14,528 results for University of Canterbury Library

  • Lived experiences of Bhutanese former refugee youth : coping, resilience and mindfulness infused counselling

    Rodrigues, Neville (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This thesis explores the lived experiences of a group of young Bhutanese former refugees between the ages of 18 to 24 years who were resettled in Christchurch between 2008 and 2010 – prior to the first major earthquake. The main goal of the thesis was to gain an understanding of their ways of coping and a second goal was to explore whether their participation in up to five mindfulness infused counselling sessions had influenced their ways of coping. A qualitative research methodology was used to guide the thesis. Participants were interviewed about the major events in their life and how they coped with them. They were then invited to participate in five sessions of mindfulness infused counselling. Approximately five weeks after their final session had ended they were invited to one final interview to explore the influence of the sessions on their ways of coping. Interviews were recorded and transcribed and research notes were taken of the mindfulness infused counselling sessions. Max van Manen’s method of phenomenology was adopted to interpret the narratives of the youth. Three main themes emerged from the data analysis and these are described as essences of lived coping experiences. The first captures their strong sense of community back in the refugee camp. The second presents the sense of resilience that exists among the Bhutanese former refugees. The third essence indicated the inner strengths of the participants which they said helped them deal with the challenging circumstances that life cast in their direction. This meant that their first experience of an earthquake was not considered the biggest event in their lives. After attending the mindfulness infused counselling sessions’ participants reported positive benefits from giving non-judgemental attention to their thoughts and feelings and they found themselves dealing with their issues proactively. For some participants their ‘accepting’ attitude facilitated better control over their emotions while others reported being able to form deeper connections with nature and other people as a result of being mindful. Other participants reported being able to make peace with the events in their past and even found that they were able to forgive those who tormented their community. However, in the absence of any major event in any of the participants’ lives in the time period following their final counselling session, the research was not able to definitely conclude that using mindful-based counselling facilitates better coping in the face extremely stressful events. There is currently very little research that focuses on the experiences of former refugee youth within New Zealand and how they utilize their capacities to deal with adversities. When this thesis commenced, the Bhutanese were the newest refugee community to be accepted for resettlement in New Zealand. This research partly addresses the limited voice of this community.

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  • Why does New Zealand export sawn timber to some markets and logs to others?

    Luketina, Ivan (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    New Zealand’s annual log harvest has increased rapidly from 2009 to 2017. This increase in harvest has been mostly exported as logs, rather than being processed in New Zealand into sawn timber and other products. Previous industry strategy studies have identified the need for the sawn timber processing sector to be internationally competitive, as it is both an important processing industry, and a supplier of residue to downstream manufacturers. Studies that compare New Zealand’s export log and sawn timber markets have shown that most markets import either sawn timber or logs, but rarely an even mix of both. However, most export logs are processed into sawn timber or plywood at the destination. This research uses econometric analysis to identify the drivers of these differences in market behaviour. A seven-country export demand panel model was used to analyse the effects that different variables had on demand for sawn timber and logs. Real GDP and real prices were used to explain demand for log and sawn timber imports from New Zealand. Variables for tariffs and tariff wedges (the difference between the tariff for a processed good and the tariff for its raw material), non-tariff barriers (NTB), competition effects, and local resources were used to test their effects on demand. Tariff wedges and the local harvest of softwood timber were found to have a significant negative effect on demand for sawn timber, while only a softwood harvest was found to negatively affect demand for logs. The presence of tariff wedges was found to be negatively correlated with the sawn timber demand, but did not fully explain the difference in demand between logs and sawn timber. Research suggests that NTBs have a large impact, but they are difficult to measure and therefore analyse in this context. The existence of a softwood timber resource was found to be negatively correlated with demand for softwood imports. There was no significant negative effect found for competition effects.

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  • Modeling supply chain risks and ways to ameliorate negative effects on the supply chain performance and reputation of firm in the dairy industry

    Abraham, Vivek Oomen (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Supply chain risk has become an issue of significance for many dairy firms across the globe. The complexity of the supply chain has increased due to various levels of raw material sourcing, uncertain market conditions, competition and ever changing customer demands. The aim of this literature-based study is to investigate how the literature suggests supply chain risks are approached in a dairy industry and the methods that have been found to mitigate or ameliorate negative impacts of events that compromise supply chain performance and reputation of firm. A conceptual framework for supply chain risk management is discussed for better handling of risks in a dairy supply chain. The main focus of the study will be on how supply chain risk management is approached in the literature, what are the various kinds of supply chain risks in a dairy industry, perception of supply chain risks in a dairy firms and its effects on the proper functioning of the firm, the role of trust, communication and relationship between supply chain partners as the main parameters for better handling of risks in a dairy supply chain. Importance is also given to understand what the existing literature suggests on ways to mitigate and ameliorate negative effects of risks for better supply chain performance and reputation of firm. These are some of the questions on which the research is built. Comprehensive literature review along with case study analysis has been used as the main approach for data collection. A three stage research approach was used to answer the research questions. Stage one was focusing on the existing literature on supply chain risk management. Four cases (stage two) on supply chain failures in dairy firms are used to analyse the supply chain risks and how it could be managed well by the organization for a better performance and reputation of the firm. Finally, a matrix (stage three) is developed from the input received from the cases which is linked to the literature review on supply chain risk management and also explains how these risks can be ameliorated for a greater supply chain performance. Risk and uncertainties can obstruct the smooth flow of supply chain activities which has an effect on its performance. Proper identification and assessment of risk is of major importance in a proper supply chain risk management. Supply chain risk management is built on the foundation of trust, commitment, frequent information sharing and a perfect relationship. Key words – Supply chain management, supply chain risks, risk management, performance management, dairy firm, Supply chain and communication, relationship and trust.

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  • Modelling, Speckle Simulation and Quality Evaluation of Synthetic Ultrasound Images

    Singh P; Mukundan R; de Ryke R (2017)

    Conference Contributions - Published
    University of Canterbury Library

    Speckle noise reduction is an important area of research in the field of ultrasound image processing. Several algorithms for speckle noise characterization and analysis have been recently proposed in the area. Synthetic ultrasound images can play a key role in noise evaluation methods as they can be used to generate a variety of speckle noise models under different interpolation and sampling schemes, and can also provide valuable ground truth data for estimating the accuracy of the chosen methods. However, not much work has been done in the area of modelling synthetic ultrasound images, and in simulating speckle noise generation to get images that are as close as possible to real ultrasound images. This paper discusses these aspects, presents novel algorithms for speckle simulation and modelling based on three sampling schemes, and also evaluates the quality of the outputs using image quality metrics. Detailed experimental analysis including both quantitative and subjective assessments are also presented.

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  • Transport infrastructure performance and management in the South Island of New Zealand, during the first 100 days following the 2016 Mw 7.8 “Kaikōura” Earthquake

    Davies AJ; Sadashiva V; Aghababaei M; Barnhill D; Costello SB; Fanslow B; Headifen D; Hughes MW; Kotze R; Mackie J; Ranjitkar P; Thompson J; Troitino DR; Wilson TM; Woods S; Wotherspoon LM (2017)

    Journal article
    University of Canterbury Library

    At 00:02 on 14th November 2016, a Mw 7.8 earthquake occurred in and offshore of the northeast of the South Island of New Zealand. Fault rupture, ground shaking, liquefaction, and co-seismic landslides caused severe damage to distributed infrastructure, and particularly transportation networks; large segments of the country’s main highway, State Highway 1 (SH1), and the Main North Line (MNL) railway line, were damaged between Picton and Christchurch. The damage caused direct local impacts, including isolation of communities, and wider regional impacts, including disruption of supply chains. Adaptive measures have ensured immediate continued regional transport of goods and people. Air and sea transport increased quickly, both for emergency response and to ensure routine transport of goods. Road diversions have also allowed critical connections to remain operable. This effective response to regional transport challenges allowed Civil Defence Emergency Management to quickly prioritise access to isolated settlements, all of which had road access 23 days after the earthquake. However, 100 days after the earthquake, critical segments of SH1 and the MNL remain closed and their ongoing repairs are a serious national strategic, as well as local, concern. This paper presents the impacts on South Island transport infrastructure, and subsequent management through the emergency response and early recovery phases, during the first 100 days following the initial earthquake, and highlights lessons for transportation system resilience.

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  • What is meant by "Replication" and why does it encounter resistance in economics?

    Duvendack M; Palmer-Jones R; Reed WR (2017)

    Journal article
    University of Canterbury Library

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  • A Robust Algorithm for Automated HER2 Scoring in Breast Cancer Histology Slides Using Characteristic Curves

    Mukundan R (2017)

    Conference Contributions - Published
    University of Canterbury Library

    This paper presents a novel feature descriptor and classification algorithms for automated scoring of HER2 in Whole Slide Images (WSI). Since a large amount of processing is involved in analyzing WSI images, the primary design goal has been to keep the computational complexity to the minimum possible level. We propose an efficient method based on characteristic curves which encode all relevant information in a smooth polynomial curve with the percentage of stained membranes plotted against variations in intensity/saturation of the colour thresholds used for segmentation. Our algorithm performed exceedingly well at a recent online contest held by the University of Warwick [1], obtaining the second best points score of 390 out of 420 and the overall seventh position in the combined leaderboard [2]. The paper describes three classification algorithms with features extracted from characteristic curves and provides experimental results and comparative analysis

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  • Global justice awareness? The journey towards transformational learning through international volunteering

    Atkinson, Arthur Laird (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The opportunity to engage in international volunteering (IV) is a markedly privileged one that this thesis explores through the consideration of a complex range of factors and influences from the global to the personal in an effort to understand how volunteers make meaning of their experiences. IV encompasses a large range of organizations, many of which market volunteering abroad as a mutually beneficial experience for both the volunteer and the host community receiving the volunteers. Links to neocolonialism and neoliberalism, however, have illuminated ethical concerns about how transformation is experienced if host communities are used for the benefit of volunteers. This thesis undertook a mixed methods approach and analysis of three groups of volunteers: those who are currently volunteering, those who have recently returned, and those who have volunteered in years past. Through in-depth interviews and an open-ended survey, this thesis identified four phases of transformation that suggest IV can foster an awareness about global in/justice and that critical self-reflection plays a significant role. Using Mezirow’s theory of transformational learning compliments Bourdieu’s concept of habitus and embodied experience, which implies that volunteers need to be aware of their own habitus, recognizing they may contribute to both systems of injustice and justice. Using this theoretical strategy generated an account of IV as a doubled-edged sword, which signals that there is tension between personal transformation and social justice. Studying IV within a sociological context can contribute to knowledge about how IV programs are situated within a framework of service, influenced by tourism and development, and how they could be better operated within this framework to better foster volunteers’ awareness of inequality and global justice.

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  • The effects of a simulated nature experience on the physiological and behavioural responses of young children with post-traumatic stress symptoms

    Vesty, Clare (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Post-traumatic stress symptoms are a common reaction to experiencing a traumatic event such as a natural disaster. Young children may be at an increased risk for such mental health problems as these catastrophic events may coincide with developmentally sensitive periods of development. Treatments currently recommended for children with post-traumatic stress symptoms insufficiently acknowledge the role of neurobiological stress related systems responsible for these symptoms. As such, alternative approaches to the treatment of posttraumatic symptoms have been explored, with nature-based interventions offering a potential alternative based on two different theories that uphold the stress reducing benefits of natural environments. To date, there are a limited number of experimental studies that have explored the use of nature-based interventions with children, and no known research that has used a simulated nature experience with child participants. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a simulated nature experience on the physiological and behavioural responses of children with post-traumatic stress symptoms that experienced the Christchurch earthquakes. A single-case research design with repeated measures of heart rate and teacherreported behaviour was gathered across a 20-day period. Heart rate data was collected before and after participants watched a 10-minute nature video, while data from a teacher rating scale provided information about the participants’ behaviours in the 30-minute period after they watched the nature video. Comparisons made to data collected during two different baseline phases indicated that the nature video intervention had no recognisable effects on the participants’ physiological and behavioural stress responses. Limitations to the current study are discussed as possible reasons for the incompatibility between the current study’s results and the findings from previous research. Suggestions are made for any future replications of the study.

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  • A low-cost MPPT multiple-input power converter for home applications in isolated areas

    Phan, Phu Huu (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The focus of this research is to design and build a low-cost maximum power point tracking (MPPT) multiple-input-single-output power converter system for low power gridisolated applications. The design of this power converter concentrated on searching for a suitable topology that integrates multiple renewable power sources, each with their own MPPT requirements and with the lowest cost of components. With good power conversion efficiency, the converter provides power to a dc load output and is also able to appropriately charge an energy storage battery. In addition to the main functional blocks, all protections required are equipped with the converter, including under voltage lock-out (UVLO), over voltage protection (OVP), cycle-by-cycle current limit, and battery over charge and over discharge prevention. The development and implementation of the converter was divided by different steps. The initial phase searched for, analyzed, and proposed the most suitable topology in terms of power delivery, cost, and feasibility. The non-isolated full-bridge was chosen for the power conversion topology for each channel with its own analogue controller. An interfacing circuit was designed to work with those full-bridge controllers for integrating MPPT control signals, constant output voltage control signals, and constant charging current control signals, from a microcontroller, a single output voltage feedback loop, and a single output current feedback loop, respectively. After a specification of the design had been selected, the detailed design and calculation of circuits was carried out. Simulations were also conducted to confirm the operation of the converter, including the start-up sequences, output load response, battery charging modes, and the transient between operation modes. The converter was then transferred to PCB design with two versions, a 2-layer and 4-layer board. A comparison was made for choosing the appropriate option among the designs regarding board size, cost, and performance. The final physical converter was formed by soldering components on the manufactured 170mm x 130mm 4-layer PCB, and programming of the microprocessor. The final step was the characterisation of the converter with standard power supplies and renewable energy source emulators, in the laboratory environment. Results show that the converter functions as per the design specifications. With the input source of a solar photovoltaic panel, a micro wind/hydro turbine, or both, the converter can work with solely a dc load or with a dc-bus connected battery (where the converter provides a threestage charging profile). The smooth and fast transiting between operation modes of MPPT, constant output voltage, and constant charging current were recorded without any abnormal behavior. The MPPT functions separately with each input source with high accuracy and fast response to the input conditions. Depending on the state of the output, the converter automatically switches to either constant output voltage or constant charging current mode when the total available input power is higher than the output load demand. For each of these operation modes, the converter also achieves a fast response to the input sources voltage and output load variations. With a designed capability of 2 kW maximum total power conversion, the converter is able to work with a wide range of input voltage (from 16 V to 60 V) for both input sources while its nominal output voltage is set at around 27 V for working with a nominal 24 V lead-acid battery. The peak power conversion efficiency of 95.3 % was recorded at 400 W of total input power when the turbine source voltage was 54 V (dc value after the rectifier) and the solar photovoltaic source voltage was 24 V. The operating temperature of the converter appeared to be higher than expected at some components, with a peak of 68.3 oC recorded on the gate driver chips. However, this issue could be mitigated by adding more heat sink components or modifying the design on a new revision. With under $60 USD of total component cost (slightly above $55 for pre-manufactured components and materials, and about $3 for the PCB), the converter is shown to be a low-cost converter regarding its power capability while supporting multiple input sources which may have a wide range of nominal power outputs. This makes the converter more applicable in isolated areas of developing countries.

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  • The Foreign Exchange Carry Trade

    Carrodus, Mark (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    I examine the foreign exchange (FX) carry trade, using both single currency and portfolio construction techniques. Chapter I looks at the background, the mechanics of constructing the FX carry trade, and the returns that it generates. In addition the behaviour of these returns is examined in the context of uncovered interest rate parity and several time series analysis aspects. Chapter II introduces both a theoretical stop-loss framework and a sample of hedge fund risk management policies obtained from industry sources. These stop-loss policies are then superimposed onto the FX carry trade. Although ’naive’ returns to the FX carry trade, as documented elsewhere in the literature are strongly positive, allowing for stop-loss rules results in returns that are insignificantly different from zero. The ability to cash in on the much vaunted forward premium puzzle relies on being able to stay in the trade, which seems strongly at odds with industry risk management policies. The stop loss signals generated are modelled using available currency futures data and client segmentation categories, but fails to establish a meaningful relationship. Chapter III extends the already established link between the returns to the FX carry trade and historical volatility measures to that of the entire FX option implied volatility surface. The quotation conventions and mechanics of trading FX options are explained and despite being able to establish a strong contemporaneous relationship between FX carry trade returns and FX option implied volatility surfaces, this is not able to be extended to predicting future FX carry trade returns.

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  • Andrea Zani (1696-1757) - life and works - through a study of the documents together with a collected edition and thematic catalogue.

    Ward, Jillian Ruth (2010)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Among the numerous eighteenth-century composers of merit whose music remains virtually unknown and unavailable in modern editions, and whose names are absent from the many items of Baroque literature to date, is Andrea Zani (b. Casalmaggiore, 1696-d. Casalmaggiore, 1757). Yet his skill saw him ranked as a virtuoso, and his compositions were published in Vienna, Paris and Amsterdam, as well as his native Italy. Despite the fact that most of his output is extant and accessible either in manuscripts or early prints in the archives of Europe, the United States of America and the United Kingdom, no thorough study of these works has been made. The scant biographical information available on Zani lies in a succession of brief and lamentably incomplete accounts, traceable to one early nineteenth-century writing. A comprehensive study of Andrea Zani and his music has yet to be made. The objectives (and thus the structure) of this dissertation are to present a definitive performing edition of Zani’s entire output and to compile a biographical account that will substantially augment and correct much of the biographical information that is available. These objectives are interdependent. A biography may be illuminated by information found in music sources – dates of compositions or dates and places of publications, names of dedicatees (and even of specific occasions) are all indicators of avenues of research, and as this is undertaken, isolated facts gradually turn into an expanding and yet increasingly tightly-knit network of detail. The music itself may be illuminated by confirming its location within the lifetime of the composer and a growing understanding of the various circumstances surrounding the years in which it was written. When this is allied with a knowledge of the dissemination of his compositions, one is led toward a contemporary estimation of the composer and a measure of the sphere of his influence. One further element of this research is a thematic catalogue of Zani’s works. As a comprehensive description of his output, it provides a stand-alone reference volume for future studies of the man and/or his compositions. More widely, it will assist with the solution of problems of misattributions of compositions among Zani's contemporaries.

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  • Rural parents’ engagement in education in Bangladesh: problems and possibilities

    Hasnat, Mahammad Abul (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This thesis explores the engagement practices, understandings and experiences of parents and teachers in the rural context in Bangladesh. It investigates the underlying factors that create blocks to engagement. It examines the complex interplay of expectations, blame-giving, financial constraints and pervasive social problems within the context, and how that interplay both calls for and yet inhibits engagement. The thesis also reports one head teacher’s initiatives to overcome the blocks and to create space for engagement. The study is a qualitative case study that utilises an emergent research design. This process of data collection offered me the flexibility to respond to contextual conditions and to capture rich data through group discussions and individual conversations with the teachers, parents and the community people. It allowed me to observe participants’ activities, review related documents and maintain a reflective research journal. The importance of place is highlighted throughout as my study sought to identify and report not only actual practices but the cultural, social and economic conditions that shape those practices. Place contextualises where policy decisions are to be implemented. Place is also a significant consideration in identifying the kinds of steps that might be taken to overcome barriers. Therefore, attention is given to describing the rural context of Bangladesh and its people in some detail. The study begins with examining the reasons for importance being placed on parental engagement by policy, and reports the problems in implementing policy aspirations in the rural context through the lenses of parents and teachers. It found that teachers were frustrated by lack of parental response to invitations and by their apparent disinterest in their children’s educational progress. It also found that parental illiteracy and poverty were major factors in preventing parents from becoming engaged with educational matters. Additional factors were unsatisfactory communication processes, the complex nature of the cultural relationship between parents and teachers, and the politicised nature of schools’ public programmes. I found of understandings, by both parents and teachers of the concept and possibilities of engagement were largely very limited. The thesis explores how cultural and socio-economic conditions shape dominant discourses and arbitrate access to cultural capital as well as posing practical problems. These factors impede parental engagement in education and are powerful indicators of why such engagement is needed. Next the study reports the activities of one head teacher who is taking a different approach in the same context. It details his different and innovative strategies for reaching out to parents and creating space for them to be become involved with their children’s learning and with the school. It also identifies a number of key characteristics of his leadership that allow him to make a difference and suggests that these characteristics are ones that should be looked for and fostered in appointment processes, professional development and official support. Finally the implications for policy and practice of the findings are discussed. Two models are offered: the first of the nature and possibilities of parental engagement in rural contexts of Bangladesh; the second of the processes needed to develop parental engagement in such contexts. The study is a deliberately contextual one. However, some of the contextual factors may have resonances with other contexts and other countries. Moreover the analysis of how contextual factors impact on parental engagement may also be relevant to other contexts. Therefore while the focus in on parental engagement in rural contexts in Bangladesh, it is envisaged that the study will also have wider relevance.

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  • Predictors of Punjabi, Hindi and English reading comprehension among multilingual children in the Punjab Region of India

    Gautam, Seema (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The research reported in this thesis investigated cognitive-linguistic predictors of reading comprehension (both within and across languages) among multilingual primary school children in the Punjab region of India. The participants of this study learn three languages: Punjabi, Hindi and English; and are exposed to all three from the initial stage of literacy acquisition. Unlike English, the Punjabi and Hindi orthographies are written nonlinearly with a horizontal bar on the top of the aksharas that connects aksharas within a word, and include vowel symbols that have independent and dependent forms. Both Punjabi and Hindi are alphasyllabic orthographies, whereas English is an alphabetic orthography. Over 400 trilingual school children in Punjab (India) from grades 2 to 5 completed a measure of text reading comprehension that comprised passages followed by questions about details in those passages. Reading comprehension levels were compared to the measures of listening comprehension, phonological processing, orthographic knowledge and speed of processing. Analyses indicated the Punjabi, Hindi and English reading comprehension levels were predicted by measure of listening comprehension and word decoding, with the latter being predicted by phonological and orthographic skills. Such findings were consistent with current models of reading derived from studies of English. However, in contrast to these models, measures of orthographic skills were also predictive of variance in reading comprehension independent of word decoding across Punjabi, Hindi and English models. Contributions of phonological processing and speed of processing were also observed in the English reading comprehension model, again independent of word decoding processes. Overall, Punjabi and Hindi reading comprehension was predicted by similar predictors, with English reading comprehension showing more variations in predictors. Further analyses investigated the influence of Punjabi and Hindi cognitive-linguistic skills on English reading levels. The findings indicated that, in the younger cohorts of students who are more likely to have less reading experience, the influence of Punjabi and Hindi measures on English was limited to word recognition. However, once these multilingual children acquire more expertise in decoding skills (i.e., in the older cohort), listening comprehension, orthographic knowledge and phonological processing in Punjabi and Hindi influenced levels in English reading comprehension. The overall findings from this thesis were used to derive three multilingual models of Punjabi, Hindi and English and one cross-linguistic model of English reading comprehension. These models suggest that a simple view of reading could be applied to Punjabi and Hindi orthographies in a similar way to English. However, additional influences of orthographic knowledge for all three languages (Punjabi, Hindi and English) in such multi-literate learners will need to be taken into account. Additionally, the influence of first and second language skills will need to be considered when developing models of third language reading comprehension. The proposed four models that includes the additional factors are discussed in light of previous research and theories/models in the field.

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  • Tree position detection for autonomous UAV navigation

    Luo, Peiwen (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This research proposes tree detection and location methods using RGB-D data. The first proposed approach uses a simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) algorithm based on RGB-D image data to build a dense point cloud map. Through reducing the dimension of the point cloud map from 3D to 2D via a slicing method, and the Euler clustering algorithm, the system locates the approximate position of the trees around the camera within a certain range. Finally, when an approximate tree position is within the range of the depth camera, the system uses a merged depth map to detect and adjust the exact location of this tree in real time. The second approach proposes an autonomous navigation algorithm to control an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) using a novel tree detection and navigation process. The navigation system controls the UAV to take off, rotate 360o to scan the surrounding scenes and navigate to the nearest tree by providing instructions from ROS to the PX4 flight controller. Kalman filtering improves the robustness and fault tolerance capability of the navigation by adjusting the relative position of the detected tree with respect to the camera. From our 20 experiments, the proposed method has 100% correct tree detection rate in single tree scenes, 90.9% correct tree detection rate in multiple tree scenes with trees close together and 2.5 times faster calculation speed than prior research which only achieved an accuracy of 66%-89%.

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  • Holo-pursuits: holographic identity & agency in Star Trek: the Next Generation & Voyager

    Parrent, Kim Louise (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    In this thesis, I explore issues relating to holographic identity, agency and the place and position of the hologram in Star Trek. My critique of Star Trek: The Next Generation and Star Trek: Voyager explores the nature of the hologram as a subordinate or subaltern class within the hegemonic environment of Starfleet, earth’s representative for space exploration and colonization. By bringing together issues of resistance and agency and the politics of simulacra identity, I argue that the figure of the hologram represents a struggle for power, agency, and voice. My focus is on the hologram’s journey towards agency and resistance against the hegemonic discourse of Starfleet. I examine how the hologram’s journey highlights the fictional disparities in power relations between the dominant and the marginalized within American science fiction television and demonstrate how this subjugation results in the silencing of the “Other”. I examine these complex issues utilising theories on humanism, posthumanism, postcolonialism, subaltern studies, animal rights, and artificial intelligence in order to demonstrate the relevance of science fiction television, and in particular, the fictional representations of the hologram in the study of the politics of identity. Within these Star Trek narratives, the hologram is often monopolized, dominated and exploited by the humanoid.

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  • Planning for resilient communities: and every other day: learning from the Canterbury 2010-2012 earthquake sequence

    Banwell, Karen (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    After a disaster, cities experience profound social and environmental upheaval. Current research on disasters describes this social disruption along with collective community action to provide support. Pre-existing social capital is recognised as fundamental to this observed support. This research examines the relationship between sense of place for neighbourhood, social connectedness and resilience. Canterbury residents experienced considerable and continued disruption following a large and protracted sequence of earthquakes starting in September 2010. A major aftershock on 22 February 2011 caused significant loss of life, destruction of buildings and infrastructure. Following this earthquake some suburbs of Christchurch showed strong collective action. This research examines the features of the built environment that helped to form this cooperative support. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with 20 key informants followed by 38 participants from four case study suburbs. The objectives were to describe the community response of suburbs, to identify the key features of the built environment and the role of social infrastructure in fostering social connectedness. The last objective was to contribute to future planning for community resilience. The findings from this research indicated that social capital and community competence are significant resources to be called upon after a disaster. Features of the local environment facilitated the formation of neighbourhood connections that enabled participants to cope, manage and to collectively solve problems. These features also strengthened a sense of belonging and attachment to the home territory. Propinquity was important; the bumping and gathering places such as schools, small local shops and parks provided the common ground for meaningful pre-existing local interaction. Well-defined geography, intimate street typology, access to quality natural space and social infrastructure helped to build the local social connections and develop a sense of place. Resourceful individuals and groups were also a factor, and many are drawn to live near the inner city or more natural places. The features are the same well understood attributes that contribute to health and wellbeing. The policy and planning framework needs to consider broader social outcomes, including resilience in new and existing urban developments. The socio-political structures that provide access to secure and stable housing and local education should also be recognised and incorporated into local planning for resilience and the everyday.

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  • An exploratory study of the practice of corporate planning and programme budgeting in the Government of the Kingdom of Tonga: evidence from a central government agency

    Ma’afu, ‘Ana T. (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Purpose – This research explores how corporate planning and programme budgeting are practised by the Government of the Kingdom of Tonga, focussing on their application by a central government agency, the Office of the Public Service Commission (OPSC). It addresses how corporate planning and budgeting are linked in their practice by government agencies in Tonga and why. Design/methodology/approach – A qualitative approach is used to conduct an exploratory study of how OPSC practised corporate planning and programme budgeting during the 2015/2016 financial year1 (FY). An interpretivist methodology is used to analyse both primary and secondary data that were gathered using primarily a method indigenous to Pacific research known as talanoa. Literature review, participant observation, and document analysis were used to supplement data from talanoa. Findings – The practice of corporate planning and budgeting by the Government of Tonga varies from the extensive applications documented in Western literature. Those involved in their practice are concerned with some but not all aspects of the processes depending on their positions and roles. While external consultants continually express frustrations with slow progress, indigenous government officials are somewhat confident that a lot of progress has been made. The research highlights that in the continuation of the use of corporate planning and budgeting, it must respond to prevailing needs of the country. Originality/value – There seems to be a lack of consideration of specific contexts (e.g. existing regulations, systems etc.) in the introduction and development of concepts, ideas and processes foreign to small island countries. An example is the practice of accounting and management practices termed corporate planning and programme budgeting into the Government of Tonga. There has not been any research conducted on this in the context of the Kingdom of Tonga. The research compares Western ideologies with Tongan indigenous views.

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  • The role of the military in industrial disputes : Australia and New Zealand, 1879-1921

    Gibson, Neil Reginald (1994)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This work details a relatively unexplored area of Australia's and New Zealand's military and labour history: Military Aid to the Civil Power (MACP) during industrial disputes from 1879 - 1920. It was a duty which was extremely contentious and likely to result in confrontation and protest from those workers affected by such an operation. MACP is defined by Coulthard-Clark as the 'involvement of the military, at government direction, in difficult domestic situations beyond the capacity of civil authority to deal with by normal means'. While this definition gives MACP a degree of legitimacy, it is rather different for those workers on the receiving end of armed intervention and often had a major impact on the local community.

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  • Novel CO2 capture and conversion into fuels via artificial photosynthesis by artificial inorganic leaves

    Hashemizadeh, Iman (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Researches on sustainable processes for efficient converting of solar energy to fuels have recently received enormous efforts. The main issue facing solar-assisted reactions is insufficient light harvesting by photocatalysts in the visible light regions. The objective of this project was photoreduction of CO2 with water (known as artificial photosynthesis) using visible light. The full architecture of the leaf photosystem was successfully replicated at both the nano and micro levels using biotemplating with TiO2. Recently, bio-inspired materials have emerged as a potential area of research for developing advanced functional systems. Our multi-step chemical replication method resulted in a unique TiO2 architecture with highly porous network. This improved biotemplating method could address the issues in controlling the morphology of final product associated with conventional procedures of synthesis of titania platforms. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy images of the final products confirmed that the detailed microscale framework and nanostructures, such as the chloroplast and the thylakoids were well replicated. In our preliminary tests of photocatalytic activity, the biotemplated artificial TiO2 leaves outperformed well-known P25 TiO2 in photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue dye under visible light. The artificial titania leaf and P25 achieved 13±1.5% and 7±0.9% of methylene blue conversion, respectively, under blue light (440 nm). Under green light irradiation (515 nm), the methylene blue conversion given by the biotemplated photocatalyst (9±1.2%) is also higher than that achieved by P25 (6.3±0.8%). The enhanced visible light activity of the bio-mimicked titania catalyst could be attributed to several key factors given by the 3-dimensional interconnected nanosheets structure (the thylakoid replicas), including enhance reactant-catalyst contact and high efficiency of the light absorption. The novel porous TiO2 architecture was used to catalyse the photoreduction of CO2 with H2O. The artificial TiO2 leaves showed higher selectivity to methane (CH4) in CO2 photoreduction compared to non-porous commercial titania catalysts. The CO2 photoreduction reactions catalysed by artificial TiO2 leaves and P25, after 20 h under UV light (370 nm), produced 3.8±0.6 and 2.7±0.5 μmol/g-cat. of CH4, respectively. The chloroplast-like 3-D TiO2 materials also outperformed the product yields of P25 titania under visible light. The CO (0.5±0.1 μmol/g-cat.) and CH4 (2.2±0.35 μmol/g-cat.) were yielded by the biotemplated titania photocatalyst, after 30 h under green light (515 nm), compared to the CO (2±0.5 μmol/g-cat.) given by P25. We hypothesised that there is a strong correlation between the morphology of the inorganic artificial leaves made of TiO2 and their superior photocatalytic performance. Moreover, the advantages of the surface chemical modification of titania photocatalysts with the ruthenium dioxide were demonstrated. The RuO2/artificial leaf materials possessed a substantially higher efficiency of the CO2 photoreduction compared to the neat artificial TiO2 leaves in the case of visible light. The CO2 photoreduction reactions catalysed by neat and RuO2/artificial TiO2 leaves, after 30 h under green light (515 nm), produced 2.2±0.35 and 3.15±0.35 μmol/g-cat. of CH4, respectively. Finally, two kinetic models for photocatalytic reduction of CO2 with H2O, were validated with the products concentration profiles. The experimental data have obtained a very good fit to the kinetic model developed based on Eley-Rideal mechanism. The understanding of the morphological contribution of the photocatalyst provided in this study, could help to augment the efficiency and selectivity of the CO2 photoreduction.

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