23 results for Becken, Susanne, Book

  • Hey! What's your footprint?

    Baldwin, C.; Becken, Susanne; Allen, W.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    Ecological footprint calculators are an effective communication and educational tool to measure the impact of humanity on our planet (Barrett et al., 2004). This project’s aim was to design and then trial a footprint tool for children using a format that was engaging, purposeful and childspecific. A further objective was to test whether, through specific information and dialogue, pupils could then modify their own behaviour to reduce their footprint through action strategies in a collaborative environment. The method used involved scoping a group of three children to develop specific parameters and then trialling the footprint tool’s design and programme in four Canterbury schools. The results suggest that footprint tools can be effective in changing behaviour. The developmental process was critical to encourage planning, actions and reflection in a supportive setting (Allen et al., 2002; Bosch et al., 2007; Whitehead & McNiff, 2006). We further posit that the process used to motivate environmental behaviour change could be used effectively in other educational programmes in either schools or the wider community. It was not just the footprint tool used in isolation that effected behaviour change in over 70 percent of pupils; rather the tool was seen as a catalyst within this environmental education programme (Law, 2004; Ministry of Education, 2007). It was the process used to engage pupils – enhance their values for a sustainable future in a supportive landscape – that facilitated effective teaching and also learning processes in young people. This project uses the process of Action Research to trial a purpose-designed footprint tool on children to help them reduce their impact on the environment. The institutions involved in this project were: The Royal Society of New Zealand, Lincoln University, and Landcare Research. The Canterbury schools participating were: Lincoln High School, Christchurch South Intermediate School, Addington School, and Beckenham School.

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  • Preparing the tourism sector for climate change

    Becken, Susanne; Reisinger, A.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    The objectives of this workshop were threefold: To inform national level stakeholders and experts about the research project and results to date; To obtain input and feedback from participants about tourism’s vulnerability to climate change and adaptive capacity; To identify and discuss suitable case studies for further exploration.

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  • Energy consumption of tourist attractions and activities in New Zealand: summary report of a survey

    Becken, Susanne

    Book
    Lincoln University

    Tourism is a growing industry and the attraction and activity sector is a vital part of it. It is a great challenge that this sector, which influences tourists experiences most, achieves a standard that complies with the clean and green image of New Zealand in the world. In this sense, sustainable tourism becomes a main goal of the industry. Tourist attractions and activities consume a considerable amount of energy at various stages. The tourist experience itself is only one component of energy demand and there are many direct business activities that may be relevant to a full understanding of energy use in the sector. These include, for example, running an office, marketing the product, and transport.

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  • Analysis of tourist consumption, expenditure and prices for key international visitor segments: technical report

    Becken, Susanne; Carboni, A.; Vuletich, S.; Schiff, A.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    The Tourism & Oil project is undertaken against the backdrop of highly volatile oil prices, especially in the last 6 months, and a major global financial crisis that undoubtedly affects tourist arrivals to New Zealand. Increasing our understanding of tourism’s responses to global oil prices and tourists’ price sensitivity more generally is therefore timely. Based on data from the International Visitor Survey we were able to provide a time series (10 years) of typical consumption bundles for 18 visitor segments. These bundles describe tourists’ consumption of accommodation, air transport, transport, fuel, and other tourism products. We also produced a Tourism Price Index for each of these visitor segments and observed how the price of tourism changed over the last 10 years, both in New Zealand dollars and tourists’ own currency. A key finding is that the price of tourism has increased above inflation rates (with variations across the segments), and that the effect of exchange rate fluctuations has dominated the overall impact on price over time. Overall, our research suggests that oil price volatility has had a limited effect on tourist demand and consumption to date. Due to severe data limitations we were unable to develop robust price elasticities, but an improved data set might make such analysis possible in the future. We are also exploring options for an in-depth price sensitivity analysis in relation to tourists’ transport behaviour.

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  • The impact of climate variability on tourism businesses in Wanaka and Queenstown

    Becken, Susanne; Wilson, Judith; Hendrikx, J.; Hughey, Kenneth F. D.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    This report summarises the findings from 27 operator interviews in Wanaka and Queenstown (June 2010). The main goal of the interviews was to identify which climatic factors are relevant to the different kinds of tourism businesses and how sensitive the businesses’ operation and economic viability are to specific conditions. Interviewees were also asked about the measures they put in place to deal with favourable or adverse weather conditions. The focus of the interviews was on the winter season, but relevant information on summer activities was included as well.

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  • Managing energy use in tourism businesses - survey results

    Becken, Susanne; Carboni, A.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    In partnership with the Tourism Industry Association an online survey was sent via email to all members recorded in the TIA database. As part of a three-year project on Tourism & Oil, the responses of tourism businesses to energy costs and carbon emissions were analysed. Results from this study will be relevant for energy reduction initiatives by the Tourism Industry Association and for carbon footprinting projects by the Ministry of Tourism. This energy survey will also inform other objectives in the wider Tourism & Oil project, for example the construction of a Tourism General Equilibrium Model and the development of adaptation measures for tourism businesses. This study will increase our understanding of the energy sources used by tourism businesses and measures that have already been implemented to reduce energy consumption.

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  • An evaluation of the visitor action plan – Northland 2014

    Hughey, Kenneth F. D.; Becken, Susanne

    Book
    Lincoln University

    Globally and nationally there is increasing interest in Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) and how it relates to tourists and their management. A variety of response frameworks have been developed (see for example Tourism Queensland 2009, or the Hyogo Framework for Action (2005-2015) more broadly). In this report we evaluate the implementation of tourism and DRR approaches within the context of Northland, New Zealand. In 2012, research led to a tourism-specific disaster response template - the Visitor Action Plan (VAP). The VAP was specifically developed in response to concerns about actual and potential effects of cyclonic weather events and tsunamis on the Northland tourism sector and a lack of integration between Civil Defence and Emergency Management (CDEM) activities and tourism (Becken and Hughey 2013). The main purpose of this report is to present a formal evaluation of VAP implementation in Northland as a contribution to developing a DRR approach for tourism on the West Coast of the South Island. The remainder of this report is structured around: specifying aims and objectives, reviewing (briefly) pertinent evaluation literature and developing a framework against which to implement the evaluation, outlining the research methods, reporting and discussing the results, identifying issues and areas for improvement, and recommending future actions.

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  • Enhancing financial and economic yield in tourism: public sector: local government and regional yield report

    Butcher, G.; Lennox, J.; Becken, Susanne; Simmons, David G.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    The programme “Enhancing Financial and Economic Yield in Tourism” has included a range of investigations into various dimensions of private sector yield of tourism businesses, as well as public sector yield of tourism at local and national levels. In this report the focus is on yield from a regional perspective. Yield in this report is understood as net financial or economic benefit. For the private sector, the measure of yield used is Economic Value Added, while for local government the measure of yield is the difference between costs and revenue. Local government yield related to tourism can best be interpreted within the context of regional total value added from tourism. While local government may have a negative yield for its own tourism-related business, it judges this to be worthwhile from the community perspective because of the commercial benefits to the community as evidenced by total value added and employment In this report the focus is on regional yield in Christchurch City, and Rotorua District, from the perspective of both the private sector and local government. We show private sector yield as Economic Value Added (EVA), which is the relevant measure for private investors, as well as the more common national accounting measure of total value added and total employment. We have estimated the private sector commercial yield on the basis of surveys of visitor expenditure and analysis of private sector financial yield ratios by sector, and the net costs and benefits to the local government sector on the basis of an analysis of local government revenue and spending.

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  • Tourism and transport in New Zealand : implications for energy use

    Becken, Susanne

    Book
    Lincoln University

    Securing and conserving our long term future is the number one objective of the recently released New Zealand Tourism Strategy (2001). Previous research showed that an essential impediment to achieving sustainable tourism is the heavy use of transport by tourists and the environmental impacts resulting from this travel (Müller, 1992; Gössling, 2000). The associated energy use is a major concern, since it does not only undermine the goal of efficient resource use as outlined by the New Zealand Tourism Strategy 2010, but it also contributes to the failure of New Zealand in achieving its goals set by the Kyoto Protocol in 1997. This report discusses previous research in this field, describes the present transport sector’s greenhouse gas emissions in New Zealand, discusses the supply of tourism transport infrastructure, and provided senergy intensities of main New Zealand transport modes. Different transport modes are hypothetically juxtaposed on an analysis of a journey from Christchurch to Dunedin. Suggestions for reducing transport energy use are discussed. Clearly, to achieve the stakes set by both the Tourism (Tourism Strategy Group, 2001) and the Energy Strategy (Energy Efficiency and Conservation Authority [EECA], 2001), transport of tourists plays a critical role.

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  • The importance of climate and weather for tourism: literature review

    Becken, Susanne

    Book
    Lincoln University

    Climate and weather are important factors in tourists’ decision making and also influence the successful operation of tourism businesses. More specifically, climate is defined as the prevailing condition observed as a long term average in a location. In contrast, weather is the manifestation of climate at a specific point in time and place. So, while tourists might expect certain climatic conditions when they travel to a place, they will experience the actual weather, which might deviate quite substantially from the average conditions. Hence, in the first place tourists and tourism businesses are likely to be affected by weather conditions, although in the long term these will follow systematic changes as projected under different climate change scenarios. For example, surface and sea temperatures are generally forecast to increase, rain patterns will change with some areas becoming wetter and others driers, and the occurrence of extreme events is likely to increase. For this reason, tourist destinations will benefit from understanding potential climatic changes in their area and how they might impact on their operations. The following sections of this report review the international literature on how climate/weather and tourism interact. The existing literature provides an insight into global phenomena, for example destination choice, as well as very specific case studies of weather-recreation interactions such as the impact of warmer summers in Canada on the length of the golfing season. Both aspects are relevant to tourism in New Zealand, although findings need to be transferred to the New Zealand situation. In the following, tourism demand will be discussed first. This includes an analysis of the importance of climate and weather for international tourist flows and destination choice, tourist satisfaction and safety. This is then followed by a discussion of how climate change will change the conditions in which tourism destinations will operate and manage tourist flows and assets. The impact of warmer temperatures, sea level rise, changing alpine environments as well as other ecosystems will be considered.

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  • A national-level screening exercise to assess tourism’s vulnerability to climate change

    Becken, Susanne; Butcher, G.; Edmonds, J.; Hendrikx, J.; Hughey, Kenneth F. D.; Reisinger, A.; Wilson, Judith

    Book
    Lincoln University

    It is widely acknowledged that over the 21st century the global community will need to adapt to the effects of climate change. Current climate models predict that New Zealand will experience increasing temperatures, changing frequency, intensity and distribution of rainfall events, decreased snow cover and sea level rise. Such changes will impact on key regional tourism drivers such as destination attractiveness, product content, business profitability, infrastructure planning and investment. Changes will manifest locally and will uniquely affect individual tourist destinations, communities and businesses. An ability to respond is therefore vital. Thus, the overarching goals of this research are: • Identifying which parts of the tourism industry are most vulnerable to the effects of climate change; • Developing key indicators which allow tourism businesses to measure, assess and track their vulnerability to climate change; • Establishing what adaptation measures are most appropriate for minimising vulnerability to the effects of climate change; and • Providing the tools necessary to achieving effective management, not only in terms of reducing vulnerability to climate change but also in identifying opportunities for taking advantage of a changing climate. This background paper will outline progress to date in relating to understanding tourism’s vulnerability at a national level. Following this stage, detailed analysis on vulnerability, indicators and adaptation measures will be undertaken in three case studies.

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  • White paper on tourism and water

    Becken, Susanne; Rajan, R.; Moore, S.; Watt, M.; McLennan, C. L.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    Water stewardship, water stress and availability have become increasingly important planning and development considerations for the tourism industry world-wide. Water challenges will be particularly important for the Asia-Pacific region-the world's fastest tourism growth region, with a total of 216 million international tourist arrivals in 2011. This White Paper on Tourism and Water provides an overview of the key water related challenges for the tourism industry in the Asia-Pacific region. The paper discusses the tourism industries water requirements, including 'benchmarks' for consumption, in various types of tourist accommodation. Strategies for reducing water consumption, improving efficiency and quality, and engaging in water stewardship initiatives are presented.

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  • Enhancing financial and economic yield in tourism: public sector: central government benefits and costs of tourism

    Cullen, Ross; Becken, Susanne; Butcher, G.; Lennox, J.; Simmons, David G.; Taylor, N.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    This report describes the national public sector direct inputs, and outline society’s indirect inputs, into tourism production and consumption. The public sector and societal benefits that accrue from tourism will also be assessed. A subsequent report (Yield report 11) examines local government costs and benefits alongside the regional yield (value added) generated from tourism. This report is one of a series of reports within the government funded research programme “Enhancing the financial and economic yield for tourism”. The research follows two streams: an analysis of private sector investment and management and a parallel analysis of public sector benefit and costs arising from the operation of the tourism sector in New Zealand. It is towards this latter objective that the current report is directed. It aims to quantify the level of the public sector (local, regional, and national) direct inputs, and outline society’s direct and indirect inputs, into tourism production and consumption. The public sector and societal benefits that accrue from tourism are also assessed.

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  • Report on the first consultation of tourism stakeholders in the Far North

    Becken, Susanne

    Book
    Lincoln University

    The weather is very important to tourism: it allows tourists to participate in a wide range of activities, influences satisfaction and affects a business’ bottom line. Climate change will change how weather impacts on tourism: it will provide new opportunities and exacerbate existing challenges. While we can not influence the weather or the climate we can proactively reduce our vulnerability, manage negative impacts and prepare for likely changes. Lincoln University in partnership with Victoria University and NIWA is researching the relationship between tourism and the weather, with a longer term view of changing climatic conditions in New Zealand. As a result of our research we would like to share best practice and provide tools for businesses to improve their access to weather information, risk assessment and adaptation measures. This report provides background information on the Northland case study (alongside a case study of the Southern Lakes) and summarises first insights gained from a stakeholder consultation on the 14 and 15 July. Meetings were held with the Far North District Council, Te Runanga a Iwi o Ngapuhi, Taitokerau Maori & Cultural Tourism Association, and Destination Northland and five tourism operators.

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  • Climate change response: a report to establish the knowledge required for a TIANZ response and policy formulation with the Government post Kyoto Protocol ratification

    Turney, I.; Becken, Susanne; Butcher, G.; Patterson, M.; Hart, P.; Simmons, David G.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    The Tourism Industry Association of New Zealand commissioned this report ‘as a definitive reference point for the Tourism sector with regard to its greenhouse gas emissions (CO₂) and the potential impacts on the sector, in order to establish the underpinning knowledge required for a subsequent TIANZ response and policy formulation with the Government post the Kyoto Protocol ratification’. The value of the tourism sector, in terms of GDP and employment is self-evident but there is also growing awareness of the New Zealand environment by the international market which is critical to New Zealand’s future prosperity. Both the tourism sector and the Government recognise the importance of the ‘state of New Zealand’s environment’ and the need to genuinely sustain the image of ‘100% Pure New Zealand’, as it is implicitly linked to maintaining credibility and growth in a highly competitive market.

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  • Tourist itineraries and yield: technical background report

    Becken, Susanne; Wilson, Jude; Forer, Pip; Simmons, David G.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    The aim of this research was to identify yield based visitor and itinerary prototypes. An examination of tourist itineraries (i.e. tourist behaviour across space and time) as reported in the International Visitor Survey revealed that – when itineraries are sufficiently simplified – patterns of similarity emerge. However, the diversity was still too large to be able to derive a manageable set of ‘itinerary prototypes’. For this reason a simplified approach was taken, in which spatial implications of tourist travel where measured through visitation to Regional Tourism Organisations. It could be seen that the spatial distribution is shaped by a wide range of factors, including country of origin, port of arrival, travel style, repeat visitation, purpose of travel, and presence of children under 15. The weakest amongst the analysed factors was whether tourists travelled with children or not. Importantly, it has to be noted that most of the factors analysed are interrelated. In turn, it could also be shown that the spatial distribution of tourists is related to yield, for example average expenditure per day by tourists who visit major centres is higher than that of tourists who include more remote areas in their itinerary. Knowing that country of origin has an important influence on distributional patterns and its relationship to other key drivers of itineraries (see also the Ministry of Tourism’s Flows Model), made origin a useful variable for an a priori segmentation of yield analyses in relation to itineraries. The country of origin analysis provided useful insights into travel behaviour (e.g. length of stay, expenditure, transport choices), tourist decision making (where information was available), and financial yield. It could be seen, for example, that the behaviour of Australian tourists is largely driven by its strong visiting friends/relatives component (e.g. high repeat visitation), whereas behaviour by British and German visitors seems strongly influenced by the long distance from home (e.g. length of stay, expenditure). While the Chinese and Japanese markets share some similarities (e.g. shorter stays, propensity to tour group travel) the main difference lies in the greater travel experience by Japanese tourists. American visitors were found to fall between European and Asian visitors in their travel behaviour. The yield associated with the six main countries of origin was analysed for the financial dimension. Financial yield was chosen as it can be measured as a national-level or ‘systemic’ indicator rather than local or ‘site-specific’ indicators for yield, such as environmental or social impacts. Further analyses of yield at a local level will be undertaken later on in the research programme. The analysis of expenditure, Value Added and Economic Value Added shows that the ‘preferability’ of a certain market depends on the indicator selected and also whether yield per trip or per day is calculated. In all cases, the German market appears favourable, mainly as a result of their high spending on rented vehicles, which is associated with high financial yield. In the light of the findings above, this component of the research developed a framework for the further analysis of decision making in the Spatial Yield research programme. The framework incorporates the dimensions of country of origin and itinerary type (in the form of a matrix). Such a framework could be useful to explore the decision making behind key yield variables such as: length of stay, overall expenditure (budget), allocation of budget, and travel (geographic dimension).

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  • Environmental attitudes and fuel saving behaviour by KEA campers customers: final report of a survey (June - November 2008)

    Becken, Susanne; Wilson, Jude

    Book
    Lincoln University

    The environmental concern of campervan tourists in New Zealand was analysed in two surveys, 2007 and 2008. The 2008 also investigated tourists’ responses to increasing fuel prices and changes they make to their travel behaviour. The 2007 survey was undertaken by KEA Campers and reflects tourists during the summer season. The 2008 survey (carried out by Lincoln University in partnership with KEA Campers) included tourists who travelled in winter and in spring. In addition, 18 interviews were undertaken in October 2008 to provide more depth to the environmental and fuel-related questions. Due to the timing of the surveys the 2007 is dominated by (long-haul) international tourists whereas the 2008 survey includes a large number of New Zealanders and Australians. Environmental concern differed clearly between different countries of residence, with New Zealanders being less inclined to consider the environment in their travel planning than international visitors. They were also less willing to pay for carbon offsetting of their campervan travel. However, even international tourists surveyed in 2008 were slightly less aware of the environmental impacts of their travel when making their travel plans and were less willing to pay for carbon offsetting compared with those asked in 2007. The willingness to pay for carbon offsetting did not necessarily depend on the level of concern. Tourists were most likely to support alternative energy projects, conservation and tree planting initiatives and highly unlikely to spend money on ‘carbon credits’. The interviews highlighted that not all tourists understand the concept of carbon credits and that may also explain the low support of this measure. Tourists’ perception of fuel costs in New Zealand depends on their country of residence. Not surprisingly, American tourists perceive fuel to be expensive, whereas European visitors find it cheap or very cheap. Perception of fuel price does not seem to influence the distance travelled per day. Changes in travel behaviour due to higher fuel costs would most likely manifest in a reduced visitation of restaurants and less money spent on accommodation. Tourists were reluctant to reduce travel distance, although a small number of tourists commented that they might consider shortening itineraries or not travelling by campervan at all. Interestingly, environmental perceptions we not related to how far people travelled or whether they would reduce their travel under high oil price scenarios. This is a very interesting observation and leads to the hypothesis that ‘environmental consideration’ is quite different from ‘actual travel behaviour’, and changing behaviour when fuel prices become costly. The discrepancy was underpinned by tourists’ comments in the interviews that campervan holidays are about “driving around” and that “coming for a holiday environmental impacts are not the things you think about”. In summary, environmental concern amongst campervan tourists is comparatively high (although less in 2008 than 2007) and tourists are generally willing to contribute financially, for example to offset their carbon emissions. Behavioural changes that reduce in lower emissions are unlikely to occur on a voluntary basis, but higher fuel prices might – at a certain level – lead to changes in behaviour. These would, however, be relatively minor.

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  • The impact of climate variability on tourism businesses and tourism infrastructure providers in Glacier Country

    Wilson, Jude; Espiner, Stephen; Becken, Susanne

    Book
    Lincoln University

    This report summarises the findings from 24 interviews with tourist operators and infrastructure providers in Glacier Country on the West Coast of New Zealand’s South Island. The research was undertaken in September 2011. In line with the area represented by the Glacier Country Tourism Group (GCTG), Glacier Country stretches from Whataroa in the north, to Bruce Bay and Lake Paringa in the south: the majority of tourism activity occurs in and around the settlements of Franz Josef, Fox Glacier, Whataroa and Okarito. The interviews explored the ways in which tourism businesses and infrastructure providers in Glacier Country currently deal with, and/or plan for, climate variability (i.e., daily weather conditions), extreme weather events (such as severe storms or unusually heavy rainfall events) and predicted longer term climate changes (e.g., increased rainfall intensity, increased westerly wind, reduction in glaciation). This Glacier Country case study follows earlier research undertaken in the Southern Lakes Region and in Northland. A number of climate and weather related tourism issues identified in these earlier studies were also examined in respect of tourism in Glacier Country, including the use of weather information and emergency management. This case study also included an additional set of questions about other future concerns – particularly around the supply and cost of energy for tourism in the region – and challenges facing tourism in Glacier Country.

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  • Weather, climate and tourism: a New Zealand perspective

    Becken, Susanne; Wilson, Jude; Reisinger, Andy

    Book
    Lincoln University

    Source article originally published in Land Environment and People Research Report ; no. 20 at: http://hdl.handle.net/10182/2945.

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  • Evaluating the business case for investment in the resilience of the tourism sector of small island developing states

    Mahon, Roché; Becken, Susanne; Rennie, Hamish

    Book
    Lincoln University

    Over the last decade, a number of disasters severely affected tourist destinations. At the same time, the management of disasters has shifted from a reactive, top-down approach to a more inclusive approach that seeks to proactively include the private sector in reducing the risk of disasters. Considering that a significant proportion of tourism occurs in the potentially hazardous coastal zones of Small Island Developing States (SIDS), private tourism sector stakeholders can – and maybe have to – play an active role in disaster risk reduction (DRR). Establishing the business merits associated with investment in disaster resilient measures would be necessary to support increased private sector DRR investment. This study therefore evaluated the business case for investment in the resilience of the tourism sector in SIDS. As such, it offers: 1) a greater understanding of the root causes of destination vulnerability and risk using a cross-regional, comparative case study approach; and 2) a qualitative evaluation of the business case for investment in the resilience of SIDS tourism. Semi-structured interviews with 80 private and public sector stakeholders in the Caribbean, Pacific and AIMS regions revealed that some private sector stakeholders already self-regulate based on individual evaluations of a variety of tangible and less tangible benefits. More research is needed to develop the economic and financial data that may possibly encourage greater private sector investment in DRR, as well as, create a supportive and enabling national economic context for resilient tourism investment.

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