14,528 results for University of Canterbury Library

  • Efficacy of Secondary Level Short Term Study Abroad Programmes between Japan and New Zealand : The Case Study of Darfield High School

    Hayakawa, Sumiyo (2014)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    International education has been a growing trend globally over the past thirty years. Since the late 1980s, the popularity of study abroad programme amongst Japanese students has also seen a significant increase following the international education trend. A more recent trend in international education has been the development of shorter term study abroad programmes and the value of these programmes has been widely recognised in Japan. In response to Japanese government initiatives, Japanese secondary schools have developed short-term programmes in order to develop students’ international awareness. As a result, a large number of Japanese high school students have participated in a short-term study abroad programme in the last 20 years. Japan and New Zealand have a long history of sister school relationships. By 2012, 191 Japanese high schools had established sister school relationships, and these school links have provided the impetus for exchange programmes; which means that many Japanese high school students visit New Zealand schools to study in short-term programmes (for less than 3 months) or longer. Several scholars have investigated the learners’ outcomes of the short-term study abroad of university students. From their studies, it has been established that the main learning objectives of study abroad programmes, are second language acquisition, intercultural competence and personal development. However, little is yet known about the outcomes of younger students who have participated in short-term programmes; only a few attempts have so far been made to analyse the case of Japanese secondary school students’ short-term programmes, and few still refer specifically to programmes in New Zealand. One of my main objectives was to determine a) what were the objectives of Japanese secondary students to participation in a short-term study abroad programme in New Zealand, b) whether they feel satisfied that their objectives have been. Also, as other researchers mentioned, could benefits such as second language acquisition, intercultural competence and personal development be claimed by secondary schools participating in these programmes – specifically the Darfield High School short-term programme that is my case study. In order to do this, I conducted two surveys with four different groups of Japanese secondary school students who visited Darfield High School from 2009 to 2012 as a case study. The findings suggest that many Japanese secondary school students expected to improve their English conversation skills, but they did not feel much improvement in this area after the programme, however, upon reflection, after the programme, students recognised that they had gained far more than they had expected in a general sense. For example, many participants expected to learn about some of the aspects of New Zealand culture as a result of the programme and indeed many students felt that they accomplished this objective, in addition to learning more about their own culture. It is anticipated that the results of my research will assist those who organise study abroad programmes, assist students to maximise their learning, and benefit organisations who host students from overseas.

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  • Enhancing the performance of wastewater microalgae through chemical and physical modifications in High Rate Algal Ponds

    Sutherland, Donna Lee (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    High rate algal ponds (HRAPs) are an advanced pond that provide efficient and cost-effective wastewater treatment, as well as the ability to recover nutrients in the form of microalgal biomass. Microalgal photosynthesis, nutrient uptake and subsequent growth, coupled with aerobic bacteria degradation of organic compounds, are fundamental to the process of wastewater treatment in HRAPs, yet are often limited in these ponds and, in particular, microalgal photosynthesis is well below the reported theoretical maximum. Understanding how the physico-chemical environment affects microalgal performance is therefore critical to improved wastewater treatment and nutrient recovery, yet has been the subject to few studies to date. This research focused on the enhancement of microalgal photo-physiology, growth and nutrient removal efficiency (NRE) through modification to the physical and chemical environment in wastewater HRAPs. In this study, I first examined the seasonal dynamics of microalgal performance in full-scale wastewater HRAPs. While both retention-time corrected chlorophyll biomass and photosynthetic potential increased from winter to summer, the summer-time performance was considered to be constrained, as indicated by the decreased light absorption, light conversion efficiency and NRE. The physico-chemical environment in the full-scale HRAPs were characterised by high day-time pH, high light attenuation and long, straight channels with low turbulence. This led to questions regarding 1) effects of nutrient supply, in particular carbon and 2) the role of the HRAP light climate on microalgal performance. I addressed these questions using a series of experiments that involved either changing the nutrient concentration and its supply or by modifying the light environment, through changes in pond operational parameters including CO2 addition, influent dilution, pond depth, hydraulic retention time (HRT), mixing speed and frequency. The overall results from these experiments showed that carbon was the primary and light the secondary limiting factors of microalgal performance. These limitations negatively affected light absorption, photosynthesis, productivity and NRE. While each operational parameter tested impacted on microalgal performance, to some degree, CO2 addition had the greatest influence on light absorption, photosynthetic efficiency and productivity, while continuous mixing had the greatest effect on NRE. Adding CO2 increased light absorption by 110% and 128%, maximum rate of photosynthesis by 185% and 218% and microalgal biovolume by between 150 – 256% and 260 – 660% (species specific), when cultures were maintained at pH 8 and 6.5, respectively. Providing sufficient mixing to achieve continuous turbulence enhanced NRE by between 300 – 425% (species specific), increased biomass concentrations between 150% and 4000% (species specific) compared to intermittent and no mixing, respectively, and increased harvest-ability of colonial species. However, at present, both CO2 addition and mechanical mixing attract high capital and operational costs. Modification to these technologies would be required to meet the objectives of cost-effective wastewater treatment and biofuel production. A more immediate and cost-effective solution demonstrated in this study was the altering pond depth, influent concentration and HRT. Doubling pond depth from 200 to 400 mm increased both microalgal nutrient removal and photosynthetic efficiencies which led to areal productivity increasing by up to 200%. When increased pond depth was coupled with decreased HRT, light absorption and photosynthetic performance further increased due to decreased internal self-shading and improved pond light climate. For nutrients, high influent loads increased productivity, while moderate loads increased effluent water quality. Overall, this work demonstrated that optimising the chemical and physical environment of wastewater treatment HRAPs (CO2 addition to maintain pH at 6.5 – 7, 400 mm pond depth, continuous mixing with vertical speed of 200 mm s-1, moderate nutrient load (15- 30 g m-3) and moderate HRT (4 / 6 days summer / autumn) can enhance microalgal biomass productivity, nutrient recovery as well as improve effluent water quality, particularly during summer when growth can be constrained.

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  • Puna kōrero: iwi and schools working together to support Māori student success

    Rewai-Couch, Melanie R (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This thesis explores the notion that iwi and schools working together can contribute to culturally responsive curriculum and schooling. It investigates how some schools have formed genuine education partnerships with iwi, and provides answers to the following question: in what ways are iwi and schools working together to support Māori students? An understanding of communities of practice, and what Māori student success looks like, are essential. Imperatives for education partnerships and the educational policy, and drivers for partnership are foundational in understanding and connecting collaboration between iwi and schools with the wider educational picture in Aotearoa New Zealand. In New Zealand, Māori are not as successful as their non-Māori peers. Approaches to achieving education equity, including collaboration with iwi and Māori, is important for informing education approaches and strategy. How those approaches are informed, developed and implemented is equally important in achieving models likely to positively affect Māori achievement in education. This is also important in ensuring that participation expectations of iwi are co-constructed, reasonable and appropriately resourced. The theoretical base of this study draws upon the literature review on collaboration between Māori/iwi and the New Zealand education system, as well as international literature on supporting Indigenous students, using a community of practice approach. The metaphor of ‘puna kōrero’ is used in this research, as an approach allowing for consideration of different sites of investigation using an organic, kaupapa (issue, topic) Māori perspective. The three puna kōrero explored are Te Kauhua: A Ministry of Education funded professional development programme for schools and iwi; iwi voices: six iwi education representatives speak about their experiences working with schools and advancing their iwi education aspirations; Wai Study Help: an English-literacy programme operating in a kura kaupapa Māori (Māori immersion schooling) setting that has partnerships with its local university and iwi. From these puna kōrero, implications for iwi, schools and the Ministry of Education are considered. iii Exploration of the three puna kōrero identified passionate leadership and purposeful membership, funding and resourcing, monitoring and defining success, whakawhanaungatanga (nurturing relationships with others) and involvement of whānau (family) as key themes. Motivations for schools and iwi to work together are explored, along with rationale for the Ministry of Education’s support of iwi-school communities of practice. A framework for iwi-school communities of practice is proposed, including recommendations for iwi, schools and the Ministry of Education.

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  • Treaty over the teacups : an exploration of teacher educators’ understandings and application of the provisions of the Treaty of Waitangi at the University of Canterbury, College of Education.A thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the Degreeof Master of Education in the University of Canterbury

    Stark, Robyn Ann (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Teacher educators at the University of Canterbury, College of Education, like all teacher educators in Aotearoa New Zealand, have ethical, legal, and moral obligations in relation to Te Tiriti o Waitangi/the Treaty of Waitangi. The Treaty is an agreement that was signed in 1840 by representatives of the British Crown and representatives of independent Māori hapū (sub-tribe). The failure of the Crown to uphold the Treaty plus the colonisation of New Zealand has held wide-ranging ramifications for Māori, including a negative impact on Māori education. Policy guidelines both at a national level and locally at the University of Canterbury provide requirements and guidelines for teachers and teacher educators in relation to the Treaty. The aim of many of these guidelines is to address equity issues in education and to support Māori ākonga (students) to achieve success as Māori. This thesis draws upon data from interviews with five teacher educators from the University of Canterbury, College of Education to explore their understandings of the Treaty and how these understandings inform their practice. A qualitative research approach was applied to this study. Semi-structured interviews were used and a grounded theory approach to the data analysis was applied. Three key themes arose from the data and these provided insights into the teacher educator participants’ understandings of the Treaty, how they acquired Treaty knowledge and their curriculum decision making. Bronfenbrenner’s (1979) ecological systems theory approach was used as a framework to situate how the teacher educators’ understandings of the Treaty have developed. Critical theory and concepts associated with critical pedagogy underpin this research. Critical pedagogy highlights the importance for teacher educators in New Zealand to have an understanding of the historical and contemporary complexities of educational issues related to the Treaty.

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  • The Use of the Multi-channel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) Method as an Initial Estimator of Liquefaction Susceptibility in Greymouth, New Zealand

    Gibbens, Clem Alexander Molloy (2014)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Combined analysis of the geomorphic evolution of Greymouth with Multi-channel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) provides new insight into the geotechnical implications of reclamation work. The MASW method utilises the frequency dependent velocity (dispersion) of planar Rayleigh waves created by a seismic source as a way of assessing the stiffness of the subsurface material. The surface wave is inverted to calculate a shear wave velocity (Park et al., 1999). Once corrected, these shear-wave (Vs) velocities can be used to obtain a factor of safety for liquefaction susceptibility based on a design earthquake. The primary study site was the township of Greymouth, on the West Coast of New Zealand’s South Island. Greymouth is built on geologically young (Holocene-age) deposits of beach and river sands and gravels, and estuarine and lagoonal silts (Dowrick et al., 2004). Greymouth is also in a tectonically active region, with the high seismic hazard imposed by the Alpine Fault and other nearby faults, along with the age and type of sediment, mean the probability of liquefaction occurring is high particularly for the low-lying areas around the estuary and coastline. Repeated mapping over 150 years shows that the geomorphology of the Greymouth Township has been heavily modified during that timeframe, with both anthropogenic and natural processes developing the land into its current form. Identification of changes in the landscape was based on historical maps for the area and interpreting them to be either anthropogenic or natural changes, such as reclamation work or removal of material through natural events. This study focuses on the effect that anthropogenic and natural geomorphic processes have on the stiffness of subsurface material and its liquefaction susceptibility for three different design earthquake events. Areas of natural ground and areas of reclaimed land, with differing ages, were investigated through the use of the MASW method, allowing an initial estimation of the relationship between landscape modification and liquefaction susceptibility. The susceptibility to liquefaction of these different materials is important to critical infrastructure, such as the St. John Ambulance Building and Greymouth Aerodrome, which must remain functional following an earthquake. Areas of early reclamation at the Greymouth Aerodrome site have factors of safety less than 1 and will liquefy in most plausible earthquake scenarios, although the majority of the runway has a high factor of safety and should resist liquefaction. The land west of the St. John’s building has slightly to moderately positive factors of safety. Other areas have factors of safety that reflect the different geology and reclamation history.

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  • The effects of an Alpine Fault earthquake on the Taramakau River, South Island New Zealand.

    Sheridan, Mattilda (2014)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    An Alpine Fault Earthquake has the potential to cause significant disruption across the Southern Alps of the South Island New Zealand. In particular, South Island river systems may be chronically disturbed by the addition of large volumes of sediment sourced from coseismic landsliding. The Taramakau River is no exception to this; located north of Otira, in the South Island of New Zealand, it is exposed to natural hazards resulting from an earthquake on the Alpine Fault, the trace of which crosses the river within the study reach. The effects of an Alpine Fault Earthquake (AFE) have been extensively studied, however, little attention has been paid to the effects of such an event on the Taramakau River as addressed herein. Three research methods were utilised to better understand the implications of an Alpine Fault Earthquake on the Taramakau River: (1) hydraulic and landslide data analyses, (2) aerial photograph interpretation and (3) micro-scale modelling. Data provided by the National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research were reworked, establishing relationships between hydraulic parameters for the Taramakau River. Estimates of landslide volume were compared with data from the Poerua landslide dam, a historic New Zealand natural event, to indicate how landslide sediment may be reworked through the Taramakau valley. Aerial photographs were compared with current satellite images of the area, highlighting trends of avulsion and areas at risk of flooding. Micro-scale model experiments indicated how a braided fluvial system may respond to dextral strike-slip and thrust displacement and an increase in sediment load from coseismic landslides. An Alpine Fault Earthquake will generate a maximum credible volume of approximately 3.0 x 108 m3 of landslide material in the Taramakau catchment. Approximately 15% of this volume will be deposited on the Taramakau study area floodplain within nine years of the next Alpine Fault Earthquake. This amounts to 4.4 x 107 m3 of sediment input, causing an average of 0.5 m of aggradation across the river floodplains within the study area. An average aggradation of 0.5 m will likely increase the stream height of a one-in-100 year flood with a flow rate of 3200 m3/s from seven metres to 7.5 m overtopping the road and rail bridges that cross the Taramakau River within the study area – if they have survived the earthquake. Since 1943 the Taramakau River has shifted 500 m away from State Highway 73 near Inchbonnie, moving 430 m closer to the road and rail. Paleo channels recognised across the land surrounding Inchbonnie between the Taramakau River and Lake Brunner may be reoccupied after an earthquake on the Alpine Fault. Micro-scale modelling showed that the dominant response to dextral strike-slip and increased ‘landslide’ sediment addition was up- and downstream aggradation separated by a localised zone of degradation over the fault trace. Following an Alpine Fault Earthquake the Taramakau River will be disturbed by the initial surface rupture along the fault trace, closely followed by coseismic landsliding. Landslide material will migrate down the Taramakau valley and onto the floodplain. Aggradation will raise the elevation of the river bed promoting channel avulsion with consequent flooding and sediment deposition particularly on low lying farmland near Inchbonnie. To manage the damage of these hazards, systematically raising the low lying sections of road and rail may be implemented, strengthening (or pre-planning the replacement of) the bridges is recommended and actively involving the community in critical decision making should minimise the risks of AFE induced fluvial hazards. The response of the Taramakau River relative to an Alpine Fault Earthquake might be worse, or less severe or significantly different in some way, to that assumed herein.

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  • Scalable and adaptable security modelling and analysis.

    Hong, Jin Bum (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Modern networked systems are complex in such a way that assessing the security of them is a difficult task. Security models are widely used to analyse the security of these systems, which are capable of evaluating the complex relationship between network components. Security models can be generated by identifying vulnerabilities, threats (e.g., cyber attacks), network configurations, and reachability of network components. These network components are then combined into a single model to evaluate how an attacker may penetrate through the networked system. Further, countermeasures can be enforced to minimise cyber attacks based on security analysis. However, modern networked systems are becoming large sized and dynamic (e.g., Cloud Computing systems). As a result, existing security models suffer from scalability problem, where it becomes infeasible to use them for modern networked systems that contain hundreds and thousands of hosts and vulnerabilities. Moreover, the dynamic nature of modern networked systems requires a responsive update in the security model to monitor how these changes may affect the security, but there is a lack of capabilities to efficiently manage these changes with existing security models. In addition, existing security models do not provide functionalities to capture and analyse the security of unknown attacks, where the combined effects of both known and unknown attacks can create unforeseen attack scenarios that may not be detected or mitigated. Therefore, the three goals of this thesis are to (i) develop security modelling and analysis methods that can scale to a large number of network components and adapts to changes in the networked system; (ii) develop efficient security assessment methods to formulate countermeasures; and (iii) develop models and metrics to incorporate and assess the security of unknown attacks. A lifecycle of security models is introduced in this thesis to concisely describe performance and functionalities of modern security models. The five phases in the lifecycle of security models are: (1) Preprocessing, (2) Generation, (3) Representation, (4) Evaluation, and (5) Modification. To achieve goal (i), a hierarchical security model is developed to reduce the computational costs of assessing the security while maintaining all security information, where each layer captures different security information. Then, a comparative analysis is presented to show the scalability and adaptability of security models. The complexity analysis showed that the hierarchical security model has better or equivalent complexities in all phases of the lifecycle in comparison to existing security models, while the performance analysis showed that in fact it is much more scalable in practical network scenarios. To achieve goal (ii), security assessment methods based on importance measures are developed. Network centrality measures are used to identify important hosts in the networked systems, and security metrics are used to identify important vulnerabilities in the host. Also, new network centrality measures are developed to improvise the lack of accuracy of existing network centrality measures when the attack scenarios consist of attackers located inside the networked system. Important hosts and vulnerabilities are identified using efficient algorithms with a polynomial time complexity, and the accuracy of these algorithms are shown as nearly equivalent to the naive method through experiments, which has an exponential complexity. To achieve goal (iii), unknown attacks are incorporated into the hierarchical security model and the combined effects of both known and unknown attacks are analysed. Algorithms taking into account all possible attack scenarios associated with unknown attacks are used to identify significant hosts and vulnerabilities. Approximation algorithms based on dynamic programming and greedy algorithms are also developed to improve the performance. Mitigation strategies to minimise the effects of unknown attacks are formulated on the basis of significant hosts and vulnerabilities identified in the analysis. Results show that mitigation strategies formulated on the basis of significant hosts and vulnerabilities can significantly reduce the system risk in comparison to randomly applying mitigations. In summary, the contributions of this thesis are: (1) the development and evaluation of the hierarchical security model to enhance the scalability and adaptability of security modelling and analysis; (2) a comparative analysis of security models taking into account scalability and adaptability; (3) the development of security assessment methods based on importance measures to identify important hosts and vulnerabilities in the networked system and evaluating their efficiencies in terms of accuracies and performances; and (4) the development of security analysis taking into account unknown attacks, which consists of evaluating the combined effects of both known and unknown attacks.

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  • Tall Poppy Syndrome and its effect on work performance

    Dediu, Igorevna (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The aim of this study was to find out whether employees would perform worse if they perceived their work colleagues to have negative attitudes towards tall poppies (colleagues favoured the fall of tall poppies rather than rewarding tall poppies), thus displaying typical tall poppy syndrome perceptions. Performance measures were: decision-making vigilance, decision-making dependence, decision-making avoidance, problem solving, creativity, service quality, and the personality construct need for affiliation. Control variables were age, tenure and need for achievement. The design of the study was cross-sectional, online surveys were used to collect the data. The link to the survey was distributed using LinkedIn groups and Facebook advertising, yielding a sample of 229 participants. The data was analysed using regression; the results confirmed 3 of the 7 hypotheses. The results indicated that employees working in an environment that favoured the fall of tall poppies, showed lower decision-making dependability and higher decision-making avoidance. Internal service quality was partially confirmed, it was negatively associated with participants working in an environment that favoured the fall of tall poppies, rather than reward; Theories about the contribution New Zealand’s history has made to the development of tall poppy syndrome are considered. Practical implications of the results are discussed. Directions for future studies in industrial and organizational psychology on the effects of tall poppy syndrome on work performance are discussed.

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  • The regulation of 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate 7 phosphate synthase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Blackmore, Nicola Jean (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Allosteric regulation of important enzymes is a mechanism frequently employed by organisms to exert control over their metabolism. The shikimate pathway is ultimately responsible for the biosynthesis of the aromatic amino acids in plants, microorganisms and apicomplexans. Two enzymes of the pathway, 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase (DAH7PS) and chorismate mutase (CM) are located at critical positions along the aromatic amino acid biosynthetic pathway and are often tightly feedback regulated in order to control the flux of metabolites through the pathway. This research presents studies on the allosteric function of these two enzymes. These studies emphasise the complexity of the intersecting network of allosteric response, which alters the catalytic activity of each enzyme in response to metabolic demand for the aromatic amino acids.

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  • Climate Variability: changing weather patterns over New Zealand

    Parsons, Simon (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The original intention of this thesis was to investigate Climate Change (CC), in particular the meteorological impacts of CC on New Zealand (NZ). Succinctly, “to understand what NZ’s future weather may entail”. However, as the research progressed it has led to the larger circulation and has highlighted the teleconnections that are present and the importance of the wider circulation and to NZ . It is apparent that the larger scale circulation needs to be considered in conjunction with, if not before, the synoptic scale. Thus, in order to understand NZ’s future weather first we must understand the Southern Hemisphere and the circulation within it. CC is often described in a broad global scale and it is difficult to translate and relate these mechanisms into day to day weather terms, which have the advantage of being commonly understood. Synoptic Climatology (SC) can bridge this gap by simplifying the wide variety of weather into a small grouping of types, and thus can provide an understandable alternative. To undertake this research an existing SC scheme known as the Kidson Types (KTs) was extended with the use of General Circulation Model (GCM) output. The KTs have been widely used in NZ, thus work detailing their future would be advantageous. The GCMs were able to reproduce the observed frequencies of occurrence of the KTs during the late 20th century. Future projections for the late 21st century surprisingly showed little change in annual type frequencies. To investigate this further a sensitivity study was undertaken, which revealed that the methodology was insensitive to annual type frequency change. The range of response from the GCM projections also inhibited determining significant changes in KT frequencies. Additionally, trend analysis using four realisations from one GCM noted both positive and negative trends in some of the types. This also highlights the difficulty in using GCM output, as a larger ensemble can diffuse results and in a small ensemble individual GCMs can unduly bias the results. Further scrutiny of the KT was then undertaken. An investigation of the KTs to ascertain their influence in the wider circulation using the ERA Interim (ERA-I) reanalysis and trends within the KT using a long term reanalysis data set, the Twentieth Century Reanalysis (20CR). Due to the high year to year variability in the KTs, significant trends were only determined in the 20CR with a reduction in the Zonal Regime representing the occurrence of strong westerly flows over NZ. A composite analysis was also undertaken to evaluate the KTs within the Southern Hemisphere (SH). A positive pressure anomaly was detected far from the Kidson domain, which is defined over NZ, during the SW type. This motivated another study on SH Blocking. Blocking is a large scale phenomena that can influence the paths of synoptic systems and thus potentially cause or exacerbate adverse weather events. Blocking is an area of climate research that requires further work, as there is a deficit of GCM studies in the SH. This study utilised a Persistent Positive Anomaly (PPA) methodology which is advantageous as the spatial pattern, latitude and longitude, of the Blocking Events (BEs) is determined. To our knowledge, this is the first study to use GCM output using the PPA methodology in the SH and this is also the first blocking study using Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project (CMIP)5 GCM output in the SH. A reduction of BEs was observed over the South Pacific Ocean (SPO) region during summer and spring, in the GCM projections between 2041-2070 and 2071- 2100. The Southern Annular Mode (SAM) has been suggested as an influence on blocking frequency in previous work and this relationship was studied. A high negative correlation between SAM + and BEs was observed in summer with the reanalysis and GCM historical output. This correlation was reduced in 21st century. However, further work is needed in this study in order to gain an understanding of the mechanisms and linkages between SAM and the BEs.

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  • Investigating the porphyrias through analysis of biochemical pathways.

    Ruegg, Evonne Teresa Nicole (2014)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    ABSTRACT The porphyrias are a diverse group of metabolic disorders arising from diminished activity of enzymes in the heme biosynthetic pathway. They can present with acute neurovisceral symptoms, cutaneous symptoms, or both. The complexity of these disorders is demonstrated by the fact that some acute porphyria patients with the underlying genetic defect(s) are latent and asymptomatic while others present with severe symptoms. This indicates that there is at least one other risk factor required in addition to the genetic defect for symptom manifestation. A systematic review of the heme biosynthetic pathway highlighted the involvement of a number of micronutrient cofactors. An exhaustive review of the medical literature uncovered numerous reports of micronutrient deficiencies in the porphyrias as well as successful case reports of treatments with micronutrients. Many micronutrient deficiencies present with symptoms similar to those in porphyria, in particular vitamin B6. It is hypothesized that a vitamin B6 deficiency and related micronutrient deficiencies may play a major role in the pathogenesis of the acute porphyrias. In order to further investigate the porphyrias, a computational model of the heme biosynthetic pathway was developed based on kinetic parameters derived from a careful analysis of the literature. This model demonstrated aspects of normal heme biosynthesis and illustrated some of the disordered biochemistry of acute intermittent porphyria (AIP). The testing of this model highlighted the modifications necessary to develop a more comprehensive model with the potential to investigated hypotheses of the disordered biochemistry of the porphyrias as well as the discovery of new methods of treatment and symptom control. It is concluded that vitamin B6 deficiency might be the risk factor necessary in conjunction with the genetic defect to trigger porphyria symptoms.

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  • Intertidal foraminifera of the Avon-Heathcote Estuary; response to coseismic deformation and potential to record local historic events

    Vettoretti, Gina Josephine (2014)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The Avon-Heathcote Estuary, located in Christchurch, New Zealand, experienced coseismic deformation as a result of the February 22nd 2011 Christchurch Earthquake. The deformation is reflected as subsidence in the northern area and uplift in the southern area of the Estuary, in addition to sand volcanoes which forced up sediment throughout the floor of the Estuary altering estuary bed height and tidal flow. The first part of the research involved quantifying the change in the modern benthic foraminifera distribution as a result of the coseismic deformation caused by the February 22nd 2011 earthquake. By analysing the taxa present immediately post deformation and then the taxa present 2 years post deformation a comparison of the benthic foraminifera distribution can be made of the pre and post deformation. Both the northern and the southern areas of the Estuary were sampled to establish whether foraminifera faunas migrated landward or seaward as a result of subsidence and uplift experienced in different areas. There was no statistical change in overall species distribution in the two year time period since the coseismic deformation occurred, however, there were some noticeable changes in foraminifera distribution at BSNS-Z3 showing a landward migration of taxa. The changes that were predicted to occur as a result of the deformation of the Estuary are taking longer than expected to show up in the foraminiferal record and a longer time period is needed to establish these changes. The second stage involved establishing the modern distribution of foraminifera at Settlers Reserve in the southern area of the Avon-Heathcote Estuary by detailed sampling along a 160 m transect. Foraminifera are sensitive to environmental parameters, tidal height, grainsize, pH and salinity were recorded to evaluate the effect these parameters have on distribution. Bray-Curtis two-way cluster analysis was primarily used to assess the distribution pattern of foraminifera. The modern foraminifera distribution is comparable to that of the modern day New Zealand brackish-water benthic foraminifera distribution and includes species not yet found in other studies of the Avon-Heathcote Estuary. Differences in sampling techniques and the restricted intertidal marshland area where the transect samples were collected account for some of the differences seen between this model and past foraminifera studies. xiii The final stage involved sampling a 2.20 m core collected from Settlers Reserve and using the modern foraminiferal distribution to establish a foraminiferal history of Settlers Reserve. As foraminifera are sensitive to tidal height they may record past coseismic deformation events and the core was used to ascertain whether record of past coseismic deformation is preserved in Settlers Reserve sediments. Sampling the core for foraminifera, grainsize, trace metals and carbon material helped to build a story of estuary development. Using the modern foraminiferal distribution and the tidal height information collected, a down core model of past tidal heights was established to determine past rates of change. Foraminifera are not well preserved throughout the core, however, a sudden relative rise in sea level is recorded between 0.25 m and 0.85 m. Using trace metal and isotope analysis to develop an age profile, this sea level rise is interpreted to record coseismic subsidence associated with a palaeoseismic event in the early 1900’s. Overall, although the Avon-Heathcote Estuary experienced clear coseismic deformation as a result of the 22nd of February 2011 earthquake, modern changes in foraminiferal distribution cannot yet be tracked, however, past seismic deformation is identified in a core. The modern transect describes the foraminifera distribution which identifies species that have not been identified in the Avon-Heathcote Estuary before. This thesis enhances the current knowledge of the Avon-Heathcote Estuary and is a baseline for future studies.

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  • Education and the boarding school novel : examining the work of José Régio

    Santos, Filipe D. Saavedra (2014)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This thesis is centred on the work of Portuguese writer José Régio (1901-1969). He was a teacher-writer and, arguably, the most philosophical of Portuguese school novel authors. In his novel ‘A Drop of Blood’ (1945), Régio shows interest in the formation of the artist as the special object of education – the ‘marked man’ –, whose sensitivity distances him irremediably from the crowd. He adopted the radical individualism of Nietzsche not in order to be ‘for’ or ‘against’ this or that schooling model but to exemplify the perpetual clash, inherent in mankind, between the individual and the group, the artist and the non-artistic person, the young and the adult, the son and the father and the self and the world. Published Proquest ebook version: http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/canterbury/detail.action?docID=4799556 (UC Staff and Student use only)

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  • A multi-criteria approach to the evaluation of food safety interventions.

    Dunn, Alexander Hiram (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    New Zealand faces a range of food safety hazards. Microbial hazards alone were estimated to cause over 2,000 years of lost healthy life in 2011 (Cressey, 2012) and $62m in medical costs and lost productivity in 2009 (Gadiel & Abelson, 2010). Chemical hazards are thought to be well managed through existing controls (Vannoort & Thomson, 2009) whereas microbial hazards are considered harder to control, primarily due to their ability to reproduce along the food production chain. Microbial hazards are thought to cause the majority of acute foodborne gastroenteritis. This research reviewed food safety literature and official documentation, and conducted 55 interviews, mostly with food safety experts from different stakeholder groups, to examine the food safety decision-making environment in New Zealand. This research explores the concept of the ‘stakeholder’ in the context of food safety decision-making and proposes an inclusive ‘stakeholder’ definition as any group which is able to affect, or be affected by, the decision-making process. Utilising this definition, and guided by interviews, New Zealand stakeholders in food safety decision-making were identified and classified as follows: •Regulators •Public health authorities •Food safety scientists/academics •Consumers •Māori •Food Businesses (further classified as): o Farmers o Processors o Food retailers o Exporters Interviews with stakeholders from these groups highlighted twelve criteria as being relevant to multiple groups during food safety intervention evaluation: •Effectiveness •Financial cost •Market Access •Consumer Perceptions •Ease of Implementation •Quality or Suitability •Quality of Science •Equity of Costs •Equity of Benefits •Workplace Safety •Cultural Impact •Animal Welfare There are a number of different ways to measure or assess performance on these criteria. Some are able to be quantitatively measured, while others may require the use of value judgements. This thesis used the Disability-Adjusted Life Year (DALY) metric for quantifying effectiveness during the testing of different MCDA models. This thesis reviews the MCDA process and the food safety specific MCDA literature. There are different ways of conducting MCDA. In particular, there are a large number of models available for the aggregation phase; the process of converting model inputs, in the form of criteria scores and weights, into model recommendations. This thesis has described and reviewed the main classes of model. The literature review and interview process guided the construction and testing of three classes of MCDA model; the Weighted Sum, Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and PROMETHEE models. These models were selected due to their having different characteristics and degrees of complexity, as well as their popularity in the food safety and Health Technology Assessment (HTA) literature. Models were tested on the problem of selecting the most appropriate intervention to address the historic Campylobacter in poultry problem in New Zealand during the mid-2000s. Experimentation was conducted on these models to explore how different configurations utilise data and produce model outputs. This experimentation included: •Varying the format of input data •Exploring the effects of including/excluding criteria •Methods for sensitivity analysis •Exploring how data inputs and outputs can be elicited and presented using visual tools • Creating and using hybrid MCDA models The results of this testing are a key output of this thesis and provide insight into how such models might be used in food safety decision-making. The conclusions reached throughout this research phase can be classified into one of two broad groups: •Those relating to MCDA as a holistic process/methodology for decision-making •Those relating to the specific models and mathematical procedures for generating numerical inputs and outputs This thesis demonstrates that food-safety decision-making is a true multi-criteria, multi-stakeholder problem. The different stakeholders in food-safety decision-making do not always agree on the value and importance of the attributes used to evaluate competing intervention schemes. MCDA is well suited to cope with such complexity as it provides a structured methodology for the systematic and explicit identification, recording and aggregation of qualitative and quantitative information, gathered from a number of different sources, with the output able to serve as a basis for decision-making. The MCDA models studied in this thesis range from models that are simple and quick to construct and use, to more time consuming models with sophisticated algorithms. The type of model used for MCDA, the way these models are configured and the way inputs are generated or elicited can have a significant impact on the results of an analysis. This thesis has identified a number of key methodological considerations for those looking to employ one of the many available MCDA models. These considerations include: •Whether a model can accommodate the type and format of input data •The desired degree of compensation between criteria (i.e. full, partial or no compensation) •Whether the goal of an analysis is the identification of a ‘best’ option(s), or the facilitation of discussion, and communication of data •The degree of transparency required from a model and whether an easily understood audit trail is desired/required •The desired output of a model (e.g. complete or partial ranking). This thesis has also identified a number of practical considerations when selecting which model to use in food safety decision-making. These include: •The amount of time and energy required of stakeholders in the generation of data inputs (elicitation burden) •The degree of training required for participants •How data inputs are to be elicited and aggregated in different group decision-making environments •The availability of MCDA software for assisting an analysis Considering the above points will assist users in selecting a suitable MCDA model that meets their requirements and constraints. This thesis provides original and practical knowledge to assist groups or individuals looking to employ MCDA in the context of food-safety intervention decision-making. This research could also serve as a guide for those looking to evaluate a different selection of MCDA models.

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  • Morphosyntactic development of typically- and atypically-developing Bangla-speaking children.

    Sultana, Asifa (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Aims: Verb morphology, arguably, is identified as an area of exceptional challenge for the language development of both young typically-developing children, and children with language difficulties (Leonard, 2014a; Rice & Wexler, 2001). The developmental patterns of verb acquisition are found to be strongly governed by the typological properties of the ambient language; often language errors found in fusional languages (e.g. English and German) are significantly different from those found in agglutinative languages (e.g. Turkish and Tamil) (cf. Phillips, 2010). Therefore, the purpose of the study was to explore the developmental trends in the acquisition of verb morphology in Bangla, a language with agglutinative features. The first objective was to examine the morphosyntactic development of typically-developing (TD) Bangla-speaking children with regard to three verb forms, namely the Present Simple, the Present Progressive and the Past Progressive. A second objective was to examine the development of the three verb forms among a group of children with language impairment (LI). Rationale: Since Bangla is spoken by a large population, the acquisition data of Bangla represents a significant number of people, and the findings from the acquisition studies, when considered for intervention purposes, serve a considerably large population. Also, given that the normative data of language acquisition is unavailable for Bangla which leads to the absence of a language-specific assessment and intervention for LI children, the present study is expected to have importance for Bangla-speaking contexts. Method: Before the main study commenced, a pilot study was conducted with 19 Bangla-speaking TD children aged between two and four (years) in order to explore the developmental characteristics of the verb forms and to evaluate the research instruments identified for the actual study. The main study included 70 TD children between 1;11 and 4;3 years who were recruited from six daycare centres of Dhaka, Bangladesh. The children participated in three elicitation tasks, each to elicit one verb form, and a 20-minute play session that yielded a spontaneous language sample from each child. The researcher scored children’s performances on the three tasks, and transcribed the language samples using transcription software (Systematic Analysis of Language Transcripts). The elicitation tasks were used to determine children’s mastery of the forms, whereas the language samples were used to calculate a set of language measures associated with morphological development. The study also included a group of nine children with LI between 3;11 and 9;4 years who participated in the same set of tasks as the TD children. These children were recruited from a special school in Dhaka. Findings: The results revealed that, for both TD and LI children, the Present Simple form was acquired with highest accuracy which was followed by the scores in the Present Progressive and the Past Progressive forms respectively. The error patterns indicated a qualitative progress even in children’s errors, which was consistent with the accuracy rates of the target forms. Based on the TD children’s performance on the three tasks, a developmental sequence for the three Bangla verb forms was proposed. Results also identified that Mean length of Utterance (MLU) did not have stronger associations with the tasks scores than did Age. Among the determinants tested, Bound Morpheme Type (BMT) was identified to have the strongest associations with the task scores. Analyses of the data from the LI children revealed a significant difference between the TD and the LI children on all three tasks and the other language measures. When compared against the proposed developmental stages, the children within the LI group were found to different in terms of their morphosyntactic capacities. A sub-group of LI children also did not conform to any stages of typical development. Conclusions: Results of the present study offer directions for future investigations in a wide range of areas of Bangla morphosyntax that need to be examined with both TD and LI children. Moreover, factors associated with language development that the present study did not examine (e.g. the role of input) also need to be addressed in future studies. Above all, there is a strong need for ongoing investigations in order to identify a comprehensive picture of morphosyntactic development of Bangla-speaking TD children, which can then lead to the assessment of a range of language impairments in Bangla.

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  • A spatial analysis of dengue fever and an analysis of dengue control strategies in Jeddah City, Saudi Arabia

    Alkhaldy, Ibrahim (2014)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Dengue fever poses a constant serious risk and continues to be a major public health threat in Saudi Arabia, particularly in the city of Jeddah where, since 2006, despite formally introduced Control Strategies, there has been a significant increase in the number of cases. International literature suggests that a range of variables can influence the persistence of dengue, including climatic conditions, the quality of the urban environment, socioeconomic status and control strategies. The overall aims of this research are to understand neighbourhood influences on the pattern of dengue fever across Jeddah City and to make a preliminary determination of the enabling factors for, and barriers to, the effective implementation of the Control Strategies for dengue fever in Jeddah City. A mixed methods research design using quantitative and qualitative data was used. Quantitative data were obtained from administrative sources for dengue fever cases and some of the spatial and temporal variables associated with them, but new variables were created for neighbourhood status and the presence of surface water. Qualitative data are drawn from key informant interviews with 15 people who were, or who had been, working on dengue fever Control Strategies. A qualitative descriptive analysis was based on pre- determined and emergent themes. The spatial and temporal analysis of the variables related to dengue fever in Jeddah City neighbourhoods revealed that neighbourhood status has a direct relationship with dengue fever cases, which is mediated through population density and the presence of non- Saudi immigrants. While there was no relationship with the presence of swamps, seasonal variations in the incidence of dengue were most pronounced in neighbourhoods of low socioeconomic status. The qualitative review of dengue Control Strategies indicated five themes: (1) workforce characteristics and capability, (2) knowledge about dengue fever in Saudi Arabia and Jeddah City, (3) operational strategies for dengue fever control in Jeddah City, (4) the progress of implementation, and (5) overall view of the Government strategies in Jeddah City. This analysis found that the Strategies were well regarded but that aspects of implementation were not always effective. Nevertheless, both quantitative and qualitative results showed the persistence dengue fever problems in Jeddah City neighbourhoods and suggested how cases might be controlled. The number of dengue fever cases in Jeddah City neighbourhoods could continue to rise if the direct and indirect variables affecting dengue fever at the neighbourhood level are not well controlled. Careful attention to the further monitoring of patterns of dengue and specific neighbourhood Control Strategies are recommended, and established Control Strategies need to be implemented as designed. Nonetheless, there is still a need to develop new approaches that can examine and address neighbourhood level issues of dengue fever control.

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  • The Influence of Music Congruence and Message Complexity on the Response of Consumers to Advertisements

    Seneviratne, Buddhakoralalage Leelanga Dananjaya (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The overall aim of this study was to examine how the characteristics of two salient stimuli -music and message- of an audio advertisement influence the psychological state of consumers and how such a state subsequently determines their cognitive and affective responses to the advertisement. In achieving this aim, this study was guided by a combination of two cognitive resource utilisation theories, Limited Capacity Model of Motivated Mediated Message Processing (Lang, 2000) and Resource-Matching Hypothesis (Anand & Sternthal, 1989). In particular building upon inconsistency and load theories, this study proposed that certain stimulus characteristics prompted certain states of a consumer’s cognition. These two stimulus characteristics were the congruence of musical stimulus and the complexity of the message stimulus. The model then predicted the potential effect of these characteristics on certain psychological states (Psychological Discomfort and Cognitive Load) leading to affective (Attitude towards Advertisement) and cognitive (encoding, storage, and retention) responses. To empirically examine this model, an online experiment (using a 2 x 2 between-subject x 2 with-in subject mix design) was conducted, in which a mixed sample of 284 subjects was exposed to a set of audio advertisements especially designed for this study. Unfamiliar music in conjunction with a fictitious brand was used and the exposure level was maintained at low. ANCOVA, MANCOVA, two-stage hierarchical regression analysis, and Repeated-measures MANCOVA were administered to test the hypotheses presented in the conceptual model. Among major findings were that the multiple informational structures in a complex message positively influenced cognitive load, while congruent music was capable of attenuating the level of cognitive load. Incongruent music, on the other hand, was capable of generating a dissonance state experienced as psychological discomfort that in turn increased the level of cognitive load as a result of listener’s trying to resolve such a state. Both dissonance and cognitive load negatively influenced attitude towards advertisements, and the affect primacy of attitude formation appeared to be more applicable. Though high cognitive load clearly undermines encoding, storage, and retrieval processes, no evidence was found to support the Resource-matching Hypothesis. Furthermore, the findings suggested that the cognitive load offset by the congruent music would increase advertisement effectiveness by enabling its message to carry more information and by generating more favourable attitudes.

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  • The Function of TAR1 and the Evolution of the Retrograde Response

    Walker, Mark (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    TAR1 is a protein coding gene situated antisense to the 25S rRNA in S. cerevisiae. Tar1p is localized to the mitochondrial inner membrane, and expression is enhanced under conditions of respiratory dysfunction. One common cause of respiratory dysfunction in S. cerevisiae are selfish mitochondrial mutants known as ρ- mitotypes. ρ- mitotypes exhibit drive within the cell following sexual reproduction ; outcompeting host cells and inducing respiratory dysfunction. Respiratory dysfunction activates the Retrograde Response, which involves the expression of genes to compensate for loss of anabolic activity that accompanies respiratory dysfunction. The Retrograde Response also leads to the formation of lifespan shortening Extrachromosomal rDNA circles. Amplification of rDNA circles has the effect of increasing TAR1 at the same time as lifting transcription repression. This observation led to the hypothesis that the formation of rDNA circles was a positive effect of the Retrograde Response, and that TAR1 may serve to ameoleriate the spread of respiratory incompetent mitochondria following sexual reproduction. In this thesis, experiments are conducted that show that TAR1 does suppress the drive of selfish mitochondrial mutants. Additional bioinformatic analyses show that the Retrograde Response may be a recent adaption to selfish mitochondrial mutants.

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  • The use of head mounted displays (HMDs) in high angle climbing : implications for the application of wearable computers to emergency response work.

    Woodham, Alexander, Timothy (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    As wearable computers become more ubiquitous in society and work environments, there are concerns that their use could be negatively impactful in some settings. Previous research indicates that mobile phone and wearable computer use can impair walking and driving performance, but as these technologies are adopted into hazardous work environments it is less clear what the impact will be. The current research investigated the effects that head mounted display use has on high angle climbing, a task representative of the extreme physical demands of some hazardous occupations (such as firefighting or search and rescue work). We explored the effect that introducing a secondary word reading and later recall task has on both climbing performance (holds per meter climbed and distance covered), and word reading and recall (dual-task effects). We found a decrease in both climbing performance and word recall under dual task conditions. Further, we examined participant climbing motion around word presentation and non-word presentation times during the climbing traverse. We found that participants slowed around word presentations, relative to periods without word presentation. Finally, we compared our results to those found in previous research using similar dual-tasking paradigms. These comparisons indicated that physical tasks may be more detrimental to word recall than seated tasks, and that visual stimuli might hinder climbing performance more than audible stimuli. This research has important theoretical implications for the dual-tasking paradigm, as well at important practical implications for emergency response operations and other hazardous working environments.

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  • Enrichment facilitates recovery of spatial memory but not retrosplenial immediate early gene hypoactivation after anterior thalamic lesions

    Mercer, Stephanie Ann (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The anterior thalamus exists within an ‘extended hippocampal memory system’ and has extensive reciprocal connectivity with regions known to support spatial memory function such as the retrosplenial cortex (RSC). Damage to the anterior thalamic nuclei (ATN) in humans as a result of injury or neurodegenerative disease is associated with severe anterograde amnesia that is not therapeutically manageable. Rat models of ATN lesions have provided potential avenues of treatment through environmental enrichment, to ameliorate some of the lesion-induced deficits. Previously, behavioural recovery after enrichment did not accompany recovery of the striking immediate early gene (IEG) hypoactivation in the RSC found after ATN lesions, but the tasks used may not have been sensitive to RSC function. A modified radial arm maze (RAM) task sensitive to RSC lesions was therefore used to determine whether behavioural recovery was associated with improved expression of zif268, an IEG associated with spatial memory. Initially, water maze spatial tasks were used to establish spatial memory deficits prior to enrichment and to assess memory during the period of continuous enrichment and when overnight enrichment was continued thereafter. There was little or no evidence of recovery from substantial impairments in water maze memory tasks in rats with ATN lesions. However, subsequent testing on the RAM revealed clear, albeit partial, recovery of spatial memory in the enriched rats with ATN lesions. Nonetheless, levels of zif268 expression in the superficial layers of the granular RSC remained at the same level of hypoactivity of standard-housed ATN rats; instead, there was some evidence of recovered CA1 zif268 expression. ATN lesions were also associated with reduced cell counts in the mammillary bodies, which were also not recovered in enriched rats. These findings suggest that IEG expression in the RSC may not always be a critical biomarker for spatial memory function in rats.

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