6 results for Alexander, J.

  • Revisiting Read Wear: Analysis, Design, and Evaluation of a Footprints Scrollbar

    Cockburn, A.; Fitchett, S.; Gutwin, C.; Greenberg, S.; Alexander, J. (2009)

    Conference Contributions - Published
    University of Canterbury Library

    In this paper, we show that people frequently return to previously-visited regions within their documents, and that scrollbars can be enhanced to ease this task. We analysed 120 days of activity logs from Microsoft Word and Adobe Reader. Our analysis shows that region revisitation is a common activity that can be supported with relatively short recency lists. This establishes an empirical foundation for the design of an enhanced scrollbar containing scrollbar marks that help people return to previously visited document regions. Two controlled experiments show that scrollbar marks decrease revisitation time, and that a large number of marks can be used effectively. We then design an enhanced Footprints scrollbar that supports revisitation with several features, including scrollbar marks and mark thumbnails. Two further experiments show that the Footprints scrollbar was frequently used and strongly preferred over traditional scrollbars.

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  • An Empirical Characterisation of Electronic Document Navigation

    Cockburn, A.; Alexander, J. (2008)

    Conference Contributions - Published
    University of Canterbury Library

    To establish an empirical foundation for analysis and redesign of document navigation tools, we implemented a system that logs all user actions within Microsoft Word and Adobe Reader. We then conducted a four month longitudinal study of fourteen users’ document navigation activities. The study found that approximately half of all documents manipulated are reopenings of previously used documents and that recent document lists are rarely used to return to a document. The two most used navigation tools (by distance moved) are the mousewheel and scrollbar thumb, accounting for 44% and 29% of Word movement and 17% and 31% of Reader navigation. Participants were grouped into stereotypical navigator categories based on the tools they used the most. Majority of the navigation actions observed were short, both in distance (less than one page) and in time (less than one second). We identified three types of within document hunting, with the scrollbar identified as the greatest contributor.

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  • ISO 14001 environmental management system performance: an evaluation of ten organisations in Canterbury, New Zealand

    Alexander, J.; Donaldson, D.; Mackle, K.; Marinov, M. G.; McKenna, M.; Lu, X. F.; Hughey, K. F. D.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    The aim of our research was to undertake a qualitative evaluation of the performance of ISO 14001 in ten Canterbury based organisations. An evaluation framework was developed consisting of twenty-two questions based on the ISO 14001 auditable elements. This framework formed the basis for qualitative interviews with representatives from each organisation. Our research indicates that ISO 14001 is an effective Environmental Management System (EMS) that led to improvements in environmental performance, however not without some limitations.

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  • Faster document navigation with space filling thumbnails

    Cockburn, A.; Gutwin, C.; Alexander, J. (2006)

    Conference Contributions - Published
    University of Canterbury Library

    Scrolling is the standard way to navigate through many types of digital documents. However, moving more than a few pages can be slow because all scrolling techniques constrain visual search to only a small document region. To improve document navigation, we developed Space-Filling Thumbnails (SFT), an overview display that eliminates most scrolling. SFT provides two views: a standard page view for reading, and a thumbnail view that shows all pages. We tested SFT in three experiments that involved finding pages in documents. The first study (n=13) compared seven current scrolling techniques, and showed that SFT is significantly faster than the other methods. The second and third studies (n=32 and n=14) were detailed comparisons of SFT with thumbnail-enhanced scrollbars (TES), which performed well in the first experiment. SFT was faster than TES across all document types and lengths, particularly when tasks involved revisitation. In addition, SFT was strongly preferred by participants.

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  • AppMonitor: A Tool for Recording User Actions in Unmodified Windows Applications

    Alexander, J.; Cockburn, A.; Lobb, R. (2008)

    Journal Articles
    University of Canterbury Library

    This paper describes AppMonitor, a Microsoft Windows based client-side logging tool that records user actions in unmodified Windows applications. AppMonitor allows researchers to gain insights into many facets of interface interaction such as command use frequency, behavioural patterns prior to or following command use, and methods of navigating through systems and datasets. AppMonitor uses the Windows SDK libraries to monitor both low level interactions such as “left mouse button pressed” and “Ctrl-F pressed” as well as high level ‘logical’ actions such as menu selections and scrollbar manipulations. The events recorded are configurable, allowing researchers to perform broad or targeted studies. No user input is required to manage logging, allowing subjects to seamlessly conduct everyday work while their actions are monitored. The system currently supports logging in Microsoft Word and Adobe Reader, however it could be extended for use with any Microsoft Windows based application. To support other researchers wishing to create multi-level event loggers we describe AppMonitor’s underlying architecture and implementation, and provide a brief example of the data generated during our four month trial with six users.

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  • Revisiting Read Wear: Analysis, Design, and Evaluation of a Footprints Scrollbar

    Alexander, J.; Cockburn, A.; Fitchett, S.; Gutwin, C.; Greenberg, S. (2008)

    Reports
    University of Canterbury Library

    TR-COSC 02/08

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