418 results for University of Otago, Journal article

  • The ethics of predictive risk modelling in the Aotearoa/New Zealand child welfare context: child abuse prevention or neo-liberal tool?

    Keddell, Emily (2014-07-28)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    The current White Paper on Vulnerable Children before the Aotearoa/New Zealand (A/NZ) parliament proposes changes that will significantly reconstruct the child welfare systems in this country, including the use of a predictive risk model (PRM). This article explores the ethics of this strategy in a child welfare context. Tensions exist, including significant ethical problems such as the use of information without consent, breaches of privacy and stigmatisation, without clear evidence of the benefits outweighing these costs. Broader implicit assumptions about the causes of child abuse and risk and their intersections with the wider discursive, political and systems design contexts are also discussed. Drawing on Houston et. al. (2010) this paper highlights the potential for a PRM to contribute to a neo-liberal agenda that individualises social problems, reifies risk and abuse, and narrowly prescribes service provision. However, with reference to child welfare and child protection orientations, the paper suggests ways the model could be used in a more ethical manner.

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  • The Forgotten 60%: bird ecology and management in New Zealand's agricultural landscape.

    Macleod, Catriona; Blackwell, Grant; Moller, Henrik; Innes, John; Powlesland, Ralph (2008)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    Production lands make up 58% of Aotearoa New Zealand’s landcover and contribute greatly not only to the national economy but also to patterns and trends in native and introduced avian biodiversity. However, unlike in native forest and other indigenous habitats, birds in agro-ecosystems have received little attention to date. We argue that this is due to (1) a research focus on understanding the causes of the dramatic decline of New Zealand’s critically endangered, endemic species, (2) an adherence to a ‘preservation for intrinsic value’ over a ‘conservation through sustainable use’ paradigm for environmental management, and (3) a historical view of production landscapes as being devoid of endemic and native species and thus of no conservation value. In countering these attitudes, we suggest that the agricultural matrix may contain more native species than many people believe, and that many introduced bird species are key contributors to the social and environmental performance and resilience of these systems. We draw attention to the context, composition, ecology, and status of native and introduced birds in production landscapes in New Zealand, particularly in the face of ongoing agricultural intensification. We first identify the potential roles of local habitat, landscape composition, and introduced predators in shaping farmland bird communities. We then highlight the potential threats and opportunities for birds posed by ongoing intensification, particularly the influences of habitat modification and simplification, increased ecological subsidies through farm inputs, increased stocking rates and yields, and altered predator–prey interactions. We suggest the landscape is the appropriate spatial scale for research and management, and call for an integrated approach to the investigation of farmland birds that combines ecology, sociology, and agro-ecosystems management, and includes farmers, researchers, regulators, and the wider New Zealand public.

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  • Stoat density, diet and survival compared between alpine grassland and beech forest habitats

    Smith, Des; Wilson, Deborah; Moller, Henrik; Murphy, Elaine; Pickerell, Georgina (2008)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    In New Zealand, alpine grasslands occur above the treeline of beech forest. Historically stoat control paradigms in New Zealand’s montane natural areas have assumed alpine grassland is a marginal habitat that limits dispersal between beech forest stoat populations. We compared the summer-to-autumn (January–April) density, weight, diet and winter survival of stoats between these two habitatsduring years of low beech seedfall. Stoats were live-trapped, marked and released in alpine grassland and low-altitude beech forest in the Borland Valley, Fiordland National Park, during 2003 and 2004, and were caught and euthanased for necropsy in 2005. Stoat density was estimated using spatially explicit capture–recapture (SECR). The proportion of stoats marked in one year but recaptured in the next was used as a measure of ‘observed survival’. Prey remains were identified from scats collected during 2003 and 2004 and stomachs from stoats killed in 2005. Stoat density was similar in both habitats over the two years, about one stoat per square kilometre. Observed survival from 2003–2004 was also similar, but survival from 2004–2005 was higher in alpine grassland than in beech forest. In 2003, male stoats were on average heavier in alpine grassland than in beech forest, although average weights were similar in the other years. Diet differed significantly between the two habitats, with stoats in alpine grasslands eating mainly ground weta (a large invertebrate) (72%) and hares (23%), while stoats in beech forest ate mainly birds (31%) and mice (19%). Collectively these results suggest that alpine grasslands are not a poor quality habitat for stoats. Traditionally it has been thought that stoats cannot survive on invertebrate prey alone. This research demonstrates that stoats relying largely on invertebrate prey can occur at similar densities and with equivalent survival to stoats relying on vertebrate prey.

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  • Contrasting approaches to fuel poverty in New Zealand

    Lawson, Rob; Williams, John; Wooliscroft, Ben (2015-02-18)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    We contrast two measures of fuel poverty in New Zealand. The first is based on estimated expenditure of over 10% of household income on fuel. The second is self-reported deprivation of fuel because of an inability to afford it. Households denoted as fuel poor on the two measures are mostly different and the findings suggest that research is needed to investigate if different households make different trade-offs between expenditure on fuel and other necessities.

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  • Understanding the energy consumption choices and coping mechanisms of fuel poor households in New Zealand

    McKague, Fatima; Lawson, Rob; Scott, Michelle; Wooliscroft, Ben (2016)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    One in four households in New Zealand are fuel poor. A growing body of evidence links the technical and economic aspects of this phenomenon, however comparatively little research has focused on the wider social impacts. The behavioural and social interactions associated with fuel poverty have not taken centre stage in the literature. This study presents, through fuel poor households’ voices, the realities of living in energy hardship, and the impact on day to day lives. Our research finds that fuel poverty impacts widely on the quality of life of participants, and highlights the barriers and support systems in place that may hinder or help their circumstances. This in depth, multi-faceted portrayal of fuel poverty will aid in policy development and contribute to efforts to curtail fuel poverty in New Zealand.

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  • Reconceptualising the Role of the New Zealand Environment Court

    Warnock, Ceri (2014)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    What does the specialised nature of an environment court entitle it to do? The recent decision of the New Zealand Supreme Court in Environmental Defence Society Incorporated v Marlborough District Council (‘the King Salmon case’)[2014] NZSC 38 helps to answer this question. For the last twenty years, the New Zealand Environment Court has decided applications within a framework of the broadly defined statutory purpose of sustainable resource management. The King Salmon case narrows this wide discretion. This article analyses the implications of the decision, suggesting that it helps to delineate between functions of specialist environment courts that may be considered appropriate (adjudicative and legislative fact finding) and decision-making that strays too far into the policy-sphere.

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  • Bathymetric evolution of Tasman Glacier terminal lake, New Zealand, as determined by remote surveying techniques

    Purdie, Heather; Bealing, Paul; Tidey, Emily; Gomez, Christopher; Harrison, Justin (2016-12)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    Peer Reviewed

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  • Theoretical Underpinnings of Kaupapa Maori Directed Practice

    Eketone, Anaru (2008)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    This article attempts to unbundle and identify the theoretical underpinnings of Kaupapa Māori practice. It suggests that Kaupapa Māori as a concept, has been underpinned by two differing, sometimes competing theoretical perspectives. One is Critical Theory, which comes from the Marxist/socialist grand theoretical tradition seeking to challenge and transform oppressive structures. The second is constructivism, where knowledge is validated through a social construction of the world, thus is located and specific. This article contends that a Critical Theory informed approach is not the understanding held by many in the Māori community of what Kaupapa Māori practice is, instead, this article advocates for a constructivist ‘Native Theory’ approach as being one that fits better both with the community view as well as a theoretical explanation that is more conducive to Māori development. While these two theoretical explanations may seem to be in conflict with one another, a preliminary model is presented that integrates these approaches

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  • Talking About 'My Place'/My Place: Feminism, Criticism and the Other's Autobiography

    Cooper, Annabel (1995)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    A few years ago I edited an autobiography written in 1936 by a working- class New Zealand woman, Mary Lee's The Not So Poor. Setting out on a project of "restoring a voice," allowing the as yet unpublished speech of a member of a largely silenced group to be heard, I nevertheless found that my research and commentary, with its access to research tools and specialised knowledges, undermined the authority of that voice even as it attempted to assert it, delivering not a formerly silenced truth but a problematic and strategic text which negotiated uneasily with more powerful texts of its historical moment. To borrow the formulation Gayatri Spivak uses, "representation" in the politico-legal sense of "speaking for" could rapidly slide into something more like "substitution" (Spivak 275-6). In what follows, therefore, I contest parts of the critical pieces I discuss, but write from a position of complicity rather than out of a claim to purity. Indeed, it is central to the argument of this article that in these matters there is no position of purity, no clean place.

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  • Where Should the Focus be in the Aftermath of Parental Separation: Children's Rights and Interests, or Parental Responsibility/Rights?

    Tapp, Pauline; Taylor, Nicola (2001)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    A study evaluates legal framework governing guardianship, custody and access arrangements for children in United Kingdom and Australia, together with the most recent research on the impact of parental separation on children. In England and Australia, legislation is used to educate parents to accept the importance for the child's well-being of settling custody and access disputes and continuing to co-operate as parents after separation.

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  • "I A Isabel, You Know?": Antipodean Framing of Jane Campion's 'Portrait of a Lady'

    Cooper, Annabel (2008)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    If, as Jacqueline Rose argues, the unconscious dreams of nations have purpose and effect in the world, how can we approach an understanding of ourselves as national subjects–as creatures of these dreams? We trail behind us the traces of nationhood in what we make and do and choose and say, performing the productive historical fictions of origin and attachment to place and nation and shared past. These traces are not straightforward nor necessarily deliberate, nor even especially obedient to geography. How otherwise could Isabel Archer’s story, a ‘Northern’ woman’s story–an appropriate story, certainly, for the genres of heritage cinema and the woman’s film–start to look a bit Antipodean? Jane Campion’s first film not to be set in the Antipodes was her adaptation of Henry James’s The Portrait of a Lady (1996). This might on first glance look as though, with the success of The Piano (1993) behind her, established as an auteur, and at last backed by a very substantial budget, Campion was leaving behind her local affiliations and heading into the more prestigious territory of international cinema. The contention of this article is that despite its New York heroine and its English and Italian settings, the film has a distinct Antipodean framing and inflection which turns Campion’s adaptation of James’s story into appropriation. To trace this inflection is to detect a repositioning of the configuration of ‘woman’ and ‘nation’ between novel and film.

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  • Same-sex Desire and the Asylum: A Colonial Experience

    Brickell, Chris (2005)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    Peer Reviewed

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  • A Letter from New Zealand: Home Detention—emerging issues after the first three years

    Gibbs, Anita (2004)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    Home detention in New Zealand began on 1st October 1999, having developed from a political climate of punitiveness towards offenders and a desire to introduce tougher parole or post-imprisonment supervision regimes (Gibbs and King, 2002). Home detention had been unsuccessfully piloted in New Zealand in the mid-1990s (Church and Dunstan, 1997), but this made little difference to the National government of the day as it introduced a full-blown scheme through an amendment to the Criminal Justice Act 1985. The current scheme is promoted as a means of reintegration into the community for people who have been in prison, or as a diversion from imprisonment for people given prison sentences of up to two years. This piece will explore the operation and impact of home detention in its first three years (1999 to 2002), and consider some of its successes and limitations, in the light of its aims to reintegrate and divert.

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  • Whose "Special Treatment"? Heterosexism and the Problems with Liberalism

    Brickell, Chris (2001)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    This article examines the circulation of heterosexist positions within several recent New Zealand media texts. It argues that a recent form of discourse engages liberal language and assumptions in ways that support the privileged position of heterosexuality and the marginalization of homosexuality. The examples given highlight not only the tenor of some recent representations of homosexuality, but also some problems within liberalism. Most notable of these are liberalism's individualism and its failure to recognize the systemic nature of hierarchical power relationships and the constituting of lesbian and gay subjectivities within these relationships. These problems allow liberalism to play an active part in processes of domination and subordination.

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  • Maori concepts for social and community work

    Eketone, Anaru (2013)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    For those working in Māori communities or organisations, it is important to understand some of the inherent Māori cultural concepts that are important to those contexts. Many groups and projects have struggled to involve Māori people and communities, often because of a lack of understanding of important Māori values and processes. As a Māori person born and raised in Otago but belonging to the Ngāti Maniapoto and Waikato Iwi of the North Island, I know what it is like to learn the hard way about Māori processes. When I was growing up, issues around tapu and noa were translated as cleanliness, or showing respect; mana was not necessarily talked about, but was interpreted as politeness, respect and good manners. I seemed to know a lot of the right things to do, but not why, even though there were times where I felt paralysed in my ignorance. At the age of 21 I moved back to my tribal area for 12 years to work as a youth worker and learnt a lot from the families and the communities I was associated with, as well as from my hapū and relatives. That gave me confidence, so that when I moved back to Otago, I was in a position to learn even more from the communities and people in that region. I came to realise that Māori social and community work is multi-layered and complex. Māori communities are not homogenous and sometimes have competing factions, histories and approaches. There may be differing perspectives between mana whenua and mātaawaka, rural communities and urban ones, traditional and modern, those who speak te reo and those who do not, those who have succeeded in education and those that have not and those whose primary identification is tribal (Iwi), ethnic (Māori), half-caste, or national (Kiwi). One extended family can reflect all these differences and variations, despite this, there are values that are arguably integral to most social and community work involving Māori. Therefore, I will highlight some important Māori concepts and constructs that affect how Māori may view or be involved in community development or community organisations. The following concepts are not necessarily used in social and community work per se, but are concepts that need to be understood for good community work to take place. I will use some of my personal experiences to explain some of the underpinnings of why, in Māori social and community work, we do what we do. The definitions and explanations are, by necessity, brief and may not necessarily give justice to what can be very deep concepts. Some concepts may differ between Iwi as they are multi-layered, so that the more you investigate them, the deeper they go. Therefore, the end of this article will provide further reading for those seeking a greater understanding. It should be noted that while very basic at times, (and I apologise for this), the purpose of this article is to be explicit about the meanings of different values and concepts that I wish had been spelt out more clearly for me as a young youth worker and community worker.

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  • Male relationship building that makes women roll their eyes: Implications for social work

    Eketone, Anaru (2008)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    Since 1994 I have worked in three sectors dominated by women: health promotion, social work and social work education. One of the tasks when working in these female-dominated fields is that to maintain any sort of credibility you need to act and talk in ways that do not offend women. One of the personal challenges I have faced is to work in these areas and still find ways of meeting the need I have to still be a ‘bloke’. Even within my own household I am the only male (that includes the dog), so privately you hold on to your masculinity, i.e. the socially defined roles, through being a husband and father. But I have also found the need to express myself physically – very occasionally through physical work, but more often through sport, mau rakau and even watching physical sport. (For Valentine’s Day I bought my wife a season ticket to watch rugby at Carisbrook; she returned the favour by giving me a season ticket to our local symphony orchestra.) There is not a great deal written about social work and Maori masculinity. This article seeks to discuss issues around some of the differences in the ways that many males choose to interact with each other and the implications this type of masculinity has for social work practice. Four examples will be described of a particular version of masculine ways of relating, which will be followed by a discussion.

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  • Parenting Adopted Children and Supporting Adoptive Parents: Messages from Research

    Gibbs, Anita (2010)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    This article considers adoption from the perspective of parents, especially the strategies that they employ to enhance attachments and build positive parent-child relationships. The article draws particularly on recent New Zealand research regarding intercountry adoptive parenting, as well as overseas literature on good adoptive parenting practice generally in domestic and intercountry adoption. It also considers the research on methods of supporting parents who adopt and whether there are gaps in legislation, policy or practice in New Zealand that could be closed by borrowing from good examples in the literature, and, or current practice examples. The author is an adoptive parent of Russian-born children and is actively involved in adoptive parent support networks.

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  • Participation in decision-making: The experience of New Zealand children in care

    Atwool, Nicola (2006)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    One of the objections to a children's rights perspective is that children are unable to accept the responsibilities that go with rights. If children are to attain the status of citizens and exercise the responsibilities of citizenship, participation during childhood is essential. Yet children are frequently excluded when important decisions have to be made. This paper examines children's participation in decision-making from the perspective of New Zealand children in care. The paper discusses the importance of children's participation in decision-making, outlines the current situation in New Zealand, and identifies both the blocks to children's participation and the resulting consequences. Particular attention is paid to the implications of this perspective for New Zealand's indigenous population. The paper presents arguments in favour of increasing children's participation and suggests changes necessary to achieve this.

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  • Te Waka Tangata: Using Waka as a Model for the Structures of Maori Organisation

    Eketone, Anaru (2002)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    Peer Reviewed

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  • Life Story Work: Optional extra or fundamental entitlement?

    Atwool, Nicola (2016)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    In Aotearoa New Zealand the importance of life story books is outlined in the policy of our statutory care and protection agency Child, Youth and Family. Many children in care do not have access to such a resource, however, suggesting that social workers view this as an optional extra or “nice to have” rather than integral to good practice. This article begins with an outline of practice in Aotearoa New Zealand. The function and purpose of life story work and theoretical underpinnings are explored in order to address the question posed in the article's title. I argue that life story work is a fundamental entitlement which is often overlooked in practice. The article concludes with a discussion of dilemmas and challenges before identifying changes needed in the New Zealand context.

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