5 results for Ackroyd, Peter

  • High country river processes : a technical discussion of results from research on the Kowai River system, Springfield, Canterbury

    Blakely, R. J.; Marden, M.; Ackroyd, Peter

    Book
    Lincoln University

    A sub-catchment (Torlesse Stream) of the Kowai River, Canterbury, has been the site of an interdisciplinary study of the relationships between erosion and stream sedimentation (Hayward 1975). It was logical to extend the stream sediment investigation of that study (Hayward 1978) into the Kowai system proper in order to establish changes in the nature and distribution of the stream sediments with distance downstream. The sediment sampling study, comprising Part I of Paper A in this volume, analyses the changes in size, distribution, form and rock type of the river gravels from ahead water mountain stream to the wide braided river beds of the middle reaches of the Kowai River. Part 2 of Paper A discusses the possible implications for the management that these sediment studies have for this and other similar river systems. It is believed that if thought necessary it is possible to design a river training programme to guide the river towards a more manageable pattern. Paper B of this volume compares the results of the present river gravel survey with those from a sedimentological analysis of fluvio-glacial outwash gravels deposited several thousand years ago within the lower reaches of the Kowai system. This comparative study is used to indicate differences in the hydrologic environment prevailing at their respective times of deposition, and aids in our understanding of the processes at work in hill and high country rivers today. Both Papers A and B relate to the Kowai River system, but the authors wish to emphasise that the findings from these studies are believed to have application to other similar gravel bed river systems.

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  • Politics, economics and: pastoral land management in New Zealand: tenures for the times

    Ackroyd, Peter

    Book
    Lincoln University

    The span of this report encompasses major changes in terminology and in units of measure. Unless otherwise indicated, terminology and measures have been used in forms appropriate to their historical context. New Zealand changed to decimal currency in 1967 at which time $2 = £1 (=20s=240d). For all practical purposes land-based activities, such as farming, adopted International System (SI) units by 1974. The colonial terms 'pasturage,’ ‘pastoral land,' 'pastoralism' and 'pastoralist' are generally synonymous with the American terms 'range,' 'rangeland,' ‘grazing’ and 'rancher.' The payment made by Crown tenants for the use of Crown land, and commonly referred to as rent, is herein described by the term 'annual rental.’ Part of this report is developed from a previously unpublished paper by Rodney P. Hide and Peter Ackroyd titled ‘The Freehold Option’ and presented to the High Country Committee of Federated Farmers’ Annual Conference, Timaru, June 1989. See: http://hdl.handle.net/10182/843

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  • Co-operative land management in New Zealand

    Blackford, Carolyn; Ackroyd, Peter; Williams, Tracy

    Book
    Lincoln University

    Land management policies in New Zealand have had several distinct phases. The post War drive to expand substantially pastoral production was characterised by an increased reliance on technological and chemical inputs. A publicly funded infrastructure provided farmers and rural communities with farm advisory services, subsidy programmes, and arid financial assistance to recover from natural disasters and adverse climatic events. In the 1970s people began to question the wisdom of this orientation. A shift in public opinion reflected changing attitudes towards these of natural resources and the impact of production and development on the environment. The economic restructuring and reorganisation of state agencies implemented by the fourth Labour Government in the mid 1980s resulted in a withdrawal of farm services and funding sources. The move towards market allocation of resources and fiscal restraint led to the removal or reduction of subsidies. The change has meant some land uses are not sustainable in terms of their impact on soil resources or their economic viability. There are also parts of New Zealand where current land use problems are not confined to individual property boundaries. The response to these problems has varied significantly. In some cases, central government has provided financial incentives to generate change or to provide short-term assistance. In other situations land users have attempted to develop productive systems that are more suited to the resource base. When crises develop, the overall response has tended to occur largely through central government initiative. Although land management initiatives are adopted with the intention of including those experiencing land use problems, the complex interaction between physical, economic, financial, and social factors has generally been overlooked. While understanding varies with regard to physical, economic and financial factors, the role of those affected and the process of their inclusion is generally not we'll understood Economic and social impediments to change can be based on a lack of access to information. Individuals are often unaware of the source of necessary information and advice. A further constraint appears to be the inconsistent data bases that are used by different groups. Other impediments include an inability of individuals to perceive problems that occur on their own properties, social pressure to conform, short term financial constraints infrastructure constraints, inflexible institutional arrangements, and inadequate policy-making processes to facilitate change. One area that warrants attention involves the breaking down of information monopolies; that is situations where particular information regarding some natural or social phenomenon is specific to a particular social grouping. All parties are likely to benefit significantly when data gathering and analysis functions are decentralised to the most appropriate management level. The challenge facing New Zealand land policy makers is to investigate approaches to land management where all knowledge or information about the resource is incorporated in decisions. It is hypothesised that movement towards sustainable development and management of natural resources depends on resource users being empowered to identify and resolve issues that they are associated with. There is interest in exploring approaches to land management that involve cooperation between land policy makers and those affected by policy making.

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  • The freehold option

    Hide, Rodney P.; Ackroyd, Peter

    Book
    Lincoln University

    High Country Farmers' Annual Conference, Timaru, 12-13 June 1989.

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  • Property rights and hazardous substances policy

    Hide, Rodney P.; Ackroyd, Peter

    Book
    Lincoln University

    Report to the Ministry for the Environment.

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