142 results for University of Otago, Conference paper

  • Beyond consultation: Getting good outcomes for everyone in cross-cultural resource consent practice

    Kanawa, Lisa; Stephenson, Janet; O'Brien, Marg (2009)

    Conference paper
    University of Otago

    When the Resource Management Act (RMA) was introduced in 1991 it brought in new requirements for the consideration of Māori knowledge and values. Nearly 20 years on, consultation with Māori has become a normal part of the resource consent process, and many best practice guidelines are available on how to consult. Less attention has been paid to what a good outcome might look like and how this might be achieved. Our research seeks to identify what makes for good resource consent processes where Māori knowledge and values are given appropriate consideration and inclusion in the process and outcomes. We report here on the first four stages of a 3-year research process. Firstly, a review of formal national guidelines on consultation and incorporating Māori values in decision making. Secondly, analysis of Environment Court decisions and how the court deals with Māori witnesses and their knowledge. Thirdly, interviews with Māori and Pākehā (New Zealanders of European descent) involved in resource consent processes in a variety of roles. Finally, we discuss a case study of a “win–win” situation in which both the hapū (kinship group) and the developer of a significant coastal development are happy with the process and outcomes in a situation where significant cultural values were at stake.

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  • Methods for identifying plant materials in Māori and Pacific textiles

    Lowe, Bronwyn J; Smith, Catherine A (2012)

    Conference paper
    University of Otago

    Investigating the range of plant species used in Māori and Pacific textiles can help to understand the diversity and relationships among whatu and raranga techniques and art forms. Although the style and construction of Māori and Pacific textile artefacts often give clues as to the plant species used, positive species identification is not always possible from visual inspection. This may be due to the age and condition of the artefact, or effects of leaf processing such as splitting, softening, stripping or dying. A range of laboratory methods and published resources are however available to help with the identification process. Understanding the internal and surface anatomy of raw leaf material (e.g. Carr and Cruthers 2007; Carr et. al. 2009), the effects of leaf preparation for weaving on leaf anatomy (e.g. King 2003) and the expected condition of specimens sampled from artefacts can aid the interpretation of data collected in the laboratory. The most appropriate method of specimen preparation is another important consideration. This paper provides a review of microscopy and tomography techniques and online resources, which have been trialled and implemented in the Clothing and Textile Sciences Department at the University of Otago for the identification of plant species of interest in New Zealand and the Pacific. The advantages and disadvantages of these techniques and resources for identifying plant materials in artefacts will be discussed.

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  • Re-examining conservation precepts - implications for conservation eductation

    Scott, Marcelle; Smith, Catherine Ann (2011-09-19)

    Conference paper
    University of Otago

    The cross-cultural and interdisciplinary nature of cultural materials conservation has been a prominent feature of the field’s discourse in recent decades. However, in considering the cross-cultural aspects of conservation practice, the authors and others have argued that conservators’ consultation and collaboration with community groups and indigenous people is frequently mediated by others (see for example Smith and Scott 2009, Edmonds and Wild 2000). In practice, much interdisciplinary activity in conservation to date could be critically described as multidisciplinary, characterized by Petrie (1976, 9) as a situation where ‘…everyone [does] his or her thing with little or no necessity for any one participant to be aware of any other participant’s work.’ More recently, conservation as a social act has gained prominence in the literature. In the introduction to the book Conservation: Principles, Dilemmas and Uncomfortable Truths, Richmond and Bracker acknowledge that conservation ‘is a socially constructed activity with numerous public stakeholders and those of us who act in the name of conservation do so ‘on behalf of society’ (2009, xvi–xiv). Global concerns of sustainability, often discussed in terms of environmental, economic and social impacts, are now fundamental to conservation decision-making. In 2000 the Australian Institute for the Conservation of Cultural Material (AICCM) introduced a new clause into the code of ethics to acknowledge the potential for conservation practices to negatively impact the environment, one of the few professional codes internationally to do so, although presumably this will change in the near future. In previous research by the authors (Smith and Scott 2009), members of the AICCM and the New Zealand Conservators of Cultural Materials Pu Manaaki Kahurangi (NZCCM) were surveyed on their views of the respective bodies’ codes. While the majority of respondents did consider the new clause important, a number were not sure that the clause itself had influenced practice. It was suggested that the changes which had occurred were as a result of general shifts in private and social philosophies and actions. While certainly reflecting a widely held opinion of the broader population, the AICCM acknowledgement of environmental impact is one of the few statements that translate personal practice into the professional conservation canon. These examples of the ways in which the field’s precepts and accepted norms are described, contested, advanced and refined demonstrate a change in focus and an expanding role for conservation, beyond the material and the single object focus. Drawing on the ICOM-CC 2011 conference theme this paper seeks to contribute to the burgeoning discussion calling for a broader, more inclusive role for conservation. The authors concur with the view that the future relevance and sustainability of conservation is dependent on a re-evaluation of our professional precepts, ethics, and working practices to more fully embrace and reflect interdisciplinary and cross-cultural ways of working, and that conservators must locate our practice within overarching global issues of poverty, human rights, ethics, climate change and sustainability. As more and more members of the conservation community are actively calling for broader engagement then it behoves educational programmes to incorporate these elements into the curriculum. This paper considers the implications of this changing role for conservation pedagogy.

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  • Advances in conservation of Māori textiles; analysis and identification

    Smith, Catherine Ann; Lowe, Bronwyn J.; Paterson, Rachel A. (2016)

    Conference paper
    University of Otago

    A number of new methods and technologies for investigating Māori textiles have emerged from ten years of research in the Department of Applied Sciences - Clothing and Textile Sciences, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand. Research projects undertaken include development of numerous identification methods for textile plants endemic to New Zealand (bright field microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Micro-Computed tomography (micro-CT), Polarised Light Microscopy (PLM)); exploration and improvement of safe display parameters for naturally-dyed Māori textiles (artificial light-ageing, microfading); and testing the efficacy of consolidants recommended for remedial conservation treatment of black-dyed muka (fibre) from harakeke (New Zealand flax, Phormium tenax). Of note is the collaborative and interdisciplinary nature of the work undertaken (research partnerships with iwi (Māori tribal grouping), customary weaving practitioners, New Zealand museums, conservation laboratories and other University departments), in addition to the adaptation of international standard textile testing methods to better reflect the artefact types of interest (for instance testing of fibre aggregates rather than woven European fabrics). Research outcomes are of relevance to practitioners and artists as well as those caring for Māori taonga, and have added to knowledge about both Māori textiles, and plants and dyes used in Māori textiles production.

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  • Understanding driver behaviour: opportunities for greater efficiency

    Scott, Michelle Grace; Lawson, Rob (2016-09)

    Conference paper
    University of Otago

    Road transport contributes a significant amount towards New Zealand’s carbon emissions, mostly from light vehicles. These carbon emissions could be partly reduced by an increase in more efficient driving practices. It has been shown that reductions of 10-20% of fuel are possible without increasing trip times significantly. We conducted this study to understand whether people knew how to drive efficiently, whether they actually ever drove in an efficient manner and what ways there could be to influence people to drive more efficiently. Focus groups were conducted across New Zealand in urban and rural areas with groups of students, young professionals, parents and older people in order to cover different lifestyles and environments. These focus groups covered a wide range of topics including knowledge and practices of efficient driving, learning to drive, infrastructure and aspirations. Our results show that most people reported knowing the things they could do to be more fuel efficient. However, despite this knowledge, they very rarely engaged in these practices. When they did consider fuel efficiency, it was almost always linked to saving fuel costs. Almost no one considered the environmental aspects of driving or fuel use. This shows that there is a clear lack of connection between carbon emissions and driving when people are in their cars. Better messages could be presented to drivers linking their driving practices to carbon emissions and therefore climate change. The findings also showed other areas where more efficient practices and choices could be encouraged, such as advanced driving lessons for new skills, in-car fuel efficiency feedback and better designed public and active transport.

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  • Energy Cultures: A framework for interdisciplinary research

    Stephenson, Janet; Lawson, Rob; Carrington, Gerry; Barton, Barry; Thorsnes, Paul (2010)

    Conference paper
    University of Otago

    The Energy Cultures framework aims to assist in understanding the factors that influence energy consumption behaviour, and to help identify opportunities for behaviour change. Building on a history of attempts to offer multi-disciplinary integrating models of energy behaviour, we take a culture-based approach to behaviour, while drawing also from cultural theories, actor-network theory, socio-technical systems, and lifestyles literature. The framework provides a structure for addressing the problem of multiple interpretations of ‘behaviour’ by suggesting that it is influenced by the interactions between cognitive norms, energy practices and material culture. By conceptualising the research arena, the framework creates a common point of reference for the multi-disciplinary research team. The Energy Cultures framework has proven to be unexpectedly fruitful. It has assisted in the design of the 3-year research programme, which includes a number of different qualitative and quantitative methodologies. In application to a given example, it helps to position the complex drivers of behaviour change. Although the framework has not yet been fully tested as to its ability to help integrate findings from our various research methods, we believe the Energy Cultures framework has promise in furthering interdisciplinary studies of energy behaviours in a wide variety of situations, being relevant to different contexts and different scales.

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  • Metrics for eCommerce website

    Ghandour, Ahmad; Benwell, George L; Deans, Kenneth R (2010-08)

    Conference paper
    University of Otago

    There has been little empirical investigation of relationship between website usage (Web Metrics) and website content. The overall aim of the study reported in this article was to build on empirical evidence about a relationship, by achieving new insights from New Zealand business culture. The key purpose of the present paper is to learn whether metrics measures are related to website features. An online survey was used to gather data from businesses that have eCommerce website. The results from this study indicate that such relation exist with each metric is related to specific functions. For example, website stickiness is a measure of time spent by customers on the website, the findings pointed out that as a result of advertising promotions, visitors stay longer whenever there are new promotions. These indications prompt the seller to carefully monitor their website traffic for a possible downturn and remedy the situation prior to its occurrence.

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  • The relationship between website metrics and the financial performance of online businesses

    Ghandour, Ahmad; Benwell, George L; Deans, Kenneth R (2010)

    Conference paper
    University of Otago

    Online businesses are often engaged in web metrics to gauge the performance of their eCommerce website. This study examines the relationships between web metrics and the financial performance. The key purpose of the present paper is to learn whether metrics measures have an impact on profitability in eCommerce website. An online survey was used to gather data from companies that have eCommerce website. The results from this study indicate that companies with perceived successful financial performance have also enjoyed perceived success in the customer behaviour on their website. Furthermore, the study explores the role of five contingency variables,the markets it operates in, the effort of the company to make the website visible, the involvement of the owners, the percentage of the online business and the age of the website, on this relationship. The results indicate that these variables moderate the relationship between metrics measures and the performance of the website so that a positive association occurs under older website, higher percentage of online, and higher level of owner’s involvement with the website. The findings prompt the owners to carefully monitor their website traffic for a possible downturn and remedy the situation prior to its occurrence.

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  • Measuring the Performance of eCommerce Websites

    Ghandour, Ahmad; Benwell, George L; Deans, Kenneth R (2010)

    Conference paper
    University of Otago

    Measurements that capture website performance have long enabled businesses to improve strategies and operations. For an eCommerce website, there exists a limited understanding on how performance is measured. Measuring the performance of a website has been proposed in many ways and various contexts over the past decade. The study presented in this article used the owner perspective to theoretically develop and empirically test measurement model of website performance. The results suggest that performance is a second order factor model. The first order factors of the model are termed usage, financial returns and owner satisfaction. The resulting measurements are framed as a tool for benchmarking the performance of the website as well as a foundation for operationalising the website performance construct.

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  • Measuring eCommerce website success

    Ghandour, Ahmad; Benwell, George L; Deans, Kenneth R; Pillai, Paul (2008)

    Conference paper
    University of Otago

    This paper presents a research model, which is built on communication theory (Shannon and Weaver 1948) and DeLone and McLean’s (1992, 2003) information system model, to identify eCommerce website success dimensions. The research model is aiming to make a contribution to literature by identifying and incorporating dimensions of success relevant to eCommerce websites. Further empirical research is required to validate the finding.

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  • Noise in the shearing industry

    McBride, David; Cowan, Elaine; Utumapu, Margaret; Walaart, John (2010-06)

    Conference paper
    University of Otago

    The aim of this study was to assess the risk of noise induced hearing loss (NIHL) in shearing and investigate practicable control methods. Woolshed surveys included shed construction data, noise dosimetry and area noise sampling. The noise exposures from 40 personal measurements were all above the 85 dB(A) action level, lying in the range 86-90 dB(A). Shearers had the highest exposure, “near field” noise coming from the action of the cutting edge in the shearing comb, but also from downtubes and gears. Noise for sorters and pressers was contributed to by the stereo system (found in all shearing sheds). Lined sheds seemed to have slightly higher noise levels than unlined sheds. None of the shearing crews had hearing protection available. Redesign of the shearing equipment primarily the handpiece but also the downtubes and gears could potentially reduce the exposure by 2-3 dB(A) and possibly more. In the meantime shearing crews need to wear hearing protection and be subject to audiometric surveillance.

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  • Wind turbine noise and health-related quality of life of nearby residents: a cross sectional study in New Zealand

    Shepherd, Daniel; McBride, David; Welch, David; Dirks, Kim; Hill, Erin (2011)

    Conference paper
    University of Otago

    Hearing allows humans to detect threats in the environment and to communicate with others. However, unwanted sound has the capacity to evoke reflexive and emotional responses, and can act a stressor. The World Health Organisation classifies noise as an environmental pollutant that degrades sleep, quality of life and general health. Previous research provides evidence of a relationship between wind turbine noise and both annoyance and sleep disturbance. However, wind turbines are a relatively new source of community noise, and as such their effects on health have yet to be fully described. We report a study exploring the effect of wind turbine noise on health and well-being in a sample of New Zealand residents living within two kilometres of a wind turbine installation. Our data provide evidence that wind turbine noise can degrade aspects of health-related quality of life and amenity. On this evidence, wind turbine installations should be sited with care and consideration with respect to the communities hosting them.

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  • Towards a 'pattern language' for spatial simulation models

    O'Sullivan, David; Perry, George L.W. (2013)

    Conference paper
    University of Otago

    Peer Reviewed

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  • Commuting in Wellington: a geographic econometric analysis of commute mode, residential location and car ownership

    de Róiste, Mairéad; Daglish, Toby; Sağlam, Yiğit; Law, RIchard (2013)

    Conference paper
    University of Otago

    Peer Reviewed

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  • Geographical Vector Agent Modelling for Image Classification: Initial Development

    Borna, Kambiz; Sirguey, Pascal; Moore, Antoni (2013)

    Conference paper
    University of Otago

    Peer Reviewed

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  • Our waste our way: a spatial study of household waste management in Betio, Tarawa, Kiribati

    Teburea, Kotee Bauro; Moore, Antoni; Leonard, Greg (2013)

    Conference paper
    University of Otago

    Peer Reviewed

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  • Recent Ice Wastage on the Tasman Glacier Obtained from Geodetic Elevation Changes

    Vivero, Sebastian; Sirguey, Pascal; Fitzsimons, Sean J.; Strong, Delia; Soruco, Alvaro (2013)

    Conference paper
    University of Otago

    Peer Reviewed

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  • How do different science disciplines represent and compute over ‘space’?

    Gahegan, Mark (2013)

    Conference paper
    University of Otago

    Peer Reviewed

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  • Hotspots of Hector’s Dolphins On the South Coast

    Rodda, Judy; Moore, Antoni (2013)

    Conference paper
    University of Otago

    Peer Reviewed

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  • Extending Point-pattern analysis to polygons using vector representations

    Whigham, Peter A. (2013)

    Conference paper
    University of Otago

    Peer Reviewed

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