1,703 results for University of Waikato, Masters

  • Feminist theories and practices of lawyering: Legal representation for women who are survivors of domestic violence

    Seuffert, Nan Marie (1995)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    The image of a spiral represents the relationship between theory, practices and the experiences of women in the continual project of developing feminist theories. Feminists create tentative theories to explain the experiences of women. These theories inform feminist practices. The practices then lead to new experiences and new interpretations of experiences, which may require new or revised theories. Feminist theories are therefore subject to constant testing in the light of the diverse experiences of women. Each turn on the spiral may require revisiting the same issues; each movement upward on the spiral also represents development of feminist theories towards the goal of more accurately reflecting the diverse experiences of women. The first goal of this project was to consider how feminists develop feminist theories from the experiences of women, considering the relationship between theory and practice in gathering the experiences of women, and in the interpretation and presentation of those experiences. The second goal was to develop feminist theories of lawyering in the area of domestic violence from the experiences of women who are survivors of domestic violence, thereby moving feminist theories of lawyering a full turn on the theory-practice spiral. The theoretical component of the first goal of the project required using feminist theories to inform the gathering and interpretation of the experiences of women with their legal representation. The theoretical component of the second goal required testing current feminist theories of lawyering in light of these experiences. The experiences of women are therefore central to the theoretical aspects of the project. They also provide a focus for the practical aspects of the project: recommendations for lawyers about representing women who are survivors of domestic violence. Perhaps the most significant finding of the research is the frequency with which the women felt that their lawyers did not believe them, especially with respect to the level of danger in which they lived and the severity of the abuse that they endured. Focusing on the disbelief of the lawyers with respect to these aspects of the women's experiences revealed the lawyers' lack of understanding of the dynamics of domestic violence. This finding alone virtually precludes the possibilities for truly ethical lawyer-client relationships in which power is shared and the twoway process of lawyer translation takes place in the context of mutual understanding, respect and a willingness to listen which are required for dialogue. These findings also provide a backdrop to the other issues raised by the research, especially the lack of involvement of the women in decision-making and the lack of advocacy provided to the women. Effective legal representation requires that lawyers be aware of the context in which women seek protection from the legal system, and that lawyers be prepared to assist the women in ensuring their safety by advocating for protection by the legal system throughout the legal process. Lawyers should also be prepared to confront and expose gender bias as it operates in particular cases in a manner that furthers the interests of their clients, and to assist in ensuring that women receive adequate support in using the legal process. The development of feminist theories builds on what we know about women's experiences by producing tentative theories which are tested in light of further experiences. In this project, feminist theories concerning the gathering and interpretation of women's experiences provided the basis for the development of the research methods. The experiences gathered were used to test the recent developments in feminist theories of lawyering. Attention to the situated aspects of experiences resulted in the development of situated theories of feminist lawyering: theories that are relevant to non-Maori women in New Zealand, and that provide a lens through which other women might consider their own theories, practices and experiences.

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  • Stigma: You do your time, you come out and do more: A phenomenological analysis of the experiences of stigma as lived by ex-prisoners.

    MacLennan, Brigitte Amber (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    This thesis explores the phenomena of stigma and its effects upon offenders who have spent time in prison. There has been a long history of stigma attached to those who have engaged in criminal activity. As far back as the late 1800's it was concluded that a criminal could be identified by their physical facial features alone. While it is no longer common to stigmatise offenders based on the distance between a person’s eyes, there is still a great deal of stigma attached to having been in prison which can prevent offenders from living a pro-social life. There is little research in this area, particularly within the New Zealand context. This thesis uses phenomenological research to engage with the participants in order to gain an understanding of their lived experiences with stigma. Interviews were conducted to explore this phenomenon. Allowing offenders who have served time in prison to have their experiences heard has potential implications for policy makers with regards to release conditions and also for services that are run in prisons. Making successful transitions from prison living to living a pro-social life has benefits for not only the offender, but the community in which they are residing as a whole.

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  • Evaluation of composite laminates interleaved with nanofibre and microfibre veils

    Collins-Gargan, Rosalie (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    The research covered in this thesis aimed to investigate the use of nanofibre and microfibre veils in carbon fibre reinforced composites and assessed the potential of the veils to improve damage resistance during impact and fatigue loading. It was hypothesised that the interleavings would increase the amount of energy required for crack propagation because of toughening due to fibre reinforcement mechanisms such as crack deflection, fibre pull out and fibre breakage. The work was undertaken as a combined project between the University of Waikato (Hamilton, New Zealand) and Revolution Fibres Ltd (Auckland, New Zealand). During this investigation, six thermoplastic polymers were chosen (acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), acrylonitrile styrene acrylate (ASA), polystyrene (PS), chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC), polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and polycarbonate (PC)) that could potentially be used for the electrospinning of polymer nanofibre veils. Nanofibre veils were successfully produced from PMMA, and a polymer blend of polyamide 6,6 (PA6,6) and PMMA, (referred to as 'nanoNyplex'). These veils, along with three other nanofibre veils (nanoPA6,6, poly vinyl butyral (nanoPVB), and poly ether sulfone (nanoPES)), three microfibre veils (polyphenylene sulfide (microPPS), polyetherimide (microPEI), and woven polyamide 6 (microtricot)) procured from other manufacturers, and three veils combining one of the nanofibre veils with each of the microfibre veils (microPPSnanoPA6,6, microPEInanoPA6,6, and microtricotnanoPA6,6) were then used as interleaves in the manufacture of carbon fibre reinforced epoxy composite panels. Interleaves were placed between every ply of prepreg. After curing the panels, test specimens were created to assess fatigue, vibration damping and compression after impact performance. From the vibration damping study, it was found that the nanoNyplex interleaving improved damping the most. It was thought that energy dissipation was due friction brought about by the movement of the interleaving fibres in the matrix, resulting in friction due to weak adhesion between the nanoNyplex fibres and the epoxy matrix. From the compression after impact (CAI) section of this study, it was found that specimens interleaved with nanoPA6,6, microPPS and microPPSnanoPA6,6 had the highest CAI strengths. From optical inspection, it appeared (in general) that as the CAI strength of the specimen increased, the length of the damage region also increased. However, those identified with the highest CAI strengths had shorter damage regions. From the fatigue section of this study, it was found that the use of most interleavings, (apart from microtricot) increased the number of cycles to failure. Post fatigue test scanning electron microscopy confirmed that crack deflection was present for most interleaved specimens. Some evidence of pull out and breakage of the interleaving fibres was seen on the fracture surfaces of the nanoPA6,6, microPPS, microPEI, microPEInanoPA6,6 and microPPSnanoPA6,6 interleaved specimens. For both CAI and fatigue, it was found that improvement was generally greater with veils that had a large number of fibres per unit area and high adhesion strength with the matrix. However, for CAI it seems that high fracture toughness was also desirable.

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  • Vulnerability and Resilience of the Bang Luang Community to Flooding from the Chao Phraya River

    Senavattanagul, Thanahathai (2008)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Flooding is a natural phenomenon and in the past Thai people have adapted to flood events. However over the years land degradation, deforestation and bad urban practices have exacerbated the impact of flood disasters. This study of flood management in Thailand shows how human activities and interventions have impacted on the river basin system. This research focuses on the vulnerability to flood hazard of the people living or working near the Chao Phraya River. The case study is of the community living or working in the proximity of Wat Bang Luang (Bang Luang Temple) of the Pathum Thani Province, Thailand. This research explores the capacity of communities to live with or cope with floods. Their adaptations to changes in flood regimes will depend on several factors: political (especially when Thailand has a long history of preoccupation with engineering and technological solutions as the main approach to disaster response), economic, ecological (human modification to flood plains), social (kin-based networks) and cultural factors. The data collected from the target community showed a power struggle between Thai culture and the dominant hazard management paradigm. This research put a human face on natural disaster and looked at the issue of flooding from the experiences of ordinary people. The findings showed that some members of the community are resilient while others are passive and are more vulnerable to floods. However, it is important not to label any individual or group as either vulnerable or resilient as people can be both at the same time and policy makers need to build on the strengths, rather than focus on the weaknesses and on offering emergency relief.

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  • Development of an Ion Chromatography Method for the Analysis of Nitric Acid Oxidation Reactions of Common Sugars

    Davey, Cara-Lee (2008)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    The large scale nitric acid oxidation of common sugars into their corresponding aldaric acids is being investigated as an important source of potentially useful components for industrial applications such as polymers. This thesis details the development of an Ion Chromatography (IC) method for the analysis of these oxidation mixtures and related samples from the work-up and purification processes. The method was developed for use with a Dionex ICS2000 IC system equipped with an AS11-HC column and utilising suppressed conductivity detection. IC proved to be a useful, versatile and straightforward method of studying the reactions and their products. The detected ions include but are not restricted to the anionic salt forms of: D-Glucaric acid, Xylaric acid, Mannaric acid, D-gluconic acid and both keto forms of the same, D-xylonic acid, D-mannonic acid, glycolic acid, oxalic acid, tartaric acid and tartronic acid. Nitrate from the nitric acid used in the oxidation is often observed. The results compare favorably to GC-MS and HPLC analysis of similar samples. An overview of the theory and operation of the instrument along with the method development and results from application to the oxidation mixtures and related samples are presented. As part of the investigation into the range of utility of IC for studying these reactions, a study was made of the retention behaviour of a large number of simple and low molecular weight (LMW) carboxylic acids eluted by the ion chromatography system in use. The results of this study are included with an explanation of the major factors affecting anion retention on the column

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  • Turnover Intentions: The Mediation Effects of Job Satisfaction, Affective Commitment and Continuance Commitment

    Riley, Derek (2006)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Retention and productivity levels of a workforce are one of the essential ingredients for organisations to prosper in today's competitive business environment. Turnover intentions of the workforce are an important consideration for managers of organisations, employees, families, and communities alike. This study investigated a comprehensive model of turnover intentions that included two proximal variables, (job satisfaction, and organisational commitment), the distal variables of organisational justice, work strain, work overload, and work-to-family conflict and family-to-work conflict with the turnover intentions. A questionnaire was completed by 114 participants of the Allied Health workforce at the Waikato District Health Board, from allied health occupational groups, psychologists, physiotherapists, social workers, dieticians, and speech language therapists. Job satisfaction, affective commitment, distributive, interactional, and procedural justice, strain and family-to-work conflict were correlated with turnover intentions. Results of the mediated regression analyses found that job satisfaction and affective commitment are significant mediators between distributive, interactional, and procedural justice, work strain, and family work conflict with turnover intentions. The major implications from this research are that managers of organisation need to foster job satisfaction and affective commitment within their organisation to reduce turnover intentions. In the final chapter, the conclusions are discussed in terms of its practical implications to organisations, employees and the need for future research.

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  • Saturated: a study in fat obsession

    Cowley, Natalie Anne (2006)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    This thesis examines both contemporary and historical meanings surrounding human body FAT in order to illuminate, chiefly, the forces that have rendered it both an omnipresent and negative entity in Western societies. It explores the apparent contradiction that we must exist amidst hyper-consumptive capitalism yet display no bodily evidence of such consumption. Along with an investigation into alternative bodily conceptions to that of the hegemonic West, a discourse analysis is employed to challenge the key assumptions that underpin the current 'obesity epidemic' and its ensuing 'war on obesity' so that body FAT may be configured differently. It is shown that, because bodily conceptions and ideals are complex cultural constructions, body FAT, as a substance, is not the scourge it is presently portrayed, but rather a substance that signifies most of what consumer society despises and fears. It is argued that the 'war on obesity' has not been successful, and will continue to be ineffective, because the focus should not be on losing body FAT but rather on the conditions of poverty that generate overall ill-health. It is concluded that such a 'war', if sustained in its current fashion, will only serve to further malign the situations of those deemed 'overweight and obese'.

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  • Micro-mechanical predictive modelling as an aid to CAD based analysis of composite sporting equipment

    Ewart, Paul (2008)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    The sport and leisure industry in New Zealand (NZ) has the potential to become a major user of composite materials. Given the size of NZ industry, design and manufacturing strategies based on virtual engineering should be developed to suit NZ requirements. Virtual methods use computer aided engineering capabilities to find faults, explore alternatives and optimise product performance before detailed design or prototyping. When doing computer aided simulation the required mechanical properties of individual reinforcement and matrix components are well documented. However, the mechanical properties of composite materials are not as simple to obtain. Micro-mechanical modelling could therefore be used to aid the design and development of composite equipment, where mechanical properties are unknown. In this study, solids modelling was used to produce an analog model of a composite, and it was found that it lead to reductions in file size and simulation time. Representing a composite with an analog model implies that the behavioural characteristics are modelled, but not the physical characteristics of the individual components. Three micro-mechanical models were developed to predict the flexural modulus of composite materials, based on perfect, partial and no adhesion. It was found that the partial adhesion model was both practical and consistently accurate. The partial adhesion model accounted for adhesion between components by considering an 'effective shear value' at the interface. Validation of the models was done by flexural testing injection moulded samples of glass, wood and carbon fibre reinforced polyethylene. It was shown that the adhesion coefficient range was 0.1 for carbon fibre, 0.5 for glass fibre and 0.9 for the wood fibre composites. It was concluded that the adhesion coefficient is crucial and it is recommended that further work is done to validate effective shear values by empirical means. The predicted flexural modulus values were used to enable finite element simulation of modelled analog beams as well as commercial kayak paddles. It was determined that accurate simulation is possible for composite equipment using the partial adhesion model.

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  • The Characteristics of Children who are Referred On from Reading Recovery

    Belgrave, Janice Elizabeth (2009)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    This study investigates the hypothesis that children who are Referred On (RO) from Reading Recovery (RR) may share certain learning and behavioural characteristics. These characteristics were investigated and compared to those identified by the researcher based on experience as a classroom teacher, and to seven characteristics identified by Al Otaiba and Fuchs (2002) in their meta-analysis of 23 studies which had focused on children unresponsive to literacy interventions. Schools that use Reading Recovery as an early intervention programme were invited to participate in the research. Reading Recovery teachers, as well as students who had been through the programme, but had been RO, provided qualitative and quantitative data, to enable common characteristics to be identified, correlated and discussed, with reference to current literature and research around reading difficulties. This study does not offer any suggestions as to the remediation of children who are RO or unresponsive to intervention programmes. However, it does uncover some unexpected correlations that implicate the need for further research, particularly in the area of gender differences, within a sample group of RO students.

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  • Australian Legends: historical explorations of Australian masculinity and film 1970-1995.

    Hanley, Galina (2010)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    The twin purpose of this research is to explore films as historically specific cultural texts, rather than representations of one historical moment, and to engage with historiographical debates surrounding representations of masculinity in Australian history. I do this to create a way of engaging with film and history where film is culturally representative of the past, not simply a depiction of a specific point in time. This study considers two films, George Miller's Mad Max (1979) and Stephan Elliot's The Adventures of Priscilla, Queen of the Desert (1994) to explore the relationship over time between violence, masking and landscape with the representation of performative masculinity in an Australian context.

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  • Te Awa Atua, Te Awa Tapu, Te Awa Wahine: An examination of stories, ceremonies and practices regarding menstruation in the pre-colonial Māori world.

    Murphy, Ngāhuia (2011)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    This thesis examines Māori cosmological stories, ceremonies, and traditional practices regarding menstruation in pre-colonial Māori society. I use kaupapa Māori and mana wahine as a theoretical and methodological framework, contextualising these stories within Māori cultural paradigms.This is important because menstruation has been framed within deeply misogynist, colonial ideologies in some ethnographic accounts, distorting menstrual rites and practices beyond recognition. These interpretations have been used to inform colonialist narratives of female inferiority in traditional Māori society, attempting to change Native constructs of womanhood. Such narratives have been perpetuated in contemporary literature, reinforcing powerful discourses of menstrual pollution and female inferiority. This thesis is a challenge to such representations. By examining menstrual stories located in Māori cosmologies, and investigating tribal histories, oral literatures, ceremonies and rites, I argue that menstruation was seen as a medium of whakapapa (genealogy) that connected Māori women to our pantheon of atua (supernatural beings). A study of ancient menstrual rites, recorded in tribal songs and chants, reveal that menstrual blood was used for psychic and spiritual protection. These examples unveil striking Indigenous constructs of womanhood that transform colonialist interpretations and radically challenge notions of female inferiority and menstrual pollution. I maintain in this thesis that presenting menstruation and menstrual blood as putrid is a politically motivated act of colonial violence that specifically targets the source of our continuity as Indigenous People, the whare tangata (house of humanity – womb of women). I pose the question ‘if menstrual blood symbolises whakapapa, what does it mean to present it as ‘unclean’ and how do such representations cut across the politics of tino rangatiratanga (autonomy)?’ Through in-depth semi-structured interviews, kōrero (dialogue), and wānanga (series of conversations) with Māori women, including cultural experts, scholars, artists, and mana wahine exponents, I gather a collection of ceremonies, stories, and wisdoms that reclaim Māori spiritualities which celebrate menstruation as divine. Within the context of a colonial history of marginalisation, this work is an activist site of political resistance which takes a step towards re-threading the feminine strands in the spiritual fabric of our world, torn asunder by the ideological imposition of a colonial, Christian male god. I argue, that menstruation is a potent site of decolonisation, cultural reclamation, and resistance toward the perpetuation of colonial hegemony.

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  • Efficiency Improvement of LDO Output Based Linear Regulator With Supercapacitor Energy Recovery – A versatile new technique with an example of a 5V to 1.5V version

    Zainul Abidin, Saiful Riza (2011)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Supercapacitors are used in various industrial applications and the supercapacitors technology is gradually progressing into a mature state. Common applications of supercapacitors are in electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, uninterruptible power supply (UPS) and in portable devices such as cellular phones and laptops. The capacitance values range from fractional Farads to few thousand Farads and their continuos DC voltage ratings are from 2V to 6V. At University of Waikato, a team works on using supercapacitors for improving the efficiency of linear voltage regulators. In particular, this patented technique aims at combining off the shelfs LDO ICs and a supercapacitor array for improving end to end efficiency of linear regulator. My work is aimed at developing the theoretical background and designing prototype circuitry for a voltage regulator for the case of unregulated input supply is more than 3 times of the minimum input voltage requirement of the LDO which is applicable for a 5V to 1.5V regulator. Experimental results are indicated with future suggestions for improvement.

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  • Exploration of Pervasive Games in Relation to Mobile Technologies

    Morris, Paul (2013)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    The project is an exploration of Pervasive Games in relation to mobile technologies, with the intention of developing a pervasive game engine. Pervasive Games are interactive games where the participants drive the game play by playing the game in both the real world and a virtual environment. This is an area of gaming that has rapidly evolved over the last few years. The initial research involved establishing several key elements common to existing pervasive applications, defining real world / virtual world considerations for game play (both positive and negative) and identifying the technical requirements needed to implement play elements on a mobile device. After comparing several platforms the Windows 7 platform was selected for development purposes. The requirements for establishing a working development platform (with delivery mechanism) was investigated and a working environment set-up. A pervasive games engine was then developed in the format of 67 code stubs (coding solutions) that allow the implementation of solutions to gaming elements required in the development of pervasive applications. Two new helper classes were in addition developed containing solutions to topics related to run-time data storage (StorageUtils.cs) and generic gaming tasks (GameCode.cs). A pervasive game was implemented to test a cross section of functionality in the engine. The basic principle behind the game was to overlay various layers video, backgrounds, sprite and text, to build up an immersive pervasive environment with a player in the centre of the game imagery, game domain and real world. The intention of the game was to see how the pervasive game experience could be reflected in the game mechanics and pervasive interaction, while utilising the engine functionality.

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  • Parental perceptions of the role of Applied Behaviour Analysis intervention for children with autism during the transition from early childhood education settings to primary school

    Stebletsova, Galina (2013)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    The transition to school time for children with autism may represent a period of an increased stress for the whole family. Some parents choose to try the Applied Behaviour Analysis (ABA) intervention for their children as a way of reducing that stress and to assist the child’s transition. This study focuses on the role the ABA intervention might play during this period of time from a parental point of view. A qualitative approach grounded in an interpretive methodology has been used for this study. Data were collected through nine families participating in email surveys, and four of them then agreed to participate in semi-structured follow-up interviews. In all nine families, the ABA intervention of various intensity had happened with when their children were transitioning from pre-school settings to primary school. Three themes emerged in the course of the study: ABA intervention, even though chosen to facilitate the transition phase, does not seem to be the only factor that contributes to the successful transition to school; Language skills improvement with help of ABA therapy during transition time is seen as a stress decreasing factor; The influence of the ABA intervention during transition time was not always positive towards the younger siblings. All nine families emphasised that the financial aspect of the ABA intervention (namely, high cost) was seen as an extra stress factor during transition to school time. The high cost of the therapy was also linked to this study’s difficulties with recruitment. The findings, although only limited to the perspectives of nine participants, highlight the importance of families with children with autism to be prepared for the possible challenges during transition to school time. They also demonstrate the importance of further study in the field of the role of early interventions during transition phases of the young children with autism and imply that other factors apart from the interventions might play an important role in a child’s with autism transition to school time.

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  • The effects of delay to reinforcement and inter-trial interval on fixed-ratio schedule performance

    Stuart, Stacey Louisa (2013)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    A delay to reinforcement has been found in previous studies to influence the effectiveness of a reinforcer. As the delay duration increases, response rates decrease and post reinforcement pause durations increase. The present study tested whether it was the increase in time between the effective response and delivery of reinforcement, or, the increases in intervals between reinforcers that devalue the reinforcer. This study also compared the ability of two demand equations and MPR to predict response rates when effort required was changed. The effects of varying delay to reinforcement and intertrial interval on behaviour was examined while the time available for responding was kept constant. There were four conditions; 4-s ITI, 4-s delay, 16-s ITI and 16-s delay, and 6 hens responded under each of these conditions in an ascending geometric series of fixed ratio (FR) values. It was shown that hens generally responded at a faster rate in the ITI conditions than the equivalent delay conditions and peak response rates were seen highest in the 16-s ITI condition in accordance with the demand data. The data was described well by both the demand equations and the MPR equation. While there were inconsistencies among the parameters, there was a moderately strong positive relationships between the parameter values of as and α in the 16-s ITI (r = .51, p = 0.29) and delay (r = .44, p = .44) conditions.

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  • Distribution and Dispersal of Aquatic Invertebrates in the Waitomo Stream

    Jenkins, Bevan Ronald (2000)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    A survey of the distribution and dispersal of aquatic macro invertebrates was carried out in the Waitomo caves catchment, located South of Hamilton, New Zealand. Eight sites were selected along the Waitomo stream. The sites represented a longitudinal gradient that flowed from the native forested, headwaters to pasture, then into native forest remnants, before flowing into pasture and onto the glowworm caves at the bottom of the catchment. It was found that both the benthic and drift fauna underwent a change in community composition along the length of the catchment. Initially, the diversity decreased and invertebrate abundance increased as the stream flowed from forest to pasture. There was also a change in community composition from 'sensitive' taxa e.g. Plecoptera and Archichauliodes diversus to more 'enrichment' tolerant eg chironomids and Austrosimulium sp. However the biota of the stream was 'restored' upon the stream flowing into a forest remnant, the Aranui reserve. There was also a seasonal reduction in drift of invertebrates from the Waitomo stream over winter. Additionally significant differences were found for many drift taxa between forest and pasture sites. Suggestions as to future research topics and recommendation for restoration of the catchment streams and biota were made.

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  • Schooling for 'lesser beings'

    Holdom, Jim (1998)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Using Edward Said’s notion of ‘lesser beings’, it is argued that the political culture of schooling for Maori was and still is part of a pervasive Western European intellectual climate and culture which has a quite recent history, and which provided powerful support for the notion of Europe possessing a categorical superiority over all other continents, which in turn justified imperialism or neo-colonialism as civilising missions. Racism and violence were endemic in colonialism and, despite the claimed moral high ground, were endemic in Aotearoa/New Zealand. War was eulogised in the Native School system more than once. The rise and demise of the World War II Maori War Organisation is illustrative of the rejection of Maori aspirations. There were still no Maori in the senior echelons of the Maori Department in 1972. The Native, later Maori, School system was overtly designed to 'Europeanise' Maori children and therefore Maori society. Individualism was deeply embedded in English and set-tler thinking, whilst communal, ‘communist’ Maori society was to be destroyed. The thesis examines images of colonialism, empire and imperialism in fiction and non-fiction, New Zealand and British, for adults and children, and notes the attitudes of think-ers like J S Mill and Darwin, of children’s authors Jules Verne and G H Henty, and of New Zealand author William Satchell. The images continue, pervasive and endemic, in recent adult novels. Science also played a role, as did history. Ranginui Walker, who is Maori, is the only historian to have written a history of New Zea-land which addressed the issue of waste lands, an issue on which Pakeha historians have a blind spot. New Zealand encyclopedia do not index ‘waste land’ or ‘confiscation’. Only two Waikato histories deal adequately, or even accurately, with confiscation, the central episode in the history of the Waikato. Tourist material is equally illustrative. The Native Schools section of the Education Department ran the Native Schools like a fiefdom, operating in legislative and regulatory black holes for the first thirty years and for much of the time after that. Teachers were moved around at will. The practice of James H Pope, the first inspector of Native Schools, is closely and critically examined, and negatively assessed. His official writings were consistently derogatory of Maori, and his decisions in respect of Te Kopua Native School were at times detrimental to the pupils. Pope was a product of his times. The Te Kopua record is closely scrutinised, and the practice of the Education Department is frequently found wanting. It is probable that the establishment of the school was aimed to destabilise King Country Maori, not to benefit the children. It is a story of Maori co-operation and contribution. Part Two is a detailed partial biography of Te Kopua, it being argued that until there is a significant corpus of studies of Native Schools a valid history of the Native/Maori School system and of schooling for Maori is not possible

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  • Modelling and Evaluation of 60 GHz IEEE 802.11 Wireless Local Area Networks in ns-3

    May, Michael (2014)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    In this thesis we present modifications made to the popular network simulation environment ns-3 to provide accurate simulation of IEEE 802.11ad Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs) in the 60 GHz band. There is a need for such a framework as it allows research into how a directional, high performance wireless link affects various parts of the networking stack and Medium Access Control (MAC) design. The work contained herein describes changes made to the existing WLAN MAC and Physical Layer (PHY) model in ns-3 to support antenna directionality and multi-Gbps throughput. The resulting model is then analysed and found to accurately match optimal theoretical values in a number oftest scenarios. The result of this work is a simulation model capable of emulating IEEE 802.11ad WLANs with correct MAC and PHY representations.

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  • Rating the Significance of Detected Network Events

    Mungro, Meenakshee (2014)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Existing anomaly detection systems do not reliably produce accurate severity ratings for detected network events, which results in network operators wasting a large amount of time and effort in investigating false alarms. This project investigates the use of data fusion to combine evidence from multiple anomaly detection methods to produce a consistent and accurate representation of the severity of a network event. Four new detection methods were added to Netevmon, a network anomaly detection framework, and ground truth was collected from a latency training dataset to calculate the set of probabilities required for each of the five data fusion methods chosen for testing. The evaluation was performed against a second test dataset containing manually assigned severity scores for each event and the significance ratings produced by the fusion methods were compared against the assigned severity score to determine the accuracy of each data fusion method. The results of the evaluation showed that none of the data fusion methods achieved a desirable level of accuracy for practical deployment. However, Dempster-Shafer was the most promising of the fusion methods investigated due to correctly classifying more significant events than the other methods, albeit with a slightly higher false alarm rate. We conclude by suggesting some possible options for improving the accuracy of Dempster-Shafer that could be investigated as part of future work.

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  • Koe feliuliuaki ‘o e ‘ea: Ko ha palopalema nai eni? Understanding climate change in Tonga

    Havea, Elisapesi Hepi (2014)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Tonga is highly vulnerable to the deleterious impacts of climate change reflecting its geographical, geological and socio-economic characteristics. These impacts have the potential to be a calamity for the environment and the people of Tonga and their livelihoods. Tonga is the first country in the Pacific Islands region to have established a Joint National Action Plan on Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Management. The primary goal of this plan is to ensure that the communities establish adaptation and mitigation measures to address the impact of climate change. A considerable burden is placed upon the people of Tonga, their knowledge and their understanding of this issue. Literature indicates that the knowledge about climate change should be distributed equally at all levels to enhance effective and successful coping mechanisms for its impacts. This research was conducted on Tongatapu Island, one of the islands in Tonga that is extremely susceptible to the impacts of climate change. The participants were selected from different locations including coastal villages that are prone to the impacts of climate change as well as less hazard prone areas. The aim of this research is to unearth the existing knowledge of the people about the issue, their views on the impacts of climate change, and adaptation options they plan to implement in order to reduce the effects of climate change. Understanding of climate change issues varies for a number of reasons. Those who design national policies on climate change may view climate change from a scientific perspective that would be different from how rural villagers might consider the issue. This research uses the social constructionism approach to identify how this knowledge is constructed and what strategies might be implemented to address the knowledge deficit of the locals.

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