20 results for Amor, Robert

  • A Java reuse repository for Eclipse using LSI

    Lin, Min Yang (Jerry); Amor, Robert; Tempero, Ewan (2006)

    Conference paper
    The University of Auckland Library

    An open access copy of this article is available and complies with the copyright holder/publisher conditions. Software reuse is a concept that is frequently mentioned as a way to improve software developers' productivity. However, there are a number of issues that need to be addressed in order for software reuse to be adopted by developers. One of those issues is providing enough reusable artifacts. The Java Standard API has been quite successful in this, with the latest version having over 3000 classes available. However this raises the issue of finding the right artifact to reuse. With the Java API, this means trawling through the JavaDoc Web pages, which has the risk of not being able to find the right artifact, even though it is in the API. In this paper, we explore the use of latent semantic indexing as a means to index the Java API JavaDoc pages. Specifically, we describe Prophecy, an Eclipse plug-in that presents the Java API as a software repository.

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  • Querying a Regulatory Model for Compliant Building Design Audit

    Dimyadi, Johannes; Pauwels, P; Spearpoint, M; Clifton, C; Amor, Robert (2015-10)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    The ingredients for an effective automated audit of a building design include a BIM model containing the design information, an electronic regulatory knowledge model, and a practical method of processing these computerised representations. There have been numerous approaches to computeraided compliance audit in the AEC/FM domain over the last four decades, but none has yet evolved into a practical solution. One reason is that they have all been isolated attempts that lack any form of standardisation. The current research project therefore focuses on using an open standard regulatory knowledge and BIM representations in conjunction with open standard executable compliant design workflows to automate the compliance audit process. This paper provides an overview of different approaches to access information from a regulatory model representation. The paper then describes the use of a purpose-built high-level domain specific query language to extract regulatory information as part of the effort to automate manual design procedures for compliance audit.

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  • Computer-assisted Regulatory Compliance Checking

    Dimyadi, Johannes; Amor, Robert (2013)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Integrating the BIM Rule Language into Compliant Design Audit Processes

    Dimyadi, Johannes; Solihin, W; Eastman, C; Amor, Robert (2016-11-01)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Computer-aided Compliance Audit to Support Performance-based Fire Engineering Design

    Dimyadi, Johannes; Clifton, George; Amor, Robert; Spearpoint, M (2014-11-10)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    Computer-aided compliance auditing aims to provide an automated system to assess engineering designs against specified regulatory representations. Previous research has largely focused on prescriptive regulatory rules, which are relatively easier to audit than those pertaining to performance-based codes with qualitative criteria. There have been a few prototype implementations of rule-based compliance auditing systems, which tend to represent regulatory knowledge as complex rule sets that are integrated into the system. The drawback of this approach is inflexibility, relatively high costs and dependency on the system programmer to modify built-in rules in response to on-going regulatory amendments. The current research looks at representing regulatory knowledge as a library of compliant design procedures (CDP) and the associated regulatory rules, which are treated as external input components to the system. This would allow them to be managed and maintained independently by designers and regulators as appropriate experts in their respective fields. This paper reports on the development of a computable regulatory knowledge model (RKM), which can be used in conjunction with a CDP for automatically auditing an object-based building information model (BIM). CDPs can be described graphically as workflows in the open standard Business Process Model and Notation (BPMN), which can be executed to automate the compliance audit process. A RKM representing the fire engineering performance-based verification method prescribed by the New Zealand Building Code is proposed for use by the CDP workflows to check the design against. The potential of interfacing with simulation tools to provide some of the required input parameters is discussed.

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  • Automated Building Code Compliance Checking – Where is it at?

    Dimyadi, Johannes; Amor, Robert (2013)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    There has been an extensive amount of research conducted internationally over the last four decades in the area of automated and semi-automated regulatory compliance checking for the Architecture, Engineering, and Construction (AEC) industry. This paper summarises the earlier research initiatives, explores common themes and different approaches used, as well as comparing the strengths and limitations of a number of major code compliance checking tools. Some of these tools have been implemented commercially and others are beginning to be adopted or are in their final stages of development. The paper also examines how readily these tools can be applied in the context of a performance-based code as found in New Zealand. Due to a recent push for innovation and productivity improvement in the AEC industry, there is an increased uptake of building information modelling (BIM) and the Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) open standard data model for interoperability. The availability of high performance personal computers, efficient web-based technology, and new initiatives in legal knowledge representation modelling should make the development of commercial compliance checking systems more viable than ever. However, the quest for an industry agreed unified approach seems to be far from over. Research is being conducted to develop a computer interpretable representation of New Zealand’s performance-based codes using an open standard legal data exchange protocol. This is to be integrated into a web-based BIM compliance checking framework. The fire safety clauses of the New Zealand Building Code (NZBC) are used in the case study.

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  • Regulatory Knowledge Representation for Automated Compliance Audit of BIM-based models

    Dimyadi, Johannes; Amor, Robert (2013)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    There has been significant research in the area of automated and semi-automated regulatory compliance checking in the AEC domain over the past four decades. In order to computerise the regulatory compliance checking process, we first need to have computer representations of both the building model and the regulations. We now have Building Information Modelling (BIM) as the industry standard representation for buildings, but the challenge remains to find an efficient and practical digital representation of the regulatory knowledge. One common approach to represent regulatory knowledge for architectural and building engineering designs is to extract rules from the regulatory texts, which has proven to be quite challenging to automate. However, a popular technique used in Business Process Management (BPM) could be adapted to facilitate the representation of regulatory knowledge in the AEC domain. Additionally, the legal domain has come up with some initiatives to provide a means to share digital legislative documents and regulatory structure, e.g. Cen MetaLex, LKIF, LegalRuleML, etc., which could be useful for exchanging compliance checking data in the AEC domain. This paper outlines a practical approach to represent regulatory knowledge in terms of industry’s accepted compliant design procedures using a business process modelling technique with visual editing capabilities. The corresponding regulatory constraints, thresholds and conditional logic are treated as lookup data and rules, which could also be represented graphically. Each design procedure and its associated regulatory data would constitute the regulatory knowledge required for a particular type of design or compliance check. This paper also briefly outlines a compliance checking framework that could bring in any library of regulatory knowledge representations that are defined and maintained externally. Both the prescriptive and performance-based criteria of the New Zealand Building Code are being investigated.

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  • BIM in 2007 - are we there yet?

    Amor, Robert; Jiang, Y; Chen, X (2007)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    As the prevalence of BIM increases in A/E/C-FM disciplines it is timely to review the standards that are being utilised and how well they are serving the discipline. The analysis presented analyses the most common standard, the IAI’s IFC, from a meta-level and asks questions about the evolving model from the viewpoint of metrics for data models as well as a low level analysis of the accuracy and correctness of implementations of the data model interpreters. Metrics applied to the evolving versions of the IFC schema can indicate the trajectory of the schema and profile areas which may be of concern in the maintenance of the schema and applications that have to utilise the schema. Analysis of the approaches to importing and exporting data for design tools, based on the schema, help indicate how market ready the technology really is. Where commercial projects are starting to rely on the standards as a mechanism to reliably transfer semantically correct information there must be guarantees of the accuracy of the data as it is manipulated by these design tools.

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  • An Open Repository of IFC Data Models and Analyses to support Interoperability Deployment

    Amor, Robert; Dimyadi, Johannes (2010)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Sharing Building Information using IFC Data Model for FDS Fire Simulation

    Dimyadi, Johannes; Amor, Robert; Spearpoint, M (2008)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    This paper describes part of a research project that looks into the potential and challenge of using the Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) open standard building information model in fire engineering design. In particular the paper describes work undertaken to share building geometry and other information with the Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) fire simulation model. A commercially available building information modeling (BIM) authoring application has been used to create building geometries and export IFC data files. A web-based conversion tool has been created to generate FDS input data given the output from a dedicated fire engineering IFC parser tool. The capabilities and outcome of data sharing process is illustrated in this paper using a simple test case building.

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  • I think therefore i-Phone

    Mc Meel, Dermott; Amor, Robert (2011-07-08)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    This paper is concerned with the ongoing usage of mobile computing and cellular phones for collaboration. In particular it focuses on the inter-disciplinary thresholds found within design and construction. Through participation in a building project we analyze the subtleties of interaction between analogue communications, such as sketches and digitally sponsored communication, such as e-mail and mobile phones. An analysis of the communications between the designer and builder during construction suggests the distinctions between design and construction processes are complex and often blurred. This work provides an observational basis for understanding mobile computing as a dynamic ‘tuning’ device—as hypothesized by Richard Coyne [1]—that ameliorates the brittleness of communication between different disciplines. Within multidisciplinary collaboration individual communiqués have different levels of importance depending on the specific topic of discussion and the time and place of the contributing participant. This project expands upon what mobile computing is and enables us to infer how these emergent devices affect collaboration. Findings suggest the synchronous and asynchronous clamor of analogue and digital communications that surround design and construction are not exclusively inefficiencies or disruptions to be expunged. Observational evidence suggests they may provide contingency and continue to have value attending to the relationships within complex systems such as design and construction. Finally we briefly discuss a current follow up investigation, ‘digital fieldnotes’ (dfn) is a bespoke iPhone/iPad application designed to test further suppositions regarding the influence mobile computing exerts upon group working.

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  • Automated compliance audit of fire engineering design

    Dimyadi, Johannes; Amor, Robert; Clifton, George; Spearpoint, M (2014-02-10)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    Automating regulatory compliance audit in the Architecture, Engineering and Construction domain has been subject of considerable research, but has no viable solution. The main challenge is the continued practice of paper-based information exchange in the industry. The emergence of an ISO standard Building Information Model (BIM) to represent buildings as semantically rich objects has the potential to address part of the problem. However, it must be coupled with an efficient and practical computable representation of the regulatory knowledge, and an automated system to process them for compliance audit. Objectives 1. To develop a practical computerised representation of performance-based codes with an application to the fire safety design of buildings in New Zealand. 2. To implement an effective method of extracting information from ISO standard BIM-based models. 3. To develop a framework that could process the building model and the regulatory knowledge base to support automated performance-based audit of fire safety design.

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  • Modelling and accessing regulatory knowledge for computer-assisted compliance audit

    Dimyadi, Johannes; Pauwels, P; Amor, Robert (2016-11-10)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    The ingredients for an effective automated audit of a building design include a building model containing the design information, a computerised regulatory knowledge model, and a practical method of processing these computable representations. There have been numerous approaches to computer-aided compliance audit in the AEC/FM domain over the last four decades, but none has yet evolved into a practical solution. One reason is that they have all been isolated attempts that lack any form of industry-wide standardisation. The current research project, therefore, focuses on investigating the use of the industry standard building information model and the adoption of open standard legal knowledge interchange and executable workflow models for automating conventional compliant design processes. This paper provides a non-exhaustive overview of common approaches to model and access regulatory knowledge for a compliance audit. The strengths and weaknesses of two comparative open standard knowledge representation approaches are discussed using an example regulatory document

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  • Computerising Regulatory Knowledge for Building Engineering Design

    Dimyadi, Johannes; Clifton, George; Spearpoint, M; Amor, Robert (2016-09)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Two common challenges in the computer-aided compliance audit of building engineering designs are addressed in the current research. The first is to ensure that any form of computable representation is practical and relatively easy to use and maintain. The second is to ensure that performance-based regulatory compliance criteria, which are often qualitative in nature, are adequately addressed and correctly represented. This research proposes a method of automating manual compliant design procedures using an open standard executable workflow representation that can be specified and maintained relatively easily by a design engineer. This executable workflow is referred to as the compliant design procedure (CDP) and can be described graphically. When executed in a computing environment, a CDP can guide the compliance audit process by checking a given design represented in a model view or subset of the building information model (BIM), referred to as the building compliance model (BCM), against the criteria in a digital building code, referred to as the regulatory knowledge model (RKM), which is developed specifically for this purpose. This paper describes the process of modeling and encoding BCM, CDP, and RKM, which are independent input components of the proposed compliance audit system framework. Supplementary human input and the ability to exchange input and output data with external simulation tools to solve some of the more complex qualitative criteria are important features of the framework.

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  • Regulatory Knowledge Encoding Guidelines for Automated Compliance Audit of Building Engineering Design

    Dimyadi, Johannes; Clifton, George; Spearpoint, M; Amor, Robert (2014)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    The main challenges in automating the regulatory compliance checking of building engineering designs are the availability of computable representations of the building and the regulatory knowledge, as well as a system that can process and manage these representations effectively. The emergence of Building Information Modelling (BIM) and Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) at the start of the millennium has sparked useful research in the area of sharing building information effectively, but challenges remain with producing a practical and manageable regulatory knowledge representation that can be processed effectively by a compliance checking system. Research is being conducted to develop a two-part regulatory knowledge representation, which can be maintained independently by designers and regulators. One part is a set of compliant design procedures modelled as Business Process Diagrams (BPD) using an open standard Business Process Model and Notation (BPMN), and the other is the associated regulatory constraints and rules encoded in a computable format suitable for execution with the BPMN. This paper reports on a set of guidelines developed for the purposes of encoding regulatory knowledge into the proposed computable representation. A verification method (C/VM2) prescribed by the New Zealand Building Code (NZBC) for the performance-based design of buildings related to fire safety has been selected as a case study to illustrate the encoding process. These guidelines are adaptable for encoding the entire NZBC.

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  • Using BIM to Support Simulation of Compliant Building Evacuation

    Dimyadi, Johannes; Amor, Robert; Spearpoint, M (2016-09-09)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    Buildings must have a means of evacuating their occupants at times of emergency such as in the event of a fire. Such a provision typically needs to conform to applicable regulatory requirements. For simple buildings, this is achieved by incorporating a set of prescriptive requirements into the design. For more complex buildings, engineering analysis and simulation using advanced computational tools are often necessary to demonstrate conformance. This analysis and simulation process can be laborious if the required geometric and occupant data must be manually gathered from paper-based design information and relevant regulatory publications. BIM can provide an effective sharing of building information for the simulation stage and the output from the simulation can be used for compliance audit. In this paper, we develop a process of sharing BIM data with a probabilistic network evacuation simulation tool and use the output from the tool to inform a computeraided compliance audit framework.

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  • Preservation of meaning in mapped IFCs

    Amor, Robert; Ma, H (2006)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    The development of high-level standard representations of buildings has been welcomed by the majority within the industry. Such standards allow for semantic interoperability between the large number of design tools which are available to practitioners in the A/E/C and FM industries. However, with such standards comes greater reliance on the information contained within the models which are transmitted, and interpreted, automatically between design tools. Unlike geometry-based standards (e.g., DXF, IGES, DWG, etc) where there was always an expectation of human interpretation, this semantic data must be correct to fit within the interoperable world we have developed. Testing of the semantic interoperability of a small number of commercial design tools has shown that this level of trust is not yet able to be assumed and that further work needs to be done to ensure that we can preserve meaning when moving semantic information between design tools.

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  • Developing a Building Information Modelling Educational Framework for the Tertiary Sector in New Zealand

    Miller, Garry; Sharma, S; Donald, Leonie; Amor, Robert (2013-11-12)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    Whilst Building Information Modelling (BIM) is rapidly being acknowledged as a driver for change in the Architectural, Engineering and Construction sector across the globe, the introduction of BIM into graduate and postgraduate teaching programmes in the tertiary sector in New Zealand has been minimal to date. New Zealand has an advanced albeit small economy, and whilst BIM is being deployed increasingly with effect in industry, there is no national BIM education framework and only one tertiary sector institution offers any BIM teaching in New Zealand (NZ). This paper reviews the current approaches to incorporating BIM into degree and certificate programmes in 25 leading international universities, pedagogical approaches and BIM critical success factors. A draft of a BIM educational framework for NZ is proposed based on this review. An approach for further design, development and deployment of the framework is also offered. This paper is intended to initiate debate and to start to build consensus between the academic community and industry on a national BIM educational framework for New Zealand.

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  • Challenges for integrated design and delivery solutions

    Owen, R; Amor, Robert; Palmer, M; Dickinson, J; Tatum, CB; Samad, KA; Prins, M; Kiviniemi, A; East, B (2010)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    A new approach of integrated design and delivery solutions (IDDS) aims to radically improve the performance of the construction industries. IDDS builds upon recent trends in the construction industries that have seen the widespread adoption of technologies such as building information modelling (BIM) and innovative processes such as integrated project delivery. However, these innovations are seen to develop in isolation, with little consideration of the overarching interactions between people, process and technology. The IDDS approach is holistic in that it recognizes that it is only through a combination of initiatives such as skill development, process re-engineering, responsive information technology, enhanced interoperability and integrating knowledge management, among others, that radical change can be achieved. To implement IDDS requires step changes in many project aspects, and this gap between current performance and that required for IDDS is highlighted. The research required to bridge the gaps is identified in four major aspects of collaborative processes, workforce skills, integrated information and knowledge management.

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  • Qualitative Design Support for Engineering and Architecture

    Schultz, Carl; Amor, Robert; Lobb, Brenda; Guesgen, Hans (2009)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Conventional design support software tools cannot effectively manage the complex, heterogeneous information used in engineering and architecture (EA) tasks. Crucially, despite uncertainty being an inherent quality of EA information particularly in the early stages of a design project, current tools solely rely on numerical approaches which do not support such incomplete and vague information. In this paper, we establish a complete framework for developing qualitative support tools that directly address these shortcomings. Our framework is application oriented and addresses the broader issues surrounding the actual use of qualitative methods. It provides design principles and strategies that allow a software engineer to develop custom qualitative software tools according to their specific EA task specifications. Our framework also provides the engineer with practical theory and guidelines for implementing their custom qualitative model and validating their system using context specific test data. We demonstrate the validity of our framework by presenting a case study in architectural lighting in which a prototype qualitative reasoning engine successfully automates qualitative logic about the subjective impressions of a lighting installation.

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