42 results for Cunningham, Sally Jo, Working or discussion paper

  • Language switching in a digital library; does it make a difference if the default language is set to Maori?

    Keegan, Te Taka Adrian Gregory; Cunningham, Sally Jo; Don, Katherine J. (2004-01-01)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    In this paper we investigate the effect of default interface language on usage patterns of the Niupepa digital library (a collection of historic Māori language newspapers), by switching the default interface language between Māori and English in alternate weeks. Transaction analysis of the Niupepa collection logs indicates that changing default language affects the length of user sessions and the number of actions within sessions, and that the English language interface was used most frequently.

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  • A comparative transaction log analysis of two computing collections

    Mahoui, Malika; Cunningham, Sally Jo (2000-07)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    Transaction logs are invaluable sources of fine-grained information about users’ search behavior. This paper compares the searching behavior of users across two WWW-accessible digital libraries: the New Zealand Digital Library’s Computer Science Technical Reports collection (CSTR), and the Karlsruhe Computer Science Bibliographies (CSBIB) collection. Since the two collections are designed to support the same type of users-researchers/students in computer science a comparative log analysis is likely to uncover common searching preferences for that user group. The two collections differ in their content, however; the CSTR indexes a full text collection, while the CSBIB is primarily a bibliographic database. Differences in searching behavior between the two systems may indicate the effect of differing search facilities and content type.

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  • Weka: Practical machine learning tools and techniques with Java implementations

    Witten, Ian H.; Frank, Eibe; Trigg, Leonard E.; Hall, Mark A.; Holmes, Geoffrey; Cunningham, Sally Jo (1999-08)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    The Waikato Environment for Knowledge Analysis (Weka) is a comprehensive suite of Java class libraries that implement many state-of-the-art machine learning and data mining algorithms. Weka is freely available on the World-Wide Web and accompanies a new text on data mining [1] which documents and fully explains all the algorithms it contains. Applications written using the Weka class libraries can be run on any computer with a Web browsing capability; this allows users to apply machine learning techniques to their own data regardless of computer platform.

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  • Predicting apple bruising relationships using machine learning

    Holmes, Geoffrey; Cunningham, Sally Jo; Dela Rue, B. T.; Bollen, A. F. (1998-04)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    Many models have been used to describe the influence of internal or external factors on apple bruising. Few of these have addressed the application of derived relationships to the evaluation of commercial operations. From an industry perspective, a model must enable fruit to be rejected on the basis of a commercially significant bruise and must also accurately quantify the effects of various combinations of input features (such as cultivar, maturity, size, and so on) on bruise prediction. Input features must in turn have characteristics which are measurable commercially; for example, the measure of force should be impact energy rather than energy absorbed. Further, as the commercial criteria for acceptable damage levels change, the model should be versatile enough to regenerate new bruise thresholds from existing data. Machine learning is a burgeoning technology with a vast range of potential applications particularly in agriculture where large amounts of data can be readily collected [1]. The main advantage of using a machine learning method in an application is that the models built for prediction can be viewed and understood by the owner of the data who is in a position to determine the usefulness of the model, an essential component in a commercial environment.

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  • A New Zealand digital library for computer science research

    Witten, Ian H.; Cunningham, Sally Jo; Vallabh, Mahendra; Bell, Timothy C. (1995-03)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    A large amount of computing literature has become available over the Internet, as university departments and research institutions have made their technical reports, preprints, and theses available electronically. Access to these items has been limited, however, by the difficulties involved in locating documents of interest. We describe a proposal for a New Zealand-based index of computer science technical reports, where the reports themselves are located in repositories that are distributed world-wide. Our scheme is unique in that it is based on indexing the full text of the technical reports, rather than on document surrogates. The index is constructed so as to minimize network traffic and local storage costs (of particular importance for geographically isolated countries like New Zealand, which incur high Internet costs). We also will provide support for bibliometric/scientometric studies of the computing literature and our users.

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  • Obsolescence of computing literature

    Cunningham, Sally Jo; Bocock, David (1995-03)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    A multisynchronous obsolescence study has been performed on two computing journals that publish on technical aspects of computer system management (networks and operating systems). This area of computer science is found to have a relatively high obsolescence rate (a median citation rate of four years). This rate is similar to that of fields in engineering and the technology-dependent "hard" sciences.

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  • Bibliomania: what can we learn from the research literature?

    Cunningham, Sally Jo; Empson, Nic; Kamau, Rawinia (1995-04)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    The field of bibliometrics provides a set of quantitative methods for understanding how scientific information is created and disseminated by examining the structure, rather than the content, of subject documents. Bibliographic information can be analyzed to give insights into the development of research fronts, methods of scientific communication, and characteristics of the scientific literature. This paper presents three case studies illustrating simple bibliometric techniques, as applied to management/computer science/information systems. These fields have been largely ignored by bibliometricians; an unfortunate omission, given the information on the nature and structure of these fields that bibliometric studies could provide.

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  • Machine learning and statistics: a matter of perspective

    Cunningham, Sally Jo (1995-04)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    Information has become an important commercial commodity-indeed, possibly the most important product of the future. While we have well-developed technologies to store data, the analysis to extract information is time-consuming and requires skilled human intervention. Machine learning algorithms augment statistical analysis by providing mechanisms that automate the information discovery process. These algorithms also tend to be more accessible to end-users and domain experts. The two analysis methods are converging, and the fields have much to offer each other.

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  • Machine learning in practice: experience with agricultural databases

    Garner, Stephen R.; Cunningham, Sally Jo; Holmes, Geoffrey; Nevill-Manning, Craig G.; Witten, Ian H. (1995-05)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    The Waikato Environment for Knowledge Analysis (weka) is a New Zealand government-sponsored initiative to investigate the application of machine learning to economically important problems in the agricultural industries. The overall goals are to create a workbench for machine learning, determine the factors that contribute towards its successful application in the agricultural industries, and develop new methods of machine learning and ways of assessing their effectiveness. The project began in 1993 and is currently working towards the fulfilment of three objectives: to design and implement the workbench, to provide case studies of applications of machine learning techniques to problems in agriculture, and to develop a methodology for evaluating generalisations in terms of their entropy. These three objectives are by no means independent. For example, the design of the weka workbench has been inspired by the demands placed on it by the case studies, and has also benefited from our work on evaluating the outcomes of applying a technique to data. Our experience throughout the development of the project is that the successful application of machine learning involves much more than merely executing a learning algorithm on some data. In this paper we present the process model that underpins our work over the past two years for the development of applications in agriculture; the software we have developed around our workbench of machine learning schemes to support this model; and the outcomes and problems we have encountered in developing applications.

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  • An empirical investigation of the obsolescence rate for information systems literature

    Cunningham, Sally Jo (1995-05)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    A synchronous study has been performed on four years of the International Conference on Information systems (ICIS) proceedings, to determine the obsolescence rate for the field of information systems (as reflected in the sub-topics covered by the ICIS conference). IS is found to have a relatively high obsolescence rate, similar to that of fields in engineering and the technology-dependent "hard" sciences. In addition, this study provides a categorization of the types of documents referenced by IS research, and presents an analysis of the obsolescence rate for these types. This type of categorization permits a finer-grained examination of patterns of information dissemination and use.

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  • Applications for bibliometric research in the emerging digital library

    Cunningham, Sally Jo; Vallabh, Mahendra (1995-05)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    A large amount of research literature has recently become available on the Internet through "digital libraries". This migration of information from paper to electronic media promises to have a huge impact on the way that research is performed, as documents become more widely, cheaply, and quickly distributed than is possible through traditional publishing. A secondary use for these document repositories and indexes is as a platform for bibliometric research. We examine the extent to which the new digital libraries support conventional bibliometric analysis, and discuss shortcomings in their current forms. Interestingly, these electronic text archives also provide opportunities for new types of studies: generally the full text of documents are available for analysis, giving a finer grain of insight than abstract-only online databases; these repositories often contain technical reports or pre-prints, the "gray literature" that has been previously unavailable for analysis; and document "usage" can be measured directly by recording user accesses, rather than studied indirectly through document references.

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  • Applying machine learning to subject classification and subject description for information retrieval

    Cunningham, Sally Jo; Summers, Brent (1995-06)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    This paper describes an experiment in applying standard supervised machine learning algorithms (C4.5 and Induct) to the problem of developing subject classification rules for documents. These algorithms are found to produce surprisingly concise models of document classifications. While the models are highly accurate on the training sets, evaluation over test sets or through cross-validation shows a significant decrease in classification accuracy. Given the difficult nature of the experimental task, however, the results of this investigation are promising and merit further study. An additional algorithm, 1R, is shown to be highly effective in generating lists of candidate terms for subject descriptions.

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  • Building a public digital library based on full-text retrieval

    Witten, Ian H.; Nevill-Manning, Craig G.; Cunningham, Sally Jo (1995-08)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    Digital libraries are expensive to create and maintain, and generally restricted to a particular corporation or group of paying subscribers. While many indexes to the World Wide Web are freely available, the quality of what is indexed is extremely uneven. The digital analog of a public library a reliable, quality, community service has yet to appear. This paper demonstrates the feasibility of a cost-effective collection of high-quality public-domain information, available free over the Internet. One obstacle to the creation of a digital library is the difficulty of providing formal cataloguing information. Without a title, author and subject database it seems hard to offer the searching facilities normally available in physical libraries. Full-text retrieval provides a way of approximating these services without a concomitant investment of resources. A second is the problem of finding a suitable corpus of material. Computer science research reports form the focus of our prototype implementation. These constitute a large body of high-quality public-domain documents. Given such a corpus, a third issue becomes the question of obtaining both plain text for indexing, and page images for readability. Typesetting formats such as PostScript provide some of the benefits of libraries scanned from paper documents such as paged-based indexing and viewing without the physical demands and error-prone nature of scanning and optical character recognition. However, until recently the difficulty of extracting text from PostScript seems to have encouraged indexing on plain-text abstracts or bibliographic information provided by authors. We have developed a new technique that overcomes the problem. This paper describes the architecture, the indexing, collection and maintenance processes, and the retrieval interface, to a prototype public digital library.

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  • Writing anxiety in computer science students

    Cunningham, Sally Jo; Holmes, Geoffrey (1995-08)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    Effective written communication skills are recognized as essential for computing professions, but are notoriously difficult to impart to our students. One problem in teaching computing students to write may be their attitudes toward writing; anecdotally, computing students are (often justifiably) lacking in confidence about their writing skills, and avoid writing when possible. This paper explores the degree of writing anxiety/apprehension in computing majors through the administration of a standard survey instrument, the Daly and Miller Writing Apprehension Test.

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  • Towards the digital music library: tune retrieval from acoustic input

    McNab, Rodger J.; Smith, Lloyd A.; Witten, Ian H.; Henderson, Clare L.; Cunningham, Sally Jo (1995-10)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    Music is traditionally retrieved by title, composer or subject classification. It is possible, with current technology, to retrieve music from a database on the basis of a few notes sung or hummed into a microphone. This paper describes the implementation of such a system, and discusses several issues pertaining to music retrieval. We first describe an interface that transcribes acoustic input into standard music notation. We then analyze string matching requirements from ranked retrieval of music and present the results of an experiment which tests how accurately people sing well known melodies. The performance of several string matching criteria are analyzed using two folk song databases. Finally, we describe a prototype system which has been developed for retrieval of tunes from acoustic input.

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  • Information retrieval programs on the Internet: tools for teaching IR

    Cunningham, Sally Jo (1995-11)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    The theory of information retrieval has generally been taught in theory: it has been difficult to provide students with hands-on experience with retrieval engines incorporating many IR topics such as relevance ranking, fuzzy queries, etc. Recently, however, a number of retrieval programs have become freely available for interactive use over the Internet. These programs can be useful in the classroom, by permitting students to examine a variety of implementations of IR algorithms over different document collections. Moreover, many of the document collections are in themselves valuable subject resources, and are well worth exploring from the point of view of development familiarity with them as reference materials.

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  • How Maui captured the sun: using a MUD for educational simulation

    Cunningham, Sally Jo; Williams, Warren (1995-12)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    MUDs (Multi-User Dungeons) are text-based, multi-user communication and modelling programs. This paper investigates the potential of a popular extensible MUD, the LambdaMOO system, as a tool for second language training and for educational simulation gaming.

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  • Navigating the virtual library: a 3D browsing interface for information retrieval

    Rogers, Bill; Cunningham, Sally Jo; Holmes, Geoffrey (1994-07)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    An interface is described for graphically navigating a large collection of documents, as in a library. Its design is based on the metaphor of traversing a landscape. Documents are depicted as buildings, clustered to form 'towns'. A network of 'roads' connects these towns according to the classification hierarchy of the document set. A three-dimensional scene rendering technique allows the user to view this landscape from different perspectives, and at different levels of detail. At one level, the appearance of the buildings provides information like document size and age, at a glance. At higher levels, we provide the user with a visualisation of the structure and extent of the document set that is impossible with a traditional 'shelf' presentation. At all levels, a sense of physical context is maintained, encouraging and supporting browsing.

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  • A non-linear, criterion-referenced grading scheme for a computer literacy course

    Rogers, Bill; Treweek, Phillip; Cunningham, Sally Jo (1996-04)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    The development of complex Information Systems requires the use of many Information Systems engineering tools. These diverse tools need to be integrated in order to be effectively used by multiple cooperating developers. In addition, the users of these environments require features that facilitate effective cooperation, such as support for collaboratively planning cooperative work, notification of changes to parts of a system under development (but only when necessary or desired), support for keeping aware of other developers' work contexts, and the ability to flexibly engineer or adapt development processes and methods. We describe an integrated Information Systems engineering environment which includes a work coordination tool supporting these requirements.

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  • Digital libraries based on full-text retrieval

    Witten, Ian H.; Nevill-Manning, Craig G.; Cunningham, Sally Jo (1996-07)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    Because digital libraries are expensive to create and maintain, Internet analogs of public libraries-reliable, quality, community services-have only recently begun to appear. A serious obstacle to their creation is the provision of appropriate cataloguing information. Without a database of titles, authors and subjects, it is hard to offer the searching and browsing facilities normally available in physical libraries. Full-text retrieval provides a way of approximating these services without a concomitant investment of human resources. This presentation will discuss the indexing, collection and maintenance processes, and the retrieval interface, to public digital libraries.

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