628 results for University of Waikato, 2007

  • Remote sensing of water quality in the Rotorua lakes

    Allan, Mathew Grant; Hicks, Brendan J.; Brabyn, Lars (2007)

    Report
    University of Waikato

    The aim of this study was to determine empirical models between Landsat imagery and lake water quality variables (chlorophy11(ch1) a and Secchi depth) to enable water quality variables to be synoptically quantified. These models were then applied to past satellite images to determine temporal patterns in the spatial variation of water quality. Monitoring of lakes to determine temporal patterns in the spatial variation of water quality. Monitoring of lakes using traditional methods is expensive and lakes the ability to effectively monitor the spatial variability of water quality within and between lakes. Remote sensing can provide truly synoptic assessments of water quality, in particular the spatial distribution of phytoplankton. Recent studies monitoring lake water quality using Landsat series platforms have been successful in predicting water quality with a high accuracy. Analysis was carried out on two Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) satellite images of the Rotorua lakes and Lake Taupo, for which most in situ observations were taken within two days of image capture. Regression equations were developed between the Band 1/Band 3 rations (B1/B3) from Landsat images from summer (25 Jan 2002) and spring (24 Oct 2002) and water quality variables measured in the lakes by Environment Bay of Plenty. For summer, the regression of in situ ch1 a concentration in µg/1 from ground data against the Band 1/Band 3 ratio (B1/B3) was Ln ch1 a = 14.141 – 5.0568 (B!/B3) (r² = 0.91, N=16, P<0.001). Ch1 a water quality maps were than produced using these models which were also applied to other images without in situ observations near the time of image capture.

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  • Bringing nature back into cities: urban land environments, indigenous cover and urban restoration

    Clarkson, Bruce D.; Wehi, Priscilla M.; Brabyn, Lars (2007)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    1. The restoration of urban ecosystems is an increasingly important strategy to maintain and enhance indigenous biodiversity as well as reconnecting people to the environment. High levels of endemism, the sensitivity of species that have evolved without humans, and the invasion of exotic species have all contributed to severe depletion of indigenous biodiversity in New Zealand. In this work, we analysed national patterns of urban biodiversity in New Zealand and the contribution that urban restoration can make to maximising and enhancing indigenous biodiversity. 2. We analysed data from two national databases in relation to the 20 largest New Zealand cities. We quantified existing indigenous biodiversity within cities, both within the core built up matrix and in centroid buffer zones of 5, 10 and 20 km around this urban centre. We analysed the type and frequency of land environments underlying cities as indicators of the range of native ecosystems that are (or can potentially be) represented within the broader environmental profile of New Zealand. We identified acutely threatened land environments that are represented within urban and periurban areas and the potential role of cities in enhancing biodiversity from these land environments. 3. New Zealand cities are highly variable in both landform and level of indigenous resource. Thirteen of 20 major land environments in New Zealand are represented in cities, and nearly three-quarters of all acutely threatened land environments are represented within 20 km of city cores nationally. Indigenous land cover is low within urban cores, with less than 2% on average remaining, and fragmentation is high. However, indigenous cover increases to more than 10% on average in the periurban zone, and the size of indigenous remnants also increases. The number of remaining indigenous landcover types also increases from only 5 types within the urban centre, to 14 types within 20 km of the inner urban cores. 4. In New Zealand, ecosystem restoration alone is not enough to prevent biodiversity loss from urban environments, with remnant indigenous cover in the urban core too small (and currently too degraded) to support biodiversity long-term. For some cities, indigenous cover in the periurban zone is also extremely low. This has significant ramifications for the threatened lowland and coastal environments that are most commonly represented in cities. Reconstruction of ecosystems is required to achieve a target of 10% indigenous cover in cities: the addition of land to land banks for this purpose is crucial. Future planning that protects indigenous remnants within the periurban zone is critical to the survival of many species within urban areas, mitigating the homogenisation and depletion of indigenous flora and fauna typical of urbanisation. A national urban biodiversity plan would help city councils address biodiversity issues beyond a local and regional focus, while encouraging predominantly local solutions to restoration challenges, based on the highly variable land environments, ecosystems and patch connectivity present within different urban areas.

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  • Indigenous vegetation types of Hamilton Ecological District

    Clarkson, Bruce D.; Clarkson, Beverley R.; Downs, Theresa M. (2007)

    Report
    University of Waikato

    The following descriptions of indigenous vegetation types and lists of the most characteristic species have been compiled for the major landform units of the Hamilton Ecological District, which lies within the Waikato Ecological Region (McEwen 1987). The boundaries of the Hamilton Ecological District correspond approximately to those of the Hamilton basin, with the addition of parts of hills and foothills at the margins of the basin. The vegetation descriptions and species lists are based on knowledge of the flora of vegetation remnants in the ecological district, historical records (e.g., Gudex 1954), and extrapolation of data from other North Island sites with similar environmental profiles.

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  • Boat electrofishing survey of five Waitakere City ponds

    Hicks, Brendan J.; Brijs, Jeroen; Bell, Dudley G.; Powrie, Warrick (2007)

    Report
    University of Waikato

    We conducted a fish survey of five ponds (Lake Panorama, Paremuka Pond 1 & 2, Danica Esplanade and Longbush Pond) in the Waitakere District by single-pass boat electrofishing on 18 and 19 of July 2007. We caught 337 fish comprising four introduced and two native fish species in 2.89 km of fished distance from all 5 ponds. Assuming that each of the two bow-mounted anodes caught fish within a 1 m radius, the width fished was 4 m, and the total area fished was 11,537 m² or 1.154 ha. The water temperature for the 5 different ponds ranged between 10.8°C and 14.9°C. In Lake Panorama, shortfinned eel (Anguilla australis) were the most numerous species caught (130 fish ha⁻¹ ), followed by perch (Perca fluviatilis) (100 fish ha⁻¹) and tench (Tinca tinca) (40 fish ha⁻¹). In Paremuka Pond 1, koi carp (Cyprinus carpio) were the most numerous species caught (120 fish ha⁻¹), followed by shortfinned eels (50 fish ha⁻¹). In Paremuka Pond 2, koi carp were again the most numerous species caught (340 fish ha⁻¹), followed by tench (250 fish ha⁻¹) and shortfinned eels (70 fish ha⁻¹). In Danica Esplanade and Longbush Pond, shortfinned eels were the most numerous species caught (140 and 550 fish ha⁻¹respectively), followed by mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis). There was more macrophyte cover around the edges of Danica Esplanade compared to Longbush Pond and this decreased the catch rate as a large number of eels in Danica Esplanade were sighted but were unable to be captured. Koi carp were only caught in the Paremuka ponds. The majority of koi carp were caught on the edges of the lake in macrophytes and rushes. Koi carp biomasses were highest in Paremuka Pond 2 at 261 kg ha⁻¹ compared to 106 kg ha⁻¹ in Paremuka Pond 1. Biomass is a more accurate reflection of the potential ecological impact of koi carp than their density. Previous results suggest that 21-73% of the total population is caught on the first removal, depending on water visibility. As we fished the area at each site only once, the estimates in this survey represent a minimum abundance, and true population sizes are likely to be 1.4-4.8 times greater. The density of eels in both the Paremuka ponds is also likely to be higher as a large proportion of eels were able to escape into the macrophytes before they could be captured in the nets. Mosquitofish were also observed to be living in both the Paremuka ponds. Of ecological concern for the Paremuka ponds is the dominance of the fish biomass by introduced koi carp, which have a deleterious impact on aquatic habitats. Another concern for these ponds is the presence of small koi carp (<200 mm), which suggests that natural spawning is most likely occurring, although recent releases of carp into the ponds in another possibility. The fate of the introduced fish varied depending on what species they were. Perch and tench were released back into the ponds after captures as they are classified as sports fish. Koi carp and mosquitofish are classified as unwanted organisms and were humanely destroyed with an anaesthetic overdose (benzocaine), and retained for further analysis.

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  • Top down or bottom up? Feasibility of water clarity restoration in the lower Karori Reservoir by fish removal

    Hicks, Brendan J.; Hamilton, David P.; Ling, Nicholas; Wood, Susanna A. (2007)

    Report
    University of Waikato

    As part of an overall ecosystem assessment of lower Karori Reservoir Sabctuary, Wellington, a number of variables are being monitored routinely, including temperature, nutrients, and phytoplankton and zooplankton populations. Ammonium (NH₄) tends to be the dominant species of inorganic nitrogen most of the time except in late winter when nitrate (NO₃) becomes dominant. Total nitrogen concentrations place Karori Sancturay in a mesotrophic to eutrophic category.

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  • Investigation of production systems for a building integrated photovoltaic thermal product

    Bura, Sunil Kumar; Duke, Mike; Lay, Mark C.; Anderson, Timothy Nicholas (2007)

    Conference item
    University of Waikato

    Integration of solar energy devices with building products is one of the fastest growing markets in the building industry. Building integrated products are multifunctional and fit into a standard façade or roofing structure. This paper discusses a building integrated photovoltaic thermal collector (BIPVT) capable of generating electrical and thermal energy. Different production methodologies for manufacturing of the BIPVT system are discussed. Prototypes were manufactured as per the researched production methodologies. The optimum production systems for manufacturing the building integrated system were selected from the economic analysis and performance of the manufactured prototypes.

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  • Review: Memoirs of Active Service

    Cheesman, Sue (2007)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Ka maumahara tonu tatou ki a ratou - we will remember them…poignant last words… bidding farewell to a generation of veterans moving on...leaving fragments of memories and diaries for children/grandchildren to honour, celebrate and remember …black costumes billow, fold, swirl and wrap the dancers bodies…wide sweeping arm movements…jumps and turns…slides on all fours - provides the vehicle for five accomplished dancers to fill the space with fluidity and lyricism in this very moving finale, a lament set to Albinoni’s adagio - maybe old soldiers never die.

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  • DVD Review: Move it

    Cheesman, Sue (2007)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    DVD review of Move it (Dance class choreographed and taught by Anita Hutchins).

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  • Creating culturally-safe schools for Māori students

    Macfarlane, Angus; Glynn, Ted; Cavanagh, Tom; Bateman, Sonja (2007)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    In order to better understand the present trends in New Zealand’s schooling contexts, there is a clarion call for educators to develop sensitivity and sensibility towards the cultural backgrounds and experiences of Māori students. This paper reports on the work of four scholars who share research that has been undertaken in educational settings with high numbers of Māori students, and discusses the importance of creating culturally-safe schools – places that allow and enable students to be who and what they are. The theoretical frameworks drawn on are based on both a life partnership analogy as well as on a socio-cultural perspective on human development and learning. The Māori worldview presented in this paper is connected to the Treaty of Waitangi, The Educultural Wheel and the Hikairo Rationale. Data were collected from two ethnographic case studies and analysed through these frameworks. Practical suggestions are then made for using restorative practices and creating reciprocal relationships in classrooms within an environment of care. The paper reports on an evidence-based approach to creating culturally-safe schools for Māori students.

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  • Evaluating power in development programmes

    Simon-Kumar, Rachel (2007)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    SINCE the mid-1990s, there has been a growing interest in, and use of discourse theories within development studies to understand contexts of power inequalities between individuals, groups and institutions. Banded together, several genres of scholarship which can be considered ‘discourse theories’ have emerged – post-development, post-positivist policy analysis, critical/sub-altern theorisations, post-structuralism, post-modernism and their feminist variants, among others – all of which draw some, if not the main bulk, of their core ideas from the perspectives derived by Michel Foucault (1926-1984) and his social/ linguistic/philosophical analyses.

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  • Assessing lodging service down under: a case of Hamilton, New Zealand

    Mohsin, Asad (2007)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Purpose – The aim of the study is to assess customer perceptions of service quality delivered by front office, room service and an in house restaurant/café in the lodgings of Hamilton, New Zealand. Design/methodology/approach – The study uses a survey and interview technique. A survey questionnaire with the help of local managers in the lodging industry was structured for this study. The study was undertaken at different lodgings in Hamilton involving face-to-face administration of the survey instrument. A useable sample of 645 participants resulted. Findings – The importance–performance analysis showed that responses related to front office, room service and in-house café/restaurant, the importance is statistically significant, higher than the performance. Gender also reflected statistical significance. Overall, the results indicate that most responses show gaps in importance and evaluations and this suggests managerial implications. Research limitations/implications – From a practitioners perspective the study provides an opportunity to recognize in ranking order general features that are considered important by the guest staying in lodgings in Hamilton in New Zealand. Additionally, the study also points out the evaluation of those guests, thereby identifying the areas of gaps in service and product quality. Originality/value – The study has been the first attempt to gauge the importance and experience from the stay of lodging guests in Hamilton, New Zealand. The research also provides an opportunity for a comparative study of service quality offered by lodgings in New Zealand with other parts of the world.

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  • A comparison between e-government practices in Taiwan and New Zealand.

    Deakins, Eric; Dillon, Stuart M.; Chen, Wan Jung (2007)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Few studies have focused on comparing the state of e-government in Western- and Non-Western settings, where the political, social, economic, and cultural environments can be markedly different. This paper compares the views of local authority policymakers in Taiwan and New Zealand, in order to judge the sophistication of their e-government initiatives via the formal and informal policies underpinning website development. Good level of agreement were observed between the Taiwanese and New Zealander respondents for the high levels of significance they attached to 3 key issues, which the authors argue are critical for successful e-government: Accessibility, Security and Privacy. Similarly, the policymakers agreed on a medium level of significance for the 7 key issues: E-procurement, Digital Divide, Private Sector, Taxation, Cultural Obstacles, IT Workforce, and Social Effects (and on a low level of significance for E-Tailing). It was concluded that government policymakers in both countries, in an era of commercial online social networking, are continuing to favour pushing(what they deem to be important) information to citizens, rather than creating collaborative service channels with citizens, contractors and suppliers or integrating separate service processes to satisfy all stakeholders. An attendant lack of commitment to promoting heightened (e-)democracy was also noted, especially in New Zealand.

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  • Mathematical investigations: A primary teacher educator's narrative journey of professional awareness

    Bailey, Judy (2007)

    Conference item
    University of Waikato

    As a teacher educator, I used narrative inquiry to investigate my professional practice in working alongside pre-service primary teachers in mathematics education. One theme that emerged from this research was the exploration of narrative as a powerful means with which to pursue professional development. In this process I encountered, and subsequently changed, previously unknown personal beliefs about learning mathematics. A second theme focused on the value of mathematical investigations, for myself as a mathematical learner and for supporting pre-service teachers to develop their understandings of what it means to learn and teach mathematics.

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  • The Waikato Region: Major tourism issues and opportunities to facilitate tourism development: Public summary

    Zahra, Anne Louise; Walter, Naomi Jane (2007-11-19)

    Report
    University of Waikato

    A regional tourism project was commissioned by Katolyst, the Waikato Economic Development Agency, to assess the following: What is meant by regional tourism; the current views of industry stakeholders within the tourism and hospitality sectors; major issues, drivers, and obstacles facing tourism and pathways to address them, including industry capabilities and new opportunities for industry growth. The purpose of this research was to record the voice of tourism operators and stakeholders at the grass roots, to identify the specific issues facing the Waikato. Visitors do not focus on geographical or political boundaries, but rather are seeking an experience that transcends these boundaries. The region is generally ignorant of the significant economic impacts of the tourism sector, and education and advocacy is urgently needed. Tourism should not be seen in isolation to other key economic generators for the region, and there is potential for cross sector regional initiatives between tourism and other major sectors within the Waikato that could lead to cross sector strategic growth. The Waikato is a significant player in international visitor expenditure (7th out of 30 tourism regions), although the forecasted growth to 2012 for the Waikato is less than the national average. Although the Australian visitor market is significant for Hamilton International Airport, it comprises just 2% of all Australian visitors to New Zealand. Domestic visitors are the major driver of visitor expenditure in the region, with domestic visitor expenditure in the Waikato the third highest among the 30 tourism regions in New Zealand. Events are a driver, yet there is a perception that there is a lack of coordination and regional linkages. i-SITEs are inadequately funded and can rely on non-visitor revenue streams. There is a need to improve tourism expertise and knowledge to facilitate product development, especially getting current and potential tourism product export ready and to understand the distribution channels for domestic and international marketing. Most operators in the region are small owner operated firms with a few medium sized firms. A number are lacking tourism sector knowledge and business capabilities.

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  • New ruthenium carbonyl clusters containing unusual 5-sulfido-, 4-benzyne-, and thianthrene-derived ligands: Insertion of ruthenium into the thianthrene ring by C-S activation

    Hassan, Mohammad R.; Kabir, Shariff E.; Nicholson, Brian K.; Nordlander, Ebbe; Uddin, Md. Nazim (2007-07-01)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Treatment of [Ru3(CO)12] with thianthrene in refluxing toluene afforded [( 4-S)Ru4( -CO)2(CO)9( 4- 2-C6H4)] (1), [( 5-S)Ru6( -CO)2(CO)15( - 3-C12H8S)] (2), and [( 5-S)Ru5( -CO)2(CO)11( - 3-C12H8S)( 4- 2-C6H4)] (3) in 18%, 8%, and 16% yields, respectively. Thermolysis of 2 in refluxing heptane gave compounds 1 and 3. A similar thermolysis of 3 in refluxing toluene gave 1 in 90% yield. Treatment of 3 with neat MeCN afforded the labile compound [( 5-S)Ru5( -CO)2(CO)10( - 3-C12H8S)( 4- 2-C6H4)(MeCN)] (4) in 73% yield. The reaction of 4 with P(OMe)3 gave the substitution product [( 5-S)Ru5( -CO)2(CO)10( - 3-C12H8S)( 4- 2-C6H4){P(OMe)3}] (5) in 52% yield. Compounds 1-4 have been structurally characterized. Compound 1 contains a 4-capping sulfido and a 4- 2-benzyne ligand, whereas 3, 4, and 5 contain 5-sulfido and 4- 2-benzyne ligands. The latter three compounds provide rare examples of 5-sulfido and metal-assisted opening of the thianthrene ligand on polynuclear centers. In compounds 1, 3, and 4 the 4- 2-benzyne ligand is perpendicular to the Ru4 face of the clusters and represents a previously uncharacterized bonding mode for benzyne.

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  • Religious fundamentalism and extremism: A paradigm analysis

    Pratt, Douglas (2007-06)

    Conference item
    University of Waikato

    Broadly speaking, the term ‘fundamentalism’ today names a religio-political perspective found in most if not all major religions in the contemporary world. At the present time it is associated with various expressions of religious extremism and, most worryingly, with religiously-motivated terrorism. In particular – though by no means exclusively – it is Islamic extremism and allied terrorist activities which are linked in our day to the idea of fundamentalism. While there have been many studies undertaken on so-called Islamic fundamentalism, the fact remains that it and, indeed, religious fundamentalism, in general are much misunderstood. In my view it is imperative to attempt to understand critically any potential – let alone real – relationship between fundamentalism and terrorism. It is, I suggest, the contemporary religious challenge, without equal. How can we explain and understand the difference between the religious fundamentalist who, in essence, simply holds an absolute truth- and value-perspective, on the one hand, and the so-called fundamentalist who engages in the extremist and violent behaviours of terrorism, on the other?

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  • Demographic change and regional competitiveness: The effects of immigration and ageing

    Poot, Jacques (2007-02)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    The demographic profile of a region is usually seen as a slowly changing background phenomenon in the analysis of regional competitiveness and regional growth. However, regional demographic change can have a significant impact on regional competitiveness and such change is often more rapid and profound than at the national level. In turn, regional population size, growth, composition and distribution are endogenous to regional economic development. This paper focuses on the impact of population ageing and immigration on aspects of regional competitiveness such as innovation, entrepreneurship and productivity. Immigration and ageing trends have generated huge separate literatures but it is argued here that it is fruitful to consider these trends jointly. Theoretically, there are many channels through which immigration and population ageing can affect regional competitiveness. There is empirical evidence that population ageing reduces regional competitiveness, while immigration – particularly of entrepreneurs and highly skilled workers to metropolitan areas – enhances competitiveness. Much of the available literature is based on smallscale case studies and rigorous econometric research on the impact of demographic change at the regional level is still remarkably rare. Some directions for further research are suggested.

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  • The effects of honey compared with sucrose and a sugar-free diet on neutrophil phagocytosis and lymphocyte numbers after long-term feeding in rats

    Chepulis, Lynne Merran (2007-10)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    To determine whether honey and sucrose would have differential effects on levels of neutrophil phagocytosis after long-term feeding 36 2-month old Sprague Dawley rats were fed a powdered diet that was either sugar-free or contained 7.9% sucrose or 10% honey (honey is 21% water) ad libitum for 52 weeks. The percent of neutrophils exhibiting phagocytosis, and the percentage of leukocytes that were lymphocytes were then measured by flow cytometry after 52 weeks. Results: Neutrophil phagocytosis was similar between sucrose- and honey-fed rats, and lower in rats fed the sugar-free diet (79.2%, 74.7% and 51.7 %, respectively). The percentage of leukocytes that were lymphocytes differed significantly between all three treatments, the levels being highest in honey-fed rats (53% vs 40.1% and 29.5% for sucrose- and sugar-free fed rats). In conclusion: Honey may have a beneficial effect on immune activity, possibly attenuating the decline seen in older age.

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  • Path dependence or convergence? The evolution of corporate ownership around the world

    Yeh, Andrew Jia-Yuh; Lim, Steven; Vos, Ed (2007-12)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    We offer a model that sheds light on the debate over whether corporate ownership concentration converges to the Berle-Means image. Our model takes into account the importance of both legal rules and firm-specific arrangements. Our analytical result is that share ownership concentration either persists or falls depending on the relative importance of these protective arrangements. In particular, our model predicts: (a) diffuse corporate ownership in nations that impose legal limits on blockholders’ clout to expropriate minority shareholder rights, and (b) concentrated corporate ownership in nations that rely on asset specificity as a form of investor protection. Our empirical work suggests partial convergence toward Berle-Means diffuse share ownership. It is thereby reasonable to infer the existence of path dependent forces on ownership concentration. But this result does not preclude the possibility of functional convergence or convergence to the diffuse form of share ownership via cross-listings on the major U.S. stock exchanges that impose stringent disclosure and listing requirements. In essence, these results suggest a case for the co-existence of the preexisting path-dependency and functional-convergence stories.

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  • The meaning of "Terrorism": An analysis of developments from Cicero, St Augustine and the Pirate, to the United Nations draft convention

    Williamson, Myra Elsie Jane Bell (2007)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    What is in a name? That which we call a rose, by any other name would smell as sweet. These famous words uttered by Juliet Capulet in a Shakespearean play set in an Italian town have come to represent the notion that what matters most is what something is, not what it is called. Although that assumption may apply to roses and star-crossed lovers, its validity is more arguable when applied to subjects such as that which we are discussing during this session of the 2007 Cortona Colloquium. This paper addresses the meaning of terrorism. It is premised on the assumption that, as opposed to the abovementioned Shakespearean interpretation of the importance of a name, when it comes to defining terrorism the name is all important. The question of which actions deserve to be daubed with the pejorative term "terrorism" is currently a live issue in international law and debate continues as to how the term "terrorism" should be defined, especially in light of the efforts to achieve an international comprehensive convention against terrorism. In this sense, the question "what's in a name", must be answered with a response of, "everything is in the name". This paper is divided into three parts. Part I focuses on the use of force by non-state actors in antiquity and seeks to show that the use of force against civilians to instil fear in order to achieve political or ideological objectives is not the exclusive domain of the twenty-first century. A brief examination of some non-state actors of antiquity, namely pirates, will be undertaken in order to provide some historical perspective for the latter stages of this paper. Part II summarises the attempts that have been made within various domestic jurisdictions to define "terrorism" and, by analysing some of those definitions, it becomes clear that defining a "terrorist act" is an apparently more achievable legislative task than defining "terrorism" per se. Part III then addresses the question of whether it is possible to achieve an international comprehensive convention which includes a universally acceptable definition of terrorism. One of the conclusions that will be reached towards the end of the paper is that there is still a great deal of disagreement between states as to how "terrorism" should be defined and that despite the continuing efforts at achieving consensus on a definition, the outcome may well represent an unsatisfactory compromise at the expense of genuine consensus.

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