2 results for Ali, Mohammad
Transfer of sustainable energy technology to developing countries as a means of reducing greenhouse gas emission : the case of Bangladesh : a thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Applied and International Economics at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand
Over the last two decades the world has been becoming increasingly concerned about greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, global warming, unsustainable development, and poverty in the developing countries. The most acceptable way of mitigating GHG emission is the use of sustainable energy technology (SET) instead of fossil fuel. SET is available in the global market, but is outside the scope of availability for many developing countries. Due to the lack of economic and technical capabilities and wide-spread poverty, developing countries are unable to introduce SET independently, hence a need for appropriate assistance from developed countries. The case study was conducted in Bangladesh, one of the poorest countries in the world, with acute shortages of energy and largely disadvantaged rural population. The study assessed three energy technologies-biomass, solar, and wind-to identify the most viable options of SET for the rural Bangladesh. The appropriateness of the proposed SETs is assessed on the basis of certain criteria: availability of resources, cost-effectiveness, degree of technological complexity, matching demand and supply, and contribution to reducing GHG emission. It has been found that each SET taken separately, has its limitations. The main barrier for biomass energy technology is the availability of biomass due to scarcity of land, and hence, producing food is preferable to growing trees for fuel. The major limitations for solar and wind energy technologies are high levels of capital investment and technological complexity. The study proposes a combination of biomass, solar, and wind SETs as a long-term solution of energy crisis in the rural Bangladesh. It suggests relevant policy and types of assistance in the form of investment in education and training, machinery, spare parts, know-how etc. A brief proposal for capacity building has been prepared. It is expected that the proposed SETs will benefit sustainable development, poverty alleviation of rural Bangladesh, and the national socio-economic conditions. The study findings contribute to general knowledge, and are especially useful for developing countries.View record details
Teachers’ and students’ perspectives on English language assessment in the secondary English Language Teaching (ELT) curriculum in Bangladesh.
Ali, Mohammad (2011)
University of Canterbury Library
This qualitative study aims to address the current understanding of English language assessment of both the teachers and students in the secondary schools in Bangladesh. The study conducted semi-structured interviews with six English teachers and focus group interviews with two groups of students in two different secondary schools and these interview responses were compared to probe the related understandings and experiences of both the teachers and the students. These findings reveal that the present English assessment system in the secondary level in Bangladesh does not reflect a balanced development of all the language skills of the learners and there are inconsistencies between the stated objectives of teaching English and the actual teaching methods in the language teaching in the secondary schools in Bangladesh. Though summative assessment is still dominating, the practice of formative assessment is slowly developing. The study indicates that there has been a gradual shift in the assessment process and the teachers were trying to use individual assessment strategies to motivate the students’ learning. Both the teachers and the students in the study emphasised that current assessment is mainly based on reading and writing. However, for overall development of language skills, the secondary English language curriculum may need to be redesigned so that all the four skills are able to be included in the assessment system. Better opportunities for training to develop teachers’ effectiveness and their knowledge of learners should be considered also.View record details