has been proposed that reduces the errors present due to variations between droplets.

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  • Dialectical holism : the lost metaphysics of E. E. Harris.

    Schofield, James (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Errol E. Harris devoted his life to grappling with the big questions concerning the relationship between nature and mind. Harris’s career was distinguished, his works were widely published, and yet his metaphysics has until now been excluded from mainstream discourse. The purpose of this work is to outline Harris’s philosophies of nature, mind, and science so as to provide his overarching metaphysics a rigorous and sympathetic assessment. This thesis begins with an examination of Harris’s biography, including key inspirations that led to the development of his philosophical system. In the remaining three parts I compare Harris’s distinctive phenomenological and interdisciplinary approach to the hard problem of consciousness with his closest theoretical analogues in the contemporary philosophies of physics, biology, and mind. I argue that Harris’s metaphysics both anticipates and provides a means of unifying the theories of Bohmian quantum mechanics, systems evolution, and 4E cognition. Specifically, I contend that when clarified by the philosophical developments of systems theory, Harris’s metaphysics reveals as yet unnoticed implications of autopoietic enactivism for a novel version of the anthropic cosmological principle. I conclude that insofar as the resulting metaphysics of “dialectical holism” remains consistent, it provides both methodological and theoretical principles towards revising neutral monism and naturalizing phenomenology.

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  • Seismic performance of corroded reinforced concrete bridge piers

    Andisheh, Kaveh (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The impact of general and pitting corrosion on the effective mechanical properties of reinforcing bars under monotonic tensile loading was explored experimentally. Reduction in the effective mechanical properties of steel reinforcement due to pitting corrosion was found. A novel methodology was used to develop corrosion-induced deterioration models for steel reinforcement embedded in concrete, based on comparing the configuration of mass loss in corroded bare reinforcement and reinforcement corroded while embedded in concrete. In this method an advanced 3D scanning measurement technique was employed to scan the surface of corroded bars. The impact of corrosion pattern was used to develop an analytical model to predict tensile behaviour of corroded steel reinforcement embedded in concrete. The corrosion process was simulated in a laboratory environment using an accelerated corrosion procedure. A deterioration model for cracked concrete cover due to reinforcement corrosion was developed, based on experimental compression tests on concrete core samples and statistical normal distribution. The concrete core samples were taken from noncorroded and corroded full-scale reinforced concrete columns. The effects of corrosion on the stress–strain response of confined concrete subjected to reinforcement corrosion were experimentally investigated. An analytical model based on the deterioration models developed in this study was used to predict the stress–strain response of confined concrete due to reinforcement corrosion. The analytical model was validated using the experimental results. The results of more than 100 corroded bare steel reinforcement columns, and 20 corroded full-scale reinforced concrete columns were analysed in order to develop the deterioration models in this research. The deterioration models developed for materials and the model developed for confined concrete subjected to reinforcement corrosion were then used to numerically investigate the impact of corrosion on the nonlinear pushover response of bridge piers subject to corrosion. Parametric studies were carried out to investigate the effects of important parameters on the moment–curvature or force–drift response of the corroded bridge piers. The quasistatic cyclic response of three large-scale precast bridge piers that emulate the behaviour of cast-in-place (ECIP) piers through the formation of plastic hinges in the piers were experimentally investigated. Development of advanced deterioration models due to corrosion, and implementing the models to evaluate the structural response of corroded bridges under seismic loading significantly improve the durability design approach. Moreover, they help to more accurately assess the condition of existing bridges subjected to both seismic loading and corrosive agents. The models can also improve the durability design methodology of RC structures. The results of this research will help bridge managers and owners to develop a rigorous maintenance strategy to evaluate and predict the performance of their bridge network and will also help engineers to optimise the life-cycle design of reinforced concrete bridges subjected to earthquakes and corrosion.

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  • Sedimentation reduction in UHT milk

    Gaur, Vikas (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Ultra-high temperature (UHT) treated milks have a typical shelf life of 9 – 12 months. Sedimentation in UHT milks is a storage stability problem which reduces customer acceptance. The aim of this research was to understand the mechanisms of sedimentation and finds ways to reduce it. Two pilot scale UHT plants were used for producing UHT milks. Both plants were capable of direct heating with steam or indirect heat by heat exchange. Sedimentation in both direct and indirect UHT milks was studied at different storage intervals for up to 25 weeks. The UHT milks were stored at 20 °C in a dark temperature controlled room. Sediment weight, pH, ionic calcium, micelle size and zeta potential were measured at different intervals. Sediment composition was analysed using chemical and PAGE techniques. The UHT sediment was mostly protein and minerals. Sediment contained mostly κ-depleted caseins and some whey proteins. Indirect sediment had more whey protein that direct. Based on literature and obtained results a four step mechanism was hypothesized. During UHT treatment casein micelles are sterically destabilized due to κ-casein dissociation (Step 1 destabilization). During UHT treatment, β-lactoglobulin denature and associate with casein micelles and restore some of the lost steric stability (Step 2 stabilization). These modified casein micelles aggregate together by ionic calcium bridging (Step 3 aggregation) during storage and then settle to the bottom of the container (Step 4 settling). To validate the mechanism multiple trials were conducted using the two different UHT plants. Sediment weight was measured after 4 weeks of dark storage at 20 °C. Different physicochemical properties of the milk post UHT were measured - pH, ionic calcium, ionic conductivity, whey protein denaturation using HPLC, κ-casein dissociation and β-lactoglobulin association using PAGE, particle size distribution using a Malvern Mastersizer, micelle size and zeta potential using a Malvern Zetasizer, and water of hydration of micelles. To isolate the effect of temperature from other phenomenon during direct steam injection (60 °C s-1 heating rate, steam shear, liquid-vapour interface and steam bubble cavitation) destabilization and stabilization was studied by heating milk from 4 °C to 70 °C. Destabilization was studied by attempting to create UHT milks with different amount of κ-casein on micelle surface post UHT. Two techniques were used: 1) heat treatment at different pH values, 2) transglutamination at different temperatures. Stabilization was studied by increasing β-lactoglobulin association with casein micelles by 1) changing casein to whey protein ratio (70:30, 75:25, 80:20) by adding whey protein isolate, 2) modifying direct UHT process to have either a 5 minute pre heating step or an additional 5 minute post-flash heating step at temperatures above which whey protein denaturation occurs (80, 90 and 100 °C). A mixed UHT (different combinations of direct and indirect steps) trial was done to find which part of indirect UHT process results in increased stability of the casein micelles against sedimentation. Aggregation was studied by changing ionic strength of milk using monovalent and divalent cation salts to test if the ionic strength or ionic calcium bridging is more important in sedimentation. It was concluded that destabilization in the UHT process cannot be reduced. Due to the given heating profile of a direct and indirect UHT, destabilization adversely affects stabilization in direct UHT process but not in indirect. It was also concluded that stabilization does not depend on just the amount of β-lactoglobulin associating with the micelles but the conformation of the β-lactoglobulin attaching to the micelles is also important. It was concluded that the conformations of β-lactoglobulin attaching to micelles during indirect heating imparts better stabilization of the micelles than indirect cooling. It was concluded that ionic calcium bridging and not ionic strength leads to aggregation of the casein micelles. Overall the mechanism holds true, but is more nuanced than originally hypothesized. Destabilization affects stabilization. Stabilization also depends on the conformation of β-lactoglobulin polymers associating with micelles. Direct UHT process can not be modified to reduce sedimentation sufficiently. Slow heating in indirect UHT is found to impart stability to the casein micelles against sedimentation.

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  • A re-examination and reinterpretation of the records of the presocratics and earlier from an ATR (Argumentative Theory of Reason) perspective : the development of reasoning in Greece in the form of “devising and evaluating arguments intended to persuade”

    Armfield, Greg (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Aristotle was the founder of logic. He said that there was nothing like it earlier. Interpretations of the records of the presocratics from a classical theory of reasoning (CTR) perspective give the ‘traditional account’ of the development of ‘Greek rationalism’. That is, an account of the Greeks becoming better at discovering the world through a process of forward inference: ratiocination. The recent argumentative theory of reason (ATR) of Sperber and Mercier provides an alternative perspective through which to interpret, or reinterpret these same records. According to the theory, the main function of reasoning is the devising and evaluating of arguments intended to persuade. This suggests a process of backward inference in order to support ideas that have arisen intuitively or in some other way. In applying this new perspective to the records, the result is that the Greeks did develop as reasoners, but more in the ATR sense until Plato. That is, the Greeks, over time, became better at devising and evaluating arguments, which were then used to support their ideas and speculations. Together these ideas and their supporting arguments became the theories the Greeks are known for. In other words, the Greeks developed first as rational persuaders with a variety of physical ideas and speculations about the world. At some point in the development, the Greeks recognised what it is to reason and its utility in the context of the law courts and the political assembly. Over a period of time, they came to understand, formalise and teach and learn the ways and methods of reasoning in the ATR sense. Once this was understood, there is evidence that it was then consciously and deliberately applied in attempts to discover the world through the process of forward inference. This all occurred well before Aristotle. To conclude, there was not nothing at all before Aristotle. He systematised what had already been formalised in coming up with logic. But formalised methods of reasoning, both ATR and CTR, were needed in order to do this.

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  • Ko E Tala-Tukufakaholo ‘O Tonga: an alter-native holistic historiography of Tonga history from their own traditional oral culture and through their own people’s eyes

    Latu, Paula Onoafe (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    I begin with a quote from the book by Hawaiian scholar Robert Borofsky titled; Remembrance of Pacific Pasts: An Invitation to Remake History (2000), an interview of the Middle-Eastern scholar Edward Said (ES) by Robert Borofsky (RB) titled; “Postcolonial” Politic -A View from afar (Middle-east)”; R.B: Some scholars suggest people in the Third World have tended to construct their social identities around Western notions of nationhood and, as a result, have become entwined within Western hegemonic frameworks even when opposing them. E.S: I am not sure I agree with that….It is another example of the West imposing itself on others. Or take the question of whether or not people have a history. Everybody has a history. I would say to be human is to have and to make history. That is what distinguishes us from animals. 4 Are we truly colonized in terms of history and historiography? Is that even possible? Is our way of doing history being censored and controlled? Is our oral way of historiography being prohibited and forbidden? Or, rather as in (ES) words, is the Tongan situation an example of the West imposing itself upon us? Or are we not given the autonomy to present our history via our own traditional historiography and through our people’s eyes, independent of Western hegemony? This thesis aspires to present Tonga history in an alter-native Tala- Tukufakaholo historiography as a response to Ian Campbell’s claim that “Tongan historiography shows a state of intellectual dependence that might also be called colonial…” meaning – “a territory of the mind is being colonized and controlled.”5 This thesis suggests the Tala-Tukufakaholo concept, as a holistic alter-native framework, presents our history through our own eyes fundamentally, to complement the conventional. This complementation of the conventional also challenges a move to shift from debating the colonial climate of the field into a more holistic approach that will embrace all the colonized, the marginalized and the broken-hearted.6 It attempts a response to Campbell’s assertion by following the Tongan scholar Ana Maui Taufe’ulungaki’s aspiration to have “Tongans writing Tonga history as seen through the eyes of Tongans themselves.” 7 While all history is either evolutionary or accidental events,8 this thesis hopes to prepare Tongans to view life, history and historiography as an evolutionary Tala-Tukufakaholo – a traditional holistic framework. Being part of a “moaning and groaning” generation because of colonization, it aspires that we pass on to the next generation something positive, that will lead them away from colonial thoughts to live and view life in a more holistic way. And as the Psalmist says; “Let this be recorded for a generation to come, so that a people yet unborn may praise the LORD….”9 4 Robert Borofsky, ""Post Colonial Politics - a View from Afar (Middle East)-an Interview with Edward Said," in Remembrance of Pacific Pasts: An Invitation to Remake History, ed. R Borofsky(Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 2000). 445-446. 5 Ian C Campbell, "A History Policy for Tonga," in Tonga - Land, Sea and People, ed. Tangikina Moimoi Steen and Nancy L Drescher(Nuku'alofa: Tonga Research Association, 2011). 30. 6 This statement is to be understood in the context of the Colonizers, Imperialists and the globalization development. 7 Cited in Campbell, "A History Policy for Tonga." from Taufe’ulungaki’s Book Reviews published in Matangi Tonga 5 (2), (March-April, 1990); 44). 8 C.H Dodd, The Apostolic Preaching and Its Developments: Three Lectures with a N Appendix on Eschatology and History (London Hodder and Stoughton Limited 1950 ). 95. 9 Psalm 102.18, (NRSV).

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  • Older and younger employees : a study investigating comparative differences in value

    Jamieson, Michael Christopher (1997)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    There is ample evidence that age-related discrimination and stereotyping of employees over 50 years of age is endemic (Hassell & Perrewe, 1995). This study uses a Human Resource Accounting model to examine the differences in human resource value (replacement cost and performance value) between older (≥50 years) and younger (<50 years). Investigations into the use of job satisfaction, organisational commitment and career intention (including intentions to quit), to predict tenure and develop a probability of turnover index were also conducted. The study found no significant differences in replacement costs between older and younger employees, although older participants were found to outperform their younger counterparts. As the psychological data collected are not longitudinal, no significant correlations between the psychological factors and turnover were found. Overall, the study found no significant difference in value between older and younger employees. These findings support the view that age-related discrimination in the workplace is unjustified.

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  • The Effects of Emotional Stimuli on Visuo-spatial Vigilance and Self-Reported State

    Flood, Georgia (2013)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    In the present study we explored the impact of task-irrelevant emotive picture stimuli on visuo-spatial vigilance performance, self-reported state and memory. Ninety-five participants (62 women, 33 men) completed the experiment in which task-irrelevant emotive picture stimuli were embedded in the vigilance task. Four experimental groups were tested by combing two levels of valence, positive versus negative, and two levels of arousal, arousing versus neutral or non-arousing, for the task-irrelevant picture stimuli. The vigil was organised so that baseline performance, the initial impact of the images, and any continual carry-over effects of the images on performance could be measured. In addition to performance on the vigil, subjective state was measured using a self-report questionnaire designed to examine energetic and tense arousal as well as task-related and task-unrelated thoughts. A post-task freerecall test was also employed, asking participants to recall as many of the picture stimuli as they could. Results showed a significant arousal by period linear trend interaction, in which the performance decrement of the groups exposed to the arousing picture stimuli was attenuated in comparison those exposed to the nonarousing stimuli. Further the relationship between self-reported energetic arousal and performance differed for the arousing and non-arousing picture groups. Post-task energetic arousal significantly predicted the performance decrement (linear slope) for the arousing picture group, but not for the non-arousing picture-group. The arousing pictures were also recalled at a higher rate than non-arousing pictures, irrespective of valence. These results provide support for the perspective that the arousal quality of picture stimuli matters more for performance than valence, and that arousing pictures while possibly disruptive when presented concurrently with the vigilance task, may result in improved performance later due to an increase in energetic or cortical arousal. This finding fits with previous research suggesting that arousing agents are more potent when their possible distracting effects on task performance are no longer competing for cognitive resources.

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  • Midwifery: a model of sustainable healthcare practice?

    Davies, Lorna D. (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The global discourse around sustainability in healthcare has increased exponentially in the recent years. Sustainable healthcare has been defined as the long-term maintenance of health and wellbeing of the human population. However, there is a paucity of research around midwifery as a sustainable practice. Using a qualitative research approach, I set out to establish what ‘sustainability’, in its broadest sense, meant to three groups of midwives practicing in the South Island of New Zealand. My aim was to define the term in relation to midwifery practice within the context of a caseload model and to determine whether sustainability was embraced as a concept of value in their work. Within a series of focus groups, over a fourteen month period, using participatory action research as my methodological framework, I worked with purposefully selected midwives who represented a broad range of practice experience. Actor Network Theory (ANT) was used as a theoretical framework and analytical tool that enabled access to the networks via historical sources and from the data generated from the study. Analysis of the data indicated that the midwives had an understanding of the tenets of environmental, economic and social sustainability and were able to relate the significance of these elements to their practice. However, their primary focus was on sustainability within the context of professionalism. Further analysis using ANT revealed a number of barriers that the midwives perceived as challenges to the sustainability of their professional identity and prohibited them from engaging with the broader tenets of sustainability within midwifery practice. It transpired that the hegemony of neoliberalism was instrumental in undermining the values of sustainability within the NZ midwifery context. Neoliberalism makes its presence felt in multiple ways within the network, for instance in the concept of consumerism, in the materiality status of technology, in the semiotic nature of the nostalgia expressed by the midwives, and in the professional issues identified. These elements demonstrate that the barriers that impact on the professional identity of the midwives generate a ‘siege’ mentality, and it can be concluded that they prevent the midwives from engaging with the concept of sustainability in their practice.

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  • Enhanced vision-based localization and control for navigation of non-holonomic omnidirectional mobile robots in GPS-denied environments

    Sharifi, Mostafa (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    New Zealand’s economy relies on primary production to a great extent, where use of the technological advances can have a significant impact on the productivity. Robotics and automation can play a key role in increasing productivity in primary sector, leading to a boost in national economy. This thesis investigates novel methodologies for design, control, and navigation of a mobile robotic platform, aimed for field service applications, specifically in agricultural environments such as orchards to automate the agricultural tasks. The design process of this robotic platform as a non-holonomic omnidirectional mobile robot, includes an innovative integrated application of CAD, CAM, CAE, and RP for development and manufacturing of the platform. Robot Operating System (ROS) is employed for the optimum embedded software system design and development to enable control, sensing, and navigation of the platform. 3D modelling and simulation of the robotic system is performed through interfacing ROS and Gazebo simulator, aiming for off-line programming, optimal control system design, and system performance analysis. Gazebo simulator provides 3D simulation of the robotic system, sensors, and control interfaces. It also enables simulation of the world environment, allowing the simulated robot to operate in a modelled environment. The model based controller for kinematic control of the non-holonomic omnidirectional platform is tested and validated through experimental results obtained from the simulated and the physical robot. The challenges of the kinematic model based controller including the mathematical and kinematic singularities are discussed and the solution to enable an optimal kinematic model based controller is presented. The kinematic singularity associated with the non-holonomic omnidirectional robots is solved using a novel fuzzy logic based approach. The proposed approach is successfully validated and tested through the simulation and experimental results. Development of a reliable localization system is aimed to enable navigation of the platform in GPS-denied environments such as orchards. For this aim, stereo visual odometry (SVO) is considered as the core of the non-GPS localization system. Challenges of SVO are introduced and the SVO accumulative drift is considered as the main challenge to overcome. SVO drift is identified in form of rotational and translational drift. Sensor fusion is employed to improve the SVO rotational drift through the integration of IMU and SVO. A novel machine learning approach is proposed to improve the SVO translational drift using Neural-Fuzzy system and RBF neural network. The machine learning system is formulated as a drift estimator for each image frame, then correction is applied at that frame to avoid the accumulation of the drift over time. The experimental results and analyses are presented to validate the effectiveness of the methodology in improving the SVO accuracy. An enhanced SVO is aimed through combination of sensor fusion and machine learning methods to improve the SVO rotational and translational drifts. Furthermore, to achieve a robust non-GPS localization system for the platform, sensor fusion of the wheel odometry and the enhanced SVO is performed to increase the accuracy of the overall system, as well as the robustness of the non-GPS localization system. The experimental results and analyses are conducted to support the methodology.

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