4 results for Akbarshahi, M

  • Evaluation of predicted knee-joint muscle forces during gait using an instrumented knee implant.

    Kim, HJ; Fernandez, Justin; Akbarshahi, M; Walter, JP; Fregly, BJ; Pandy, MG (2009-10)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Musculoskeletal modeling and optimization theory are often used to determine muscle forces in vivo. However, convincing quantitative evaluation of these predictions has been limited to date. The present study evaluated model predictions of knee muscle forces during walking using in vivo measurements of joint contact loading acquired from an instrumented implant. Joint motion, ground reaction force, and tibial contact force data were recorded simultaneously from a single subject walking at slow, normal, and fast speeds. The body was modeled as an 8-segment, 21-degree-of-freedom articulated linkage, actuated by 58 muscles. Joint moments obtained from inverse dynamics were decomposed into leg-muscle forces by solving an optimization problem that minimized the sum of the squares of the muscle activations. The predicted knee muscle forces were input into a 3D knee implant contact model to calculate tibial contact forces. Calculated and measured tibial contact forces were in good agreement for all three walking speeds. The average RMS errors for the medial, lateral, and total contact forces over the entire gait cycle and across all trials were 140 +/- 40 N, 115 +/- 32 N, and 183 +/- 45 N, respectively. Muscle coordination predicted by the model was also consistent with EMG measurements reported for normal walking. The combined experimental and modeling approach used in this study provides a quantitative framework for evaluating model predictions of muscle forces in human movement.

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  • Integrating modelling, motion capture and x-ray fluoroscopy to investigate patellofemoral function during dynamic activity.

    Fernandez, Justin; Akbarshahi, M; Kim, HJ; Pandy, MG (2008-02)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Accurate measurement of knee-joint kinematics is critical for understanding the biomechanical function of the knee in vivo. Measurements of the relative movements of the bones at the knee are often used in inverse dynamics analyses to estimate the net muscle torques exerted about the joint, and as inputs to finite-element models to accurately assess joint contact. The fine joint translations that contribute to patterns of joint stress are impossible to measure accurately using traditional video-based motion capture techniques. Sub-millimetre changes in joint translation can mean the difference between contact and no contact of the cartilage tissue, leading to incorrect predictions of joint loading. This paper describes the use of low-dose X-ray fluoroscopy, an in vivo dynamic imaging modality that is finding increasing application in human joint motion measurement. Specifically, we describe a framework that integrates traditional motion capture, X-ray fluoroscopy and anatomically-based finite-element modelling for the purpose of assessing joint function during dynamic activity. We illustrate our methodology by applying it to study patellofemoral joint function, wherein the relative movements of the patella are predicted and the corresponding joint-contact stresses are calculated for a step-up task.

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  • Model predictions of increased knee joint loading in regions of thinner articular cartilage after patellar tendon adhesion.

    Fernandez, Justin; Akbarshahi, M; Shelbourne, K; Schache, A; Crossley, K; Pandy, M (2011)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Patellar tendon adhesion is a complication from anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction that may affect patellofemoral and tibiofemoral biomechanics. A computational model was used to investigate the changes in knee joint mechanics due to patellar tendon adhesion under normal physiological loading during gait. The calculations showed that patellar tendon adhesion up to the level of the anterior tibial plateau led to patellar infera, increased patellar flexion, and increased anterior tibial translation. These kinematic changes were associated with increased patellar contact force, a distal shift in peak patellar contact pressure, a posterior shift in peak tibial contact pressure, and increased peak tangential contact sliding distance over one gait cycle (i.e., contact slip). Postadhesion, patellar and tibial contact locations corresponded to regions of thinner cartilage. The predicted distal shift in patellar contact was in contrast to other patellar infera studies. Average patellar and tibial cartilage pressure did not change significantly following patellar tendon adhesion; however, peak medial tibial pressure increased. These results suggest that changes in peak tibial cartilage pressure, contact slip, and the migration of contact to regions of thinner cartilage are associated with patellar tendon adhesion and may be responsible for initiating patellofemoral pain and knee joint structural damage observed following ACL reconstruction.

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  • Non-invasive assessment of soft-tissue artifact and its effect on knee joint kinematics during functional activity.

    Akbarshahi, M; Schache, AG; Fernandez, Justin; Baker, R; Banks, S; Pandy, MG (2010-05-07)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    The soft-tissue interface between skin-mounted markers and the underlying bones poses a major limitation to accurate, non-invasive measurement of joint kinematics. The aim of this study was twofold: first, to quantify lower limb soft-tissue artifact in young healthy subjects during functional activity; and second, to determine the effect of soft-tissue artifact on the calculation of knee joint kinematics. Subject-specific bone models generated from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were used in conjunction with X-ray images obtained from single-plane fluoroscopy to determine three-dimensional knee joint kinematics for four separate tasks: open-chain knee flexion, hip axial rotation, level walking, and a step-up. Knee joint kinematics was derived using the anatomical frames from the MRI-based, 3D bone models together with the data from video motion capture and X-ray fluoroscopy. Soft-tissue artifact was defined as the degree of movement of each marker in the anteroposterior, proximodistal and mediolateral directions of the corresponding anatomical frame. A number of different skin-marker clusters (total of 180) were used to calculate knee joint rotations, and the results were compared against those obtained from fluoroscopy. Although a consistent pattern of soft-tissue artifact was found for each task across all subjects, the magnitudes of soft-tissue artifact were subject-, task- and location-dependent. Soft-tissue artifact for the thigh markers was substantially greater than that for the shank markers. Markers positioned in the vicinity of the knee joint showed considerable movement, with root mean square errors as high as 29.3mm. The maximum root mean square errors for calculating knee joint rotations occurred for the open-chain knee flexion task and were 24.3 degrees , 17.8 degrees and 14.5 degrees for flexion, internal-external rotation and abduction-adduction, respectively. The present results on soft-tissue artifact, based on fluoroscopic measurements in healthy adult subjects, may be helpful in developing location- and direction-specific weighting factors for use in global optimization algorithms aimed at minimizing the effects of soft-tissue artifact on calculations of knee joint rotations.

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