855 results for University of Waikato, Doctoral

  • Real Options Analysis of Carbon Forestry Under the New Zealand Emissions Trading Scheme

    Tee, James Seng Khien (2011)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    In 2008, the New Zealand government passed climate change legislation called the New Zealand Emissions Trading Scheme (NZETS), designed to create a carbon price in the economy. Under the NZETS, new forests planted on and after 1st January 1990 (known as post-1989 forests) are eligible to earn carbon credits and sell them domestically and internationally, with a condition that the credits will have to be repaid back upon harvest of the forests. The amount of credits that have to be surrendered is proportionate to the extent that carbon stocks decrease in the forest land. This research explores the effects of the NZETS on new post-1989 forests. The NPV/LEV and the Real Options valuation methods are respectively employed to analyze fixed harvest and flexible harvest forest management decisions. This approach is applied to study the cases of timber-only forestry (i.e. no NZETS) and carbon forestry (i.e. with NZETS). The major advance of this research is the development of a double Random Variable Real Options methodology that incorporates both stochastic timber and stochastic carbon prices into the calculation of the bareland forestry investment opportunity under the NZETS. Through the work of this thesis, it is shown that the NZETS increases the valuation of bareland on which radiata pine is to be planted with a single rotation or a perpetual series of rotations, especially for the case of flexible harvest forest management. The NZETS will very likely lengthen the rotation age of forests and increase forest carbon sequestration, which contributes positively towards climate change mitigation in New Zealand. The Real Options valuation method can generate optimal harvest price thresholds that help forest owners to decide when to harvest. This thesis concludes with a scenario analysis of potential implications of lengthening the forest rotation age on carbon stock management in New Zealand.

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  • A Literary and Cultural History of Military Science Fiction and the United States of America, 1870s-2010s

    Nicholson, Blair (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    This thesis is both a literary history of the military science fiction (military SF) subgenre and a cultural history of the United States of America during the twentieth and early-twenty-first centuries. This thesis academically rehabilitates a neglected literary subgenre, and utilises it to prove the efficacy of using literary texts, specifically science fiction (SF) texts, in the study of cultural history. It expands both the sources and methods of interpretation open to cultural historians. Employing the military SF subgenre as its archive, it examines the military SF narratives’ engagement – through extrapolation, metaphor and allegory, as well as didacticism – with their historical-cultural contexts and those contexts’ popular rhetorics, adopting methodologies from cultural history, the history of ideas, and the literary New Historicism. In addition to looking at period-specific themes – ranging from the emergence of the military-industrial complex and consensus anticommunism during the 1950s, through soldier alienation and the ‘cult of the mercenary’ during the Vietnam and post-Vietnam era of the 1970s and 1980s, to the renewed American Exceptionalism and military-civilian divide of the 2000s – this thesis focuses on American attitudes towards militarism and militarisation. The concept of militarism also provides a foundational division in the subgenre, between the two ‘streams’ of militaristic military SF and antimilitaristic military SF. This thesis, however, shows that the subgenre has primarily been sympathetic to militaristic and right-wing rhetorics, support for which has become increasingly strident in modern military SF.

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  • Portfolio of Compositions: Systematic composition of cross-genre hybrid music

    Mayall, Jeremy Mark (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    The research focus of this PhD thesis is the development of a new technique for composing original musical compositions in which elements from different musical genres are hybridised. The innovative aspect of achieving balanced hybridity is the development of a systematic approach to selecting and synthesising or hybridising key musical elements across a range of different genres. The major component of this submission is a portfolio of nine original works with attached CD/DVD recordings. 1. Tracking Forward for viola, backing track and video 2. The Long White Cloud for chamber band and electronics 3. ‘Colorless green ideas sleep furiously’ for orchestra 4. Push for Miles for electric bass and backing track 5. Norse Suite for viola and cello 6. The Foggy Field a studio construction 7. Into the Nocturnal Sunshine for flute, viola, cello, drums and electronics 8. One Night, New Breath for taonga puoro, viola, drums and electronics 9. Sketches of an Intergalactic Earworm for piano trio and boombox The accompanying documentation clarifies, and contextualises the creation and presentation of these works; and illuminates the aesthetic underpinnings and compositional techniques developed and utilised as a part of this hybrid-genre compositional approach. The structure of the supporting exegesis is in two parts: the methodology of practice-based research, and reflective investigation. Part One (Chapters 1 and 2) is an introductory overview; an observation of the existing literature and related work, relevant creative practice in the composer’s previous work; and the compositional methodology – including an explanation of the genre matrix. Part Two (Chapters 3 to 12) analyses the use of genre, the balance of hybridity, and relevant compositional techniques utilised in the development of each individual piece.

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  • Magnitude and controls on the net carbon balance of a New Zealand raised bog

    Goodrich, Jordan Paul (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    Peatlands play an important role in the Earth system as both persistent carbon dioxide (CO₂) sinks and methane (CH₄) sources. However, large uncertainties remain in our understanding of peatland carbon cycle – climate feedbacks. The majority of research has been conducted in the Northern Hemisphere as most of the global peatland area is located there. Few data have been collected in Southern Hemisphere peatlands and there is a limited basis for predicting how these systems will respond to changing climatic drivers and other anthropogenic forcings such as drainage for agriculture. Furthermore, it is unclear whether our knowledge of peatland functioning and carbon (C) cycling from the Northern Hemisphere translates to systems that have developed under different climatic and hydrologic settings with unique vegetation. To gain a better understanding of peatland carbon and greenhouse gas exchange in a globally distinct and unique peatland type, I used eddy covariance to measure net ecosystem CO₂ exchange (NEE) and CH₄ flux (FCH₄) in an undisturbed New Zealand raised bog over ~2.5 years. The overarching goals of this research were to determine magnitudes of the main components of the ecosystem C budget, gross primary production (GPP), ecosystem respiration (ER), and FCH₄, and their sensitivity to environmental and physical drivers. With respect to CO₂ exchange, high VPD periods restricted the light-saturated photosynthetic capacity during clear sky days. Elevated VPD was also the only condition that led to reductions in daily total GPP, a response likely triggered to reduce transpiration water losses. These results have important implications for the future C sink strength of New Zealand peatlands given a trend toward drier summers with clearer skies and higher VPD. With respect to FCH₄, a severe drought during summer 2013 allowed me to explore the interacting controls of temperature and water table depth. During 2012, a relatively average meteorological year, annual total FCH₄ was 21.5 g CH₄⁻ C m⁻² yr⁻1, whereas total FCH₄ during the drought year (2013) was 14.5 g CH₄⁻C m⁻² yr⁻¹. I found that water table depth was the most important overarching control on FCH₄ over various timescales from weekly to inter-annual. Water table depth regulated the temperature sensitivity of FCH₄, which was highest when the water table was within 50 – 80 mm of the surface. This depth range corresponds to the relatively shallow rooting zone of the dominant vegetation, which may provide much of the substrate for methane production. Kopuatai bog was a very strong C sink compared to Northern Hemisphere bogs and fens. Despite the elevated ER during the drought year, Kopuatai was a sink of 74.5 gC m⁻², which is at the high end of published Northern Hemisphere estimates. The more average meteorological year (2012) resulted in a much larger sink of 152 gC m⁻². This work has revealed the importance of atmospheric controls on plant CO₂ uptake and hydrologic (i.e. water table) effects on ecosystem respiration and FCH₄, when considering the overall C balance. These effects imply that the future C sink capacity of Kopuatai bog may be reduced due to the long-term trend toward drier, sunnier summers and more frequent droughts in the region.

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  • Oceans away: Sri Lankan migrants in New Zealand - Explorations of hybrid identities, distance & everyday material practices

    Cassim, Shemana (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    The past 50 years have seen a remarkable increase in migration, with more people moving than ever before. In New Zealand, foreign born peoples comprised over a quarter of the population in 2013, most of whom were from Asian countries, including Sri Lanka. These developments necessitate more culture specific research with these migrant communities in order to gain a greater understanding of their settlement experiences. Accordingly, this thesis explores the ways in which eight households of Sri Lankan migrants living in New Zealand, navigate distance (geographical, social and imagined), and establish a sense of continuity between the here (host nation) and there (country of origin). I demonstrate that migrant settlement and negotiations of belonging in their new homes are more complex and dynamic than what is indicated in previous research. The theoretical framework for this research is informed by ethnography, narrative and social practice theory, complemented by indigenous research perspectives and participatory methods. Particular attention is paid to migrants’ complex and fluid cultural identities, their negotiations of space and place, material practices and objects of significance. First, this research delves into the notion of hybrid identities, and argues for the need to acknowledge both the historical and current contexts that shape migrants’ cultural identities. Second, I emphasise that spaces and places are not mere backdrops in the everyday lives of migrants. Rather, public, domestic and mediated spaces can provide transnational links between the here and there. Such spaces are actively constructed and defined by the people inhabiting them, and thus play an important role in facilitating a sense of belonging in a foreign country. Third, I explore the centrality of food related material practices to the (re)establishment of a sense of normality, familiarity and stability in migrants’ everyday lives. The present research provides a rich understanding of migrant experiences, from which to argue that migrants’ everyday lives span not only localised or national borders, but also the past, present and future. This research foregrounds the agency and resilience of migrants, and acknowledges the complexities of everyday life.

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  • A Reinvestigation of Salvarsan and Related Arsenic Chemistry.

    Lloyd, Nicholas (2011)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    In 1910 the first deliberately targeted search for a new chemotherapeutic agent came to fruition when Paul Ehrlich introduced Salvarsan for the treatment of syphilis. This thesis presents a detailed review of the history and literature leading up to and following on from Ehrlich’s discovery and thoroughly investigates the chemistry of Salvarsan and related species. A series of arylarsonic acids was prepared and fully characterised by electrospray mass spectrometry, NMR and X-ray crystallography for six examples. A detailed analysis of the hydrogen bonding in crystals of these molecules showed that they adopt several characteristic motifs which govern the packing in the crystals. Two of the examples containing NH2 groups crystallised as zwitterions while one NH2 containing example containing other bulky groups was is its molecular form. Salvarsan (cyclo 3-amino-4-hydroxyphenylarsenic(I)) was prepared by several different methods and analysed in detail using high resolution electrospray mass spectroscopy. This showed that Salvarsan consists of small cyclic species of the type (RAs)n where R is 3-NH2-4-OHC6H3 and n is three or greater. The dominant species in an aqueous solution of Salvarsan were found to be (RAs)3 and (RAs)5 . A detailed analysis is presented of impurities in Salvarsan prepared by different methods and also in a sample of original commercial Salvarsan. Mixtures of (RAs)n and (R’As)n exchange R groups in aqueous solution at room temperature, as shown by ESI-MS. ESI-MS studies are reported for the oxidation product of Salvarsan, RAs(OH)2 (commercially known as Mapharsen) and related As(III) compounds. Oligomers involving As-O-As linkages were found in solution and one tetrameric example (R = 3-NO2-4-OHC6H3) was isolated and structurally characterised. Preliminary ESI-MS studies showed that As(III) species bind to thioredoxin, a possible target for the pharmaceutical activity of Salvarsan and its derivatives.

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  • The Micro Geopolitics of (Eco)Tourism: Competing Discourses and Collaboration in New Zealand and Brazil

    Lima, Ismar Borges de (2008)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    DVD Slideshow disc of supplementary material available with the print copy of this thesis, held at the University of Waikato Library.

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  • Challenges Faced – Implications for Policy: The Everyday Lives of Eastern European Women in New Zealand

    Ember, Adrienna (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    This study explored the everyday lives, aspirations, and coping strategies of seven Eastern European immigrant women in New Zealand who came from Bulgaria, the former Eastern Germany, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Serbia, and Slovakia. The answers to the research questions aimed to contribute to the deconstruction of the invisibility and marginalisation of these women in New Zealand. Guided by the philosophies of Kaupapa Māori Research; the theory of Human Wellbeing; and the theory of Positive Psychology, and using the methods of narrative inquiry, three interviews were conducted with each participant. The focus of the first interviews was to learn about the everyday lives of research participants in their countries of origin. The second interview explored the reasons of relocation to New Zealand, the settlement process, and how women re-established their lives in their new locations. In the final interviews women talked about their current everyday lives and their plans for the future. Interviews were recorded and summarised in interview summary reports which research participants modified in collaboration with the researcher until a final version was achieved. In addition, women participated in two focus group sessions. The first session was devoted to establish connections among the participants and allow themes to emerge from their conversations. The second group session aimed to explore areas women struggled with in their lives the most: relationships and employment opportunities. The study yielded contributions to the research topic, to the acculturation literature, and to the design of research with migrants. Firstly, it revealed both negative and positive aspects of the participants’ everyday lives and highlighted some under-researched cultural differences from the mainstream population. Women highlighted as an important cultural difference their strong preference for straightforward communication which was often experienced as offensive and blatant by local New Zealanders. Research participants critiqued the necessity of networking to obtain jobs in New Zealand which is a clear obstacle for a newly arrived migrant. This study also highlighted how the acculturation process is more individual and complex than conventional models have sought to explain. While traditional acculturation literature suggests that migrants go through some common patterns during their settlement that ideally leads to their assimilation to the host culture, in this research not all migrant women intended to assimilate. Indeed, those with a stronger wish to become part of the host culture reported more disappointments than those who embraced their cultural otherness as a positive aspect and did not mind reminding different from the dominant Pakeha culture. Finally, for migrant studies a less common research design was applied by using the Kaupapa Māori framework. This philosophy proposes a research process that empowers immigrants to voice their needs and strengthen them as agents of their lives beyond the research process. While two strength based theories were used for data interpretation (the 3-D model of the Human Wellbeing Theory and the PERMA model of Positive Psychology), the data analysis revealed that both models showed some limitations by failing to incorporate the dimension of spiritual and physical wellbeing within their domains.

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  • An Investigation Into Rate-building and Cues on Conditional Discrimination Performance Using a Repeated Acquisition Procedure

    Levine, Joshua (2014)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    The present study consisted of eleven experiments divided between two series of studies. The first part of Series 1 aimed at replicating the findings of Porritt (2007) and Porritt et al. (2009). Findings from Series 1 showed that rate-building, when number of practices and reinforcement rate are controlled, enhance training accuracy. However, the greater response rates did not improve retention accuracy, a failure to replicate. Given the contrary outcomes, the studies in the second part of Series 1 attempted to fully replicate Porritt by using variables that have been shown to improve retention accuracy. These results replicated Porritt only when similar behaviours were trained under like conditions between the Training and Retention components. An interpretation of the Series 1 data suggests that, rather than response rate, response duration may contribute towards retention accuracy. The second series of studies investigated the role of stimuli in the repeated acquisition procedure. Findings show the use of colour cues generated the greatest accuracy while completing behaviour chains. However, both colour cues and position of last response were found to govern chain completion accuracy. Findings from Series 2 suggest attention should be paid to the use of cues when the repeated acquisition procedure is used in rate-building experiments. Overall, the present study found that focusing on duration-reduction, in an animal analogue study using a repeated acquisition procedure with no-colour cues, may reveal the prime contributor to greater retention in Precision Teaching.

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  • Is Semantic Query Optimization Worthwhile?

    Genet, Bryan Howard (2007)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    The term quote semantic query optimization quote (SQO) denotes a methodology whereby queries against databases are optimized using semantic information about the database objects being queried. The result of semantically optimizing a query is another query which is syntactically different to the original, but semantically equivalent and which may be answered more efficiently than the original. SQO is distinctly different from the work performed by the conventional SQL optimizer. The SQL optimizer generates a set of logically equivalent alternative execution paths based ultimately on the rules of relational algebra. However, only a small proportion of the readily available semantic information is utilised by current SQL optimizers. Researchers in SQO agree that SQO can be very effective. However, after some twenty years of research into SQO, there is still no commercial implementation. In this thesis we argue that we need to quantify the conditions for which SQO is worthwhile. We investigate what these conditions are and apply this knowledge to relational database management systems (RDBMS) with static schemas and infrequently updated data. Any semantic query optimizer requires the ability to reason using the semantic information available, in order to draw conclusions which ultimately facilitate the recasting of the original query into a form which can be answered more efficiently. This reasoning engine is currently not part of any commercial RDBMS implementation. We show how a practical semantic query optimizer may be built utilising readily available semantic information, much of it already captured by meta-data typically stored in commercial RDBMS. We develop cost models which predict an upper bound to the amount of optimization one can expect when queries are pre-processed by a semantic optimizer. We present a series of empirical results to confirm the effectiveness or otherwise of various types of SQO and demonstrate the circumstances under which SQO can be effective.

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  • Semantic In-Network Complex Event Processing for an Energy Efficient Wireless Sensor Network

    Kasi, Mumraiz Khan (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) consist of spatially distributed sensor nodes that perform monitoring tasks in a region and the gateway nodes that provide the acquired sensor data to the end user. With advances in the WSN technology, it has now become possible to have different types of sensor nodes within a region to monitor the environment. This provides the flexibility to monitor the environment in a more extensive manner than before. Sensor nodes are severely constrained devices with very limited battery sources and their resource scarcity remains a challenge. In traditional WSNs, the sensor nodes are used only for capturing data that is analysed later in more powerful gateway nodes. This continuous communication of data between sensor nodes and gateway nodes wastes energy at the sensor nodes, and consequently, the overall network lifetime is greatly reduced. Existing approaches to reduce energy consumption by processing at the sensor node level only work for homogeneous networks. This thesis presents a sensor node architecture for heterogeneous WSNs, called SEPSen, where data is processed locally at the sensor node level to reduce energy consumption. We use ontology fragments at the sensor nodes to enable data exchange between heterogeneous sensor nodes within the WSN. We employ a rule engine based on a pattern matching algorithm for filtering events at the sensor node level. The event routing towards the gateway nodes is performed using a context-aware routing scheme that takes both the energy consumption and the heterogeneity of the sensor nodes into account. As a proof of concept, we present a prototypical implementation of the SEPSen design in a simulation environment. By providing semantic support, in-network data processing capabilities and context-aware routing in SEPSen, the sensor nodes (1) communicate with each other despite their different sensor types, (2) filter events at the their own level to conserve the limited sensor node energy resources and (3) share the nodes' knowledge bases for collaboration between the sensor nodes using node-centric context-awareness in changing conditions. The SEPSen prototype has been evaluated based on a test case for water quality management. The results from the experiments show that the energy saved in SEPSen reaches almost 50% by processing events at the sensor node level and the overall network lifetime is increased by at least a factor of two against the shortest-path-first (Min-Hop) routing approach.

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  • Improving the Quality of Real Time Media Applications through Sending the Best Packet Next

    McDonald, Ian (2013)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    Real time media applications such as video conferencing are increasing in usage. These bandwidth intensive applications put high demands on a network and often the quality experienced by the user is sub-optimal. In a traditional network stack, data from an application is transmitted in the order that it is received. This thesis proposes a scheme called "Send the Best Packet Next (SBPN)" where the most important data is transmitted first and data that will not reach the receiver before an expiry time is not transmitted. In SBPN the packet priority and expiry time are added to a packet and used in conjunction with the Round Trip Time (RTT) to determine whether packets are sent, and in which order that they are sent. For example, it has been shown that audio is more important to users than video in video conferencing. SBPN could be considered to be Quality of Service (QoS) that is within an application data stream. This is in comparison to network routers that provide QoS to whole streams such as Voice over IP (VoIP), but do not differentiate between data items within the stream or which data gets transmitted by the end nodes. Implementation of SBPN can be done on the server only, so that much of the benefit for one way transmission (e.g. live television) can be gained without requiring existing clients to be changed. SBPN was implemented in a Linux kernel on top of Datagram Congestion Control Protocol (DCCP) and compared to existing solutions. This showed real improvement in the measured quality of audio with a maximum improvement of 15% in selected test scenarios.

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  • Meanings of 'the Outdoors': Shaping outdoor education in Aotearoa New Zealand

    Straker, Jo (2014)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    Abstract The issue of human-nature relationships has become increasingly important given the environmental issues affecting the world. Thus, education which can encourage students to positively engage and connect with the world around them is vital. Outdoor education offers one way to help build relationships, but only if outdoor educators have an understanding and appreciation of the ways 'the outdoors' influences their pedagogy. Over the years, growing emphasis on adventure activities, social and personal development, and experiential learning styles, has subsumed the role of 'the outdoors' within outdoor education. Using an interpretive narrative framework, this research focuses on 'the outdoors' as a defining feature of outdoor education. A series of three semi-structured interviews with 11 outdoor educators provided opportunities to explore meanings of the outdoors and how those meanings influenced their understandings and practices of outdoor education. An inductive analysis of the interviews identified five primary themes; locations, activities, living simply, emotional responses, and relationships, and these were used to unpack the participants' beliefs and experiences of 'the outdoors' and outdoor education. In order to retain the richness and complexity of the meanings the participants shared, the findings are presented in a variety of formats including vignettes and poetic text. The findings are multi-layered, something that reflected the dynamic nature of 'the outdoors' and the ensuing opportunities offered for creative and critical thinking. There was also evidence that the participants were vigilant about adopting a multi-dimensional approach to outdoor education. This required integrating pragmatic pro-environmental actions, experiential opportunities, challenge activities, spontaneous learning moments, and quiet time into many of their sessions. In so doing, they ensured experiences for their students were holistic, meaningful, and engaging, as well as promoting a respectful relationship with 'the outdoors'. Some of these practices were constrained at times by the expectations of current secondary school educational orthodoxies, especially those relating to assessing pre-determined outcomes. Nonetheless, there was an unreserved belief that outdoor education has an increasingly distinct and important role to play in the school curriculum. How this will be enacted depends on the challenges and opportunities that rise and fall with changing social, political, and economic agendas.

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  • Trends and challenges for sustainable marine resource management for rural Solomon Islanders

    Bennett, Gregory Pakovari (2014)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    Much has been claimed about the positive benefits of the customary marine tenure (CMT) system in the South Pacific and its implications for resource management. In Solomon Islands the premise of effective community-based resource management (CBRM) as a contemporary management tool, rests to a great degree on CMT, but does CMT still provide a sufficiently strong foundation to support this premise? This research examines the social and environmental characteristics of two rural Solomon Islands coastal communities that have a long history in customary marine tenure; one with a strong chiefly system and the other one with a weaker chiefly system. The research gains insight into and an understanding of the experiences and lives of the villagers, given current debates on the need to address and move forward with the concept of CBRM with regards to the sustainability issues that they are currently confronting. Using primarily qualitative methodologies the study focused on how marine resources are perceived and valued by different members of the community. The findings suggest that in communities where a common agreement on CMT no longer exists there is a significant challenge to stakeholders in attaining the goal of sustainably managed coastal marine resources through community based approaches. This challenge needs to be accounted for on a case by case basis as part of CBRM facilitation processes. While this research may true for much of Solomon Islands, the case studies have revealed that although the villages are made up of families who are closely related they are not unified as a whole. Study findings suggest that the people retain a lingering vision of a small, integrated community but have failed to grasp how their differences as a community have affected their resource management outcomes. The present day communities are affected by many outside factors that did not exist when traditional management systems were evolving. These factors bring management challenges for which traditional arrangements were not designed to cope and thus many have severely destabilising effects on the performance of traditional systems.

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  • Stories of Resistance to Religious Authority: A Discursive Analysis

    Crawley, David Raymond (2014)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    Abuses of power within certain religious communities have become a matter of public concern in recent decades. Less well known are the stories of people within local Christian communities who experience practices of religious authority which do not make headlines, but which nonetheless diminish the possibilities of their lives. Feminist analyses have highlighted the historical, cultural, and theological roots of the oppression of women in Christian communities, but work remains to be done on understanding how other subjugating practices, which oppress women and men, and resistance to such practices, are produced in religious contexts. This study asks (1) how it is that regimes of power and knowledge can subvert the call to freedom and justice which is pervasive in longstanding streams of Christian tradition, and (2) what has enabled some people to resist the practices of religious authority constructed by such regimes. In responding to these questions this thesis adopts a poststructuralist conceptual framework, drawing particularly on Foucault’s theorisation of knowledge, power, and subjectivity. In addition to Foucauldian ideas, poststructuralist feminist discussions of human agency, and Sampson’s (1993) notion of monologic and dialogic power relations, strongly influence the theoretical and ethical stance of this study. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with nine people, from a variety of Christian communities within New Zealand, who at some time had found it necessary to resist everyday practices of religious authority within their contexts. The interviews focused on their accounts of the subjugating practices they had encountered, the effects of those practices on their lives, and their acts of resistance. A discursive approach to narrative analysis was developed and applied to transcriptions of these interviews. This analysis identified a range of discursive technologies which had contributed to the subjugation of the participants and protected the hegemony of discourses which supported subjugating practices. This study concludes that (1) monologic power relations within religious communities are a primary indicator of problematic discourses and practices of authority; (2) the “Man of God” discourse and its variants inevitably subvert freedom and justice; (3) sexual abuse by religious leaders belongs to a spectrum of discursively produced entitlement practices; (4) the embodied effects of subjugation bear witness to ethical hopes and intentions, and are instrumental in producing resistance; and (5) repeated exposure to a range of religious texts and rituals both supports and subverts people’s subjectification within the dominant discourses of a religious community.

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  • The impact of background and context on car distance estimation

    Zhang, Fan (2014)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    It is well established that people underestimate the distance to objects depicted in virtual environments and two-dimensional (2D) displays. The reasons for the underestimation are still not fully understood. It is becoming more common to use virtual environment displays for driver training and testing and so understanding the distortion of perceived space that occurs in these displays is vital. We need to know what aspects of the display cause the observer to misperceive the distance to objects in the simulated environments. The research reported in this thesis investigated how people estimate distance between themselves and a car in front of them, within a number of differing environmental contexts. Four experiments were run using virtual environment displays of various kinds and a fifth experiment was run in a real-world setting. It was found that distance underestimation when viewing 2D displays is very common, even when familiar objects such as cars are used as the targets. The experiments also verified that people have a greater underestimation of distance in a virtual environment compared to a real-world setting. A surprising and somewhat counterintuitive result was that people underestimate distance more when the scene depicts forward motion of the observer compared to a static view. The research also identified a number of visual features in the display (e.g., texture information) and aspects of the display (e.g., field of view) that affected the perception of distance or that had no effect. The findings should help the designers of driver-training simulators and testing equipment to better understand the types of errors that can potentially occur when humans view two-dimensional virtual environment displays.

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  • Tito Waiata-Tito Pūoro: extending the Kīngitanga music tradition.

    Rollo, Te Manaaroha Pirihira (2014)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    Since 1858, music has always been an integral part of the Kīngitanga movement in New Zealand. As this music tradition evolves with the introduction of new musical idioms, genres and digital technology, so too do the practices of composing new works. The objective of this research was to construct a model for combining waiata, taonga pūoro and New Zealand electroacoustic music, in order to create new works that enhance the Kīngitanga music tradition. Developing a model for composing and integrating these idioms within a Māori context presented problems, as traditional Māori music conflict with contemporary Western forms. To generate a framework and practical model for composing hybrid music, an examination of selected New Zealand works was first carried out through: a) the collection of 50 traditional and contemporary waiata relating to the Kīngitanga b) the collection of 10 New Zealand taonga pūoro works and c) a collection of 10 New Zealand electroacoustic music. An analysis of the music and compositional processes of each idiom implementing the ‘de-construct in order to re-construct’ approach to understand how they work musically and compositionally was accomplished. To demonstrate the outcome of my models, six original compositions were presented exploring different aspects of musical composition. These models focused on sound architecture and explored a) communicative relationships between composer, performer, and audience b) Holistic Co-hear-ence, implementing the horizontal and vertical layering model, and c) technical approaches using digital technology. To comply with Māori principles of composition and performance, each model and new work demonstrated Kaupapa Māori , Wairua and Te Mana - Te Ihi - Te Wehi - Te Tapu . The findings and original contributions of this research provide a model that combines two musical traditions and three music idioms, and in turn, may guide contemporary composers in creating new works that extend the Kīngitanga music tradition.

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  • Meta-Learning and the Full Model Selection Problem

    Sun, Quan (2014)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    When working as a data analyst, one of my daily tasks is to select appropriate tools from a set of existing data analysis techniques in my toolbox, including data preprocessing, outlier detection, feature selection, learning algorithm and evaluation techniques, for a given data project. This indeed was an enjoyable job at the beginning, because to me finding patterns and valuable information from data is always fun. Things become tricky when several projects needed to be done in a relatively short time. Naturally, as a computer science graduate, I started to ask myself, "What can be automated here?"; because, intuitively, part of my work is more or less a loop that can be programmed. Literally, the loop is "choose, run, test and choose again... until some criterion/goals are met". In other words, I use my experience or knowledge about machine learning and data mining to guide and speed up the process of selecting and applying techniques in order to build a relatively good predictive model for a given dataset for some purpose. So the following questions arise: "Is it possible to design and implement a system that helps a data analyst to choose from a set of data mining tools? Or at least that provides a useful recommendation about tools that potentially save some time for a human analyst." To answer these questions, I decided to undertake a long-term study on this topic, to think, define, research, and simulate this problem before coding my dream system. This thesis presents research results, including new methods, algorithms, and theoretical and empirical analysis from two directions, both of which try to propose systematic and efficient solutions to the questions above, using different resource requirements, namely, the meta-learning-based algorithm/parameter ranking approach and the meta-heuristic search-based full-model selection approach. Some of the results have been published in research papers; thus, this thesis also serves as a coherent collection of results in a single volume.

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  • Seasonal Comparison of Lipid Composition and Metabolism in Parasitised and Non-Parasitised Clover Root Weevil (Sitona lepidus)

    Brown, Jolene Mary (2014)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    Since its arrival in New Zealand the clover root weevil (Sitona lepidus (syn. flavescens) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) (CRW) has caused serious damage to New Zealand’s agricultural sector. The introduction of the biocontrol agent, Microctonus aethiopoides has caused a significant reduction in the population of CRWs. During their research on the CRW, AgResearch scientists discovered that the abdominal fat body and lipids present in the haemolymph in adult CRW varied with season, sex, insect age and parasitism. Parasitism has been reported to change the lipid composition of other species of insects. The purpose of the present study was to compare the chemical composition of the lipids present in parasitised and non-parasitised CRW adults, and determine how these lipids change with physiological state and parasitoid development. The investigation into how M. aethiopoides initiates these changes was extended to examine the roles of juvenile hormones and teratocytes in lipid regulation. A one-step method of extraction and derivatisation was created to determine the fatty acid profile of CRWs. This method gave higher recovery percentages and higher reproducibility than the traditional two-step methods that were trialled, and enabled individual CRWs to be analysed. The fatty acid profile of the CRW was similar to that of other insects reported containing mainly the 16 carbon saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids and the 18 carbon saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids. The one-step method was also used to track differences in the fatty acid profiles of individual CRWs with differing sex, age, parasitism and physiological state. The fatty acid profiles of male and female CRWs were similar, with only significant differences between the concentrations of the 16:1 and 18:0 fatty acids. Due to variation between individual samples in the entire sample set, no obvious correlations were found between physiological state and fatty acid composition, or distinctions between state of parasitism and fatty acid profile. Basic statistical methods were utilised initially, however, the complexity of the data set required multivariate analysis. PCA, LDA and QDA were utilised but again no correlations or distinctions were found when the whole sample set was analysed. Results from the Gisborne subset, collected from the same location and at the same time, had reduced variation between individuals, and this allowed some distinctions to be made between parasitised and non-parasitised samples. Teratocytes are cells that have dissociated from the serosal membrane that occur in the haemolymph of CRWs that have been parasitised by M. aethiopoides. The fatty acid composition of these cells was investigated using the one-step method and a MALDI-TOF spectrometry method, which detects triacylcglycerols. The fatty acid profile of teratocytes was not significantly different to that of the CRW. Juvenile hormones (JHs) control postembryonic development and adult reproduction. They are present in all insects and JH III is the most common of the six possible JHs. The LC-MS method of Miyazaki et al was modified and this allowed for the determination of JH III within samples of 50 CRW adults. The comparison between parasitised and non-parasitised samples found that parasitised samples had significantly higher levels of JH III than did their non-parasitised counterparts.

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  • Cloaked in Life and Death: Tangi and Taonga in a Contemporary Māori Whanau

    Malcolm-Buchanan, Vincent Alan (2014)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    This thesis is an examination of tangihanga (indigenous funerary practices) unique to the lived experience of the Māori of Aotearoa New Zealand, drawing on fieldwork undertaken amongst Māori, by a Māori. The introduction and influence of modern practices, ideologies, and articles of significance are considered, in the context of the ongoing traditions of tangihanga, a unique and critical collective occasion. This research navigates a tribally distinct journey by way of familial experiences of death in the Māori world. In particular, this work discusses and elucidates the select materials, objects and taonga (artefacts) observable during our funerary processes, as they engage the rubric of death, burial and initial mourning. Part I: speaks to theoretical and methodological aspects pertinent to the scope of the interdisciplinary work undertaken, and intellectually framed, by the disciplines of Anthropology and Tikanga Māori Cultural Studies. This includes participant observation fieldwork; death, ritual, liminality and oral traditions; the marae context; western and indigenous worldviews and epistemologies; as well as compositional mechanisms and tensions. Part II: addresses some logistics of tangihanga, and introduces key ethnohistoric and ethnographic reflexions, which lead into select participant interviews that act to inform the work. These provide the anthropological other voice, and explore realities and concepts which are at the same time distinct from, yet similar to, my own. Part III: relates five brief tangihanga narratives which present genealogically-inflected ethnographies of death, and facilitate discussions pertaining to the core focus of the thesis. Thereafter the substantive chapter material deliberates upon processes and experiences of the arrival of death in the Māori world, as we return to the marae and eventually embrace the final moments of closing the lid of the casket in preparation for interment. With time, we can see different, innovative ideas and practices being introduced as each new generation, with their respective priorities, subsequently metamorphose the complex rubric of tangihanga. For example, transnational Māori must find new ways to cope with tūpāpaku on foreign shores, and they can also be seen to introduce non-traditional elements when returning tūpāpaku home to Aotearoa. Concern regarding the dietary health of many Māori means we are more aware of the need to reduce fat, salt and sugar intakes, so on many marae meat is becoming leaner, whilst vegetarian and gluten free options are being increasingly considered. Also, premium wall space is diminishing as growing numbers of images arrive with the passing of kin members, so the likes of digital photo albums are being introduced; reflecting increasing new technologies on marae that also includes mobile phones, iPads, laptop computers and so forth. Change seems inevitable and change, in many forms, will continue to encroach on our cultural sensibilities and abodes. As older generations perpetuate age-old traditions, and younger generations acculturate new priorities, change is no longer on the horizon of our marae, but has arrived to affect tangihanga and marae practices. This said, the Māori remain pragmatic and resilient to the winds of change, and this study shows our ability to adapt, as and where need be, whilst also foreboding future generations be as adaptable and ready to change; at the same time as maintaining core cultural traditions and practices. In its most basic form this thesis shows that whilst it matters what clothes we dress our tūpāpaku in, the taonga displayed, the form of burial vessel chosen, mode of disposal and so forth, the rubric of tangihanga nonetheless prioritises the interests of Maori as a collective, communally sharing the complex logistics and burdens of death, as we celebrate a life lived, and lost, collectively. This research will primarily consider the use of tangible materials, objects, and artefacts observable in contemporary tangihanga experiences and question how modernising or secular ideologies have impacted funerary practices for 21st century Māori. Throughout the course of this research I also intend to look into: • What taonga, materials, and objects are observable at tangihanga and why? • Are these items deemed ritually symbolic, and if so how and why? • What is the familial and cultural relevance and significance of such items? • What (if any) values and ideologies do these items express, transpose and/or communicate? • What garments and or taonga are permitted (or not) to adorn the tūpāpaku? Why or why not? • Are all types of photographs and/or images permitted to be displayed, if so where, are there restrictions, and if so then what and why? • Does the immediate physical environment make any difference to the use of materials, objects and artefacts in funerary practices, and if so how and why? Twenty-first century Māori continue to hold fast to age-old traditions, at the same time as being flexible and adapting with changing times. This body of work considers aspects of our earlier funerary traditions, and discusses current traditions, before concluding with postulations regarding potential new practices. As Māori and Pākehā of Aotearoa NZ there is much we have yet to learn from each other, and still much more we might share with our other global contemporaries. Moe mai ra koutou i te moengaroa o te Ariki He tohu aroha tēnei mō koutou katoa

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