1 results for Alam, Jahangir

  • A review of economic reforms in Bangladesh and New Zealand, and their impact on agriculture

    Alam, Jahangir

    Lincoln University

    Bangladesh and New Zealand are two small countries. Agriculture is the economic base in both countries. Both undertook economic reforms in the 1980s and 1990s. The experiences with economic reforms in these two countries were mixed. Though the impact of reform on macro-economic performance was positive, it was negative on agricultural growth. In both countries, the fiscal balance improved, the current account deficit fell, overseas borrowing was reduced, the foreign exchange reserve increased and inflation rates declined after macroeconomic policy reforms. However, as agricultural reform was initiated and subsidies removed, total production immediately fell and its growth rate experienced a long-term decline. The decline in growth of agriculture was accompanied by a decline in this sector's share to GDP and total export earnings. Nevertheless, the most recent growth rates in agriculture show a healthy recovery and the level of financial profitability per farm/per unit of land seems to have improved.ยท Farmers tended to diversify their farm business, follow intensive practices and become more efficient in farming as a result of economic reforms. However, a radical economic reform may initially be associated with reduced food supply due to a decline in growth of agricultural production. This may have a short term benefit to a food exporting country, but may worsen the food security of a food importing country. Thus a radical and rapid policy reform in agriculture seems inappropriate for food deficit countries. The study indicates further that the need for intervention in the market is less for progress of the developed countries. Nevertheless, a balance between market liberalism and state activism is required for overall development of the developing countries.

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