87 results for Ameratunga, Shanthi

  • Organisational travel plans for improving health.

    Hosking, JE; Macmillan, Alexandra; Connor, JL; Bullen, Christopher; Ameratunga, Shanthi (2010)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Travel plans are programmes that aim to change travel behaviour. If successful they are likely to change health related outcomes, with the possibility of risks as well as benefits. It is not currently clear how travel plans will affect health, and this systematic review aims to assess the effects of organisational travel plans on a variety of health outcomes.

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  • Hand-held internet tablets for school-based data collection

    Denny, Simon; Milfont, Taciano; Utter, Jennifer; Robinson, Elizabeth; Ameratunga, Shanthi; Merry, Sally; Fleming, Theresa; Watson, Peter (2008)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    An open access copy of this article is available and complies with the copyright holder/publisher conditions. BACKGROUND:In the last 20 years, researchers have been using computer self-administered questionnaires to gather data on a wide range of adolescent health related behaviours. More recently, researchers collecting data in schools have started to use smaller hand-held computers for their ease of use and portability. The aim of this study is to describe a new technology with wi-fi enabled hand-held internet tablets and to compare adolescent preferences of laptop computers or hand-held internet tablets in administering a youth health and well-being questionnaire in a school setting.METHODS:A total of 177 students took part in a pilot study of a national youth health and wellbeing survey. Students were randomly assigned to internet tablets or laptops at the start of the survey and were changed to the alternate mode of administration about half-way through the questionnaire. Students at the end of the questionnaire were asked which of the two modes of administration (1) they preferred, (2) was easier to use, (3) was more private and confidential, and (4) was easier to answer truthfully.RESULTS:Many students expressed no preference between laptop computers or internet tablets. However, among the students who expressed a preference between laptop computers or internet tablets, the majority of students found the internet tablets more private and confidential (p < 0.001) and easier to answer questions truthfully (p < 0.001) compared to laptop computers.CONCLUSION:This study demonstrates that using wi-fi enabled hand-held internet tablets is a feasible methodology for school-based surveys especially when asking about sensitive information.

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  • Acute poisoning fatalities and hospitalisations among children and youth in New Zealand

    Peiris-John, Roshini; Kool, Bridget; Ameratunga, Shanthi (2012)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    Background Globally, poisoning accounts for a significant proportion of deaths among children and young people aged 0–24 years. However, few studies have examined changes in the epidemiologic characteristics across this age group and explored the particular features that could inform targeted intervention strategies. Aim To determine demographic patterns and substances related to acute poisoning fatalities and hospital admissions among children (0–14 years) and youth (15–24 years) in New Zealand. Methods Using the national mortality (1999–2008) and morbidity (2000–2009) databases compiled by the New Zealand Ministry of Health, ICD external cause data corresponding to relevant poisoning events were extracted and analysed. Results During the 10-year period, 286 fatalities and 15 626 primary hospital admissions accounted for mean annual rates of 2.0 and 108.6/100 000 young people aged 0–24 years, respectively. Over half of the deaths and hospitalisations were due to intentional poisoning which occurred mainly among youth aged 15–24 years. Most unintentional poisoning hospitalisations were among children aged less than 5 years. In general, young people of European and Maori ethnicities and those residing in socio-economically deprived neighbourhoods were over-represented among poisoning events. While most deaths were due to carbon monoxide toxicity, most hospitalisations for poisonings were due to pharmacological drugs. Significance The burden of poisoning among young people in New Zealand is substantial with important differences in related demographic and injury characteristics. Age-specific prevention strategies targeting exposure to carbon monoxide and pharmacological drugs and suicide prevention strategies more generally require particular attention. The leading cause of infant and under 5-years' child burn mortality was contact with hot drinks and foods (31.6%, 45.6%) in 2009. According to the study report of Mongolia, the median age of child death of burn was 3.0. Therefore child burn is the public health priority issues that need comprehensive policies and measures in order to reduce the incidence of child burn in Mongolia. The aim of the study was to determine the incidence of child burn among Ulaanbaatar. The study involved a total number of 793 children of 711 families from the Ulaanbaatar, randomly. The age range was 0–5, of which 50.7% were boys. A total of 51.3% attend in daycare centres. 17.9% of the total surveyed children were injured within the last year, of which 8.1% were resulted from burns. A total of 83.3% of burned children were at home when accidents happened. Only 41.7% of the surveyed family members stated that the children burned themselves. The family members were asked during the survey: ‘what to do when your child gets burned’. Out of the total, 38.7% indicated that they would treat it by soap, 49.1% by sugar, 39.6% by blood of dogs, and of which 51% would treat by raw meat. This study identified that almost all of these burn incidents occurred in environment among the children under 5 years old. This study concludes that the family members have inadequate knowledge about child accident prevention programme and the first-aid treatment.

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  • Social and physical contexts of schools and neighborhoods: Associations with physical activity among young people in New Zealand

    Utter, J; Denny, Simon; Robinson, E; Ameratunga, Shanthi; Milfont, TL (2011-09)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Objectives. We sought to determine the association between school- and neighborhood-level characteristics and physical activity among young people.Methods. We collected the data as part of Youth'07, a nationally representative survey of the health and well-being of high school students in New Zealand. In total, 9107 students from 96 schools participated (63% response rate). Students answered questions about their schools (e.g., support for physical activity) and neighborhoods (e.g., community cohesion, disintegration, safety, and recreational facilities). We created school-level measures by aggregating the students' reports within their schools and we created neighborhood-level measures by aggregating the students' reports of their neighborhoods to the census area unit of their residential address. We conducted analyses by using cross-classified random-effects models controlling for individual variables, with school and neighborhoods treated as random effects.Results. Schools characterized by high sports team participation and neighborhoods characterized by high social connections were positively associated with student physical activity. We observed few other significant characteristics of school and neighborhood environments.Conclusions. Our findings highlight that opportunity for sports participation and strong social connections in neighborhoods are particularly important for youths' physical activity. (Am J Public Health. 2011;101:1690-1695. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2011.300171)

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  • The Spectrum Captured: A Methodological Approach to Studying Incidence and Outcomes of Traumatic Brain Injury on a Population Level

    Theadom, Alice; Barker-Collo, Suzanne; Feigin, Valery L.; Starkey, Nicola J.; Jones, Kelly; Jones, Amy; Ameratunga, Shanthi; Barber, P. Alan (2012)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Objective: Drawing on the experience of conducting the Brain Injury Incidence and Outcomes New Zealand in the Community study, this article aims to identify the issues arising from the implementation of proposed guidelines for population-based studies of incidence and outcomes in traumatic brain injury (TBI). Study Design and Setting: All new cases of TBI (all ages and severities) were ascertained over a 1-year period, using overlapping prospective and retrospective sources of case ascertainment in New Zealand. All eligible TBI cases were invited to participate in a comprehensive assessment at baseline and at 1-month follow-up. Results: Our experience to date has revealed the feasibility of case ascertainment methods. Consultation with community health services and professionals resulted in feasible referral pathways to support the identification of TBI cases. ‘Hot pursuit’ methods of recruitment were essential to ensure complete case ascertainment for this population with few additional cases of TBI identified through cross-checks. Conclusion: This review of proposed guidelines in relation to practical study methodology provides a framework for future comparable population-based epidemiological studies of TBI incidence and outcomes in developed countries.

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  • Being in Trouble with the Police and Associations with Mental Health Outcomes Amongst Alternative Education Students in New Zealand

    Clark, Terryann; Robinson, Elizabeth; Fleming, Theresa; Smith, J; Denny, S; Jackson, C; Raphael, Deborah; Ameratunga, Shanthi (2011)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    Students who are excluded from mainstream education are vulnerable to negative health, social and educational outcomes. The purpose of this analysis to is to explore whether being in trouble with the Police is associated with mental health problems such as depressive symptoms, conduct problems, hyperactivity-inattention symptoms, marijuana use and binge drinking for students attending Alternative Education (AE) in New Zealand.

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  • The role of conspicuity in bicycle crashes involving a motor vehicle

    Tin Tin, Sandar; Woodward, Alistair; Ameratunga, Shanthi (2014-10-30)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Why is the risk of bicycle crash injury higher in the Auckland region?: Findings from the Taupo Bicycle Study.

    Tin Tin, Sandar; Woodward, Alistair; Ameratunga, Shanthi (2014-10-06)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • What influences the association between previous and future crashes among cyclists.

    Tin Tin, Sandar; Woodward, Alistair; Ameratunga, Shanthi (2014-10-09)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Cost of traumatic brain injury in New Zealand: Evidence from a population-based study.

    Te Ao, Braden; Brown, Paul; Tobias, Martin; Ameratunga, Shanthi; Barker-Collo, Suzanne; Theadom, Alice; McPherson, Kathryn; Starkey, Nicola J.; Dowell, Anthony; Jones, Kelly; Feigin, Valery L. (2014-09)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    OBJECTIVE: We aimed to estimate from a societal perspective the 1-year and lifetime direct and indirect costs of traumatic brain injury (TBI) for New Zealand (NZ) in 2010 projected to 2020. METHODS: An incidence-based cost of illness model was developed using data from the Brain Injury Outcomes New Zealand in the Community Study. Details of TBI-related resource use during the first 12 months after injury were obtained for 725 cases using resource utilization information from participant surveys and medical records. Total costs are presented in US dollars year 2010 value. RESULTS: In 2010, 11,301 first-ever TBI cases were estimated to have occurred in NZ; total first-year cost of all new TBI cases was estimated to be US $47.9 million with total prevalence costs of US $101.4 million. The average cost per new TBI case during the first 12 months and over a lifetime was US $5,922 (95% confidence interval [CI] $4,777-$7,858), varying from US $4,636 (95% CI $3,756-$5,561) for mild cases to US $36,648 (95% CI $16,348-$65,350) for moderate/severe cases. Because of the unexpectedly large number of mild TBI cases (95% of all TBI cases), the total cost of treating these cases is nearly 3 times that of moderate/severe. The total lifetime cost of all TBI survivors in 2010 was US $146.5 million and is expected to increase to US $177.1 million in 2020. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that there is an urgent need to develop effective interventions to prevent both mild and moderate/severe TBI.

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  • Riding in a motor vehicle with a driver under the influence of alcohol and drinking patterns: findings from a national survey of New Zealand youth

    Tin Tin, Sandar; Ameratunga, Shanthi; Watson, Peter (2008)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Objective. To investigate the relationships between the risks of riding in a motor vehicle with a driver under the influence of alcohol and young people's drinking patterns and usual drinking locations. Methods. A secondary analysis was undertaken of Youth2000 data - the first nationally representative youth health survey conducted in 2001. The study base comprised all secondary schools with more than 50 students enrolled in years 9 to 13 (ages 12 to 18 years). An anonymous multi-media computer-assisted interview survey collected information on drinking patterns, locations, and if the respondent had ridden in a motor vehicle with a driver who was under the influence of alcohol during the previous 30 days. Results. Of the 9,567 respondents, 27.8% reported riding with a driver who had been drinking alcohol and 27.4% reported riding with a driver who had consumed more than two glasses of alcohol in the two hours before travel (36.4% responded 'yes' to one or other item). After adjusting for age and gender, binge drinking, drinking in cars, at parties and outdoors, and drinking in the company of friends were associated with a significantly increased risk of riding in a motor vehicle driven by a driver under the influence of alcohol. This risk was not apparent among adolescents who usually consumed alcohol at home and those who usually drank with family. Conclusions. The findings indicate the need to consider how and where adolescents drink to inform effective public policies that can reduce alcohol-related harm and road traffic injury.

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  • Bicycle travel, injury risk and conspicuity: Findings from a PhD project in New Zealand

    Tin Tin, Sandar; Woodward, Alistair; Ameratunga, Shanthi (2015-08)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Regular cycling provides health, environmental and economic benefits but is rarely part of everyday travel for many people. The real and perceived risk of injury is commonly cited as a significant deterrent to engaging in such activity and motor vehicles are regarded as a particular threat. Bicycle-motor vehicle collisions often result from the driver's failure to detect the cyclist in time, suggesting that conspicuity may be a contributing factor. This paper provides an overview of bicycle travel, injury risk and conspicuity in New Zealand, based on the findings of a PhD research project conducted in 2008-14. The findings of the Taupo Bicycle Study, a prospective cohort study involving 2,590 adult cyclists, were used in conjunction with aggregate or de-identified data from routinely collected national databases.

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  • Kicked out of School and Suffering: The Health Needs of Alternative Education Youth in New Zealand

    Fleming, Theresa; Clark, Terryann; Smith, J; Raphael, Deborah; Jackson, C; Denny, Simon; Ameratunga, Shanthi; Crengle, Suzanne (2010)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Anonymous self-report health and wellbeing surveys were completed by alternative education (AE) students in the Auckland and Northland regions of New Zealand, and 11 semi-structured interviews were conducted with key informants about their perceptions of health issues for AE students. Both groups reported concerning health-risk behaviours among AE students, including drug and alcohol abuse, depressive symptoms and dangerous driving. Health services have consistently failed to engage AE students in effective primary and preventative care that includes their wha??nau/family. Signi!cant changes to the current New Zealand health system are required to provide appropriate and effective health care for students attending AE facilities.

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  • Incidence of traumatic brain injury in New Zealand: A population-based study

    Feigin, Valery L.; Theadom, Alice; Barker-Collo, Suzanne; Starkey, Nicola J.; McPherson, Kathryn; Kahan, Michael; Dowell, Anthony; Brown, Paul; Parag, Varsha; Kydd, Robert; Jones, Kelly; Jones, Amy; Ameratunga, Shanthi (2013)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Background Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of long-term disability in children and young adults worldwide. However, accurate information about its incidence does not exist. We aimed to estimate the burden of TBI in rural and urban populations in New Zealand across all ages and TBI severities. Methods We did a population-based incidence study in an urban (Hamilton) and rural (Waikato District) population in New Zealand. We registered all cases of TB! (admitted to hospital or not, fatal or non-fatal) that occurred in the population between March 1, 2010, and Feb 28, 2011, using multiple overlapping sources of information. We calculated incidence per 100 000 person-years with 95% CIs using a Poisson distribution. We calculated rate ratios [RRs] to compare the age-standardised rates between sex, ethnicity, and residency (urban, rural) groups. We used direct standardisation to age-standardise the rates to the world population. Results The total incidence of TBI per 100 000 person-years was 790 cases (95% CI 749-832); incidence per 100 000 person-years of mild TBI was 749 cases (709-790) and of moderate to severe TBI was 41 cases (31-51). Children (aged 0-14 years) and adolescents and young adults (aged 15-34 years) constituted almost 70% of all TBI cases. TBI affected boys and men more than women and girls (RR 1.77,95% CI 1.58-1.97). Most TBI cases were due to falls (38% [516 of 1369]), mechanical forces (21% [288 of 1369]), transport accidents (20% [277 of 1369]), and assaults (17% [228 of 1369]). Compared with people of European origin, Maori people had a greater risk of mild TBI (RR 1.23, 95% CI 1.08-1.39). Incidence of moderate to severe TBI in the rural population (73 per 100 000 person-years [95% CI 50-107]) was almost 2.5 times greater than in the urban population (31 per 100 000 person-years [23-42]). Interpretation Our findings suggest that the incidence of TBI, especially mild TBI, in New Zealand is far greater than would be estimated from the findings of previous studies done in other high-income countries. Our age-specific and residency-specific data for TBI incidence overall and by mechanism of injury should be considered when planning prevention and TBI care services.

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  • Widening the lens on child health

    Kearns, Robin; Ameratunga, Shanthi; Neuwelt, Patricia (2005)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    In this issue of the Journal, Shaw, Blakely, Crampton, and Atkinson1 provide stark evidence of inequalities in child mortality across a range of causes. Their findings provide another sobering reminder that the clich?? of New Zealand being ???a great place to bring up kids??? holds true for some, but it cannot be presumed to be the case for all.

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  • Risk factors of poisoning: findings from the New Zealand Blood Donors??? Health Study

    Peiris-John, Roshini; Reid, Mary-Jane; Lee, Arier; Ameratunga, Shanthi (2016-09)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Marijuana use and excess risk of injury events: findings from a large prospective cohort study

    Ameratunga, Shanthi; Peiris-John, Roshini; Reid, Mary-Jane; Lee, Arier; Smith, GS; Norton, R (2016)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Posttraumatic Stress Among Hospitalized and Nonhospitalized Survivors of Serious Car Crashes: A Population-Based Study

    Ameratunga, Shanthi; Tin Tin, S; Coverdale, JH; Connor, JL; Norton, RN (2009)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Objective: This study investigated the prevalence of posttraumatic stress among survivors of serious injury-producing car crashes. Methods: This population-based prospective cohort study, conducted in New Zealand, recruited hospitalized car occupants (passengers and drivers) as well as nonhospitalized drivers after a crash in which at least one occupant was hospitalized. Fifty-nine hospitalized passengers (62%) and 209 drivers (72%) completed five- and 18-month interviews. The Impact of Event Scale assessed symptoms of posttraumatic stress. Results: At five months 28% of hospitalized passengers, 24% of hospitalized drivers, and 24% of nonhospitalized drivers reported symptoms consistent with posttraumatic stress disorder. At 18 months, 23% of hospitalized passengers, 11% of hospitalized drivers, and 7% of nonhospitalized drivers reported significant levels of stress. Conclusions: Strategies to prevent disabling sequelae of crashes must address the needs of hospitalized and nonhospitalized survivors.

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  • Implementing performance improvement in New Zealand emergency departments: the six hour time target policy national research project protocol.

    Jones, Peter; Chalmers, L; Wells, Linda; Ameratunga, Shanthi; Carswell, Peter; Ashton, Toni; Curtis, Elana; Reid, Mary-Jane; Stewart, Joanna; Harper, A; Tenbensel, Timothy (2012)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    In May 2009, the New Zealand government announced a new policy aimed at improving the quality of Emergency Department care and whole hospital performance. Governments have increasingly looked to time targets as a mechanism for improving hospital performance and from a whole system perspective, using the Emergency Department waiting time as a performance measure has the potential to see improvements in the wider health system. However, the imposition of targets may have significant adverse consequences. There is little empirical work examining how the performance of the wider hospital system is affected by such a target. This project aims to answer the following questions: How has the introduction of the target affected broader hospital performance over time, and what accounts for these changes? Which initiatives and strategies have been successful in moving hospitals towards the target without compromising the quality of other care processes and patient outcomes? Is there a difference in outcomes between different ethnic and age groups? Which initiatives and strategies have the greatest potential to be transferred across organisational contexts?

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  • Reducing ethnic disparities in the quality of trauma care: An important research gap

    Hosking, JW; Ameratunga, Shanthi; Bramley, D; Crengle, Suzanne (2010)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Objective: To identify interventions for reducing ethnic disparities in the quality of trauma care. Background: Variation in the quality of health care is recognized as an important contributor to ethnic disparities in many domains of health. Although recent articles document ethnic variations in the quality of trauma care in several countries, strategies that address these disparities have received little attention. Methods: Systematic review of intervention studies designed to reduce ethnic disparities in trauma care. Results: Our systematic literature review revealed no evaluations of interventions designed to reduce ethnic disparities in trauma care. A scan of the equivalent literature in other health care settings revealed 3 types of strategies that could serve as promising interventions that warrant further investigation in the trauma care setting: (1) improving cultural competency of service providers, (2) addressing the effects of health literacy on the quality of trauma care, and (3) quality improvement strategies that recognize equity as a key dimension of quality. The trauma coordinator role may help address some aspects relating to these themes although reducing disparities is likely to require broader system-wide policies. Conclusions:The implementation and robust evaluation of strategies designed to reduce ethnic disparities in trauma care are long overdue.

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