79 results for Fairweather, John R., Book

  • The Q method and subjective perceptions of food in the 1990s

    Fairweather, John R.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    Results of a study of people's perception of food are presented in this report. The Q method was used to factor analyse the data from 59 subjects who sorted statements about food. Four types are described and labelled the Gregarious Gourmet, the Virtuous Vegetarian, the Tradition Meat Eater and the Selective Connoisseur. These types account for the main variations in perception of food and each type has a distinctive subjective experience of food. The results have implications for marketing, dietary and nutrition practitioners, and for the sociology of food and eating.

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  • New Zealanders and biotechnology : reactions to novel developments in medicine, farming and food

    Cook, Andrew J.; Fairweather, John R.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    The aim of this research was to predict and understand public reactions to biotechnology, and in particular to estimate recent change over time in acceptability of examples of biotechnology. A further objective was to assess public reactions to realisable future developments in biotechnology. These developments were: using nanoparticles in gene replacement therapy, bio-pharming and using nanoparticles in the production of lamb or beef.

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  • Nanotechnology : ethical and social issues : results from a New Zealand survey

    Cook, Andrew J.; Fairweather, John R.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    The general aim of this research was to determine and understand New Zealand public reactions to nanotechnology. An objective was to assess the generalisability of focus group research in a national survey. A further objective was to investigate the role of values, beliefs and emotion in shaping attitudes towards nanotechnology.

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  • Kiwifruit casual mapping in 2008 : comparisons to 2005 and to other sectors

    Fairweather, John R.; Hunt, Lesley M.; Rosin, C.; Benge, J.; Campbell, H.

    Book
    Lincoln University

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  • Nanotechnology : ethical and social issues : results from New Zealand focus groups

    Cook, Andrew J.; Fairweather, John R.

    Book
    Lincoln University

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  • Public drinking and social organisation in Methven and Mt. Somers

    Fairweather, John R.; Campbell, H.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    The results from an ethnographic study of two South Island rural towns, Methven and Mt. Somers, are presented in this report along with a selected review of the literature on pubs. An argument is developed that integrated ethnography is necessary to fully understand public drinking, and that practice theory is appropriate for integrating interactions with such factors as gender and occupation. We conclude that the findings from the ethnography can be best explained in terms of status, exclusion, and control over both work and identity. The findings are similar to those from overseas studies suggesting that the interactions found in Methven and Mt. Somers occur in a similar form in other rural locations.

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  • Smallholders in Canterbury : characteristics, motivations, land use and intentions to move

    Fairweather, John R.; Robertson, Nicola J.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    The AERU published its first report on smallholdings in Canterbury in 1993. The present report extends that research by using a random sample survey and thereby updates our understanding of this very important phenomenon. The report covers basic descriptive information, land use, general attitudes and motivation. It also compares lifestylers with farming-oriented smallholders. Results will be of interest to people involved directly in smallholding by showing them what people are doing on their land. The report will also be of interest to policy makers responding to the planning implications of the effects of the growing number of smallholdings.

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  • New Zealand agricultural policy reform and impacts on the farm sector : detailed historical analysis addressing the issue of the specificity of the farm sector

    Jean, N.; Fairweather, John R.; Gouin, D. M.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    This research analyses the effects on the farm sector of the reform of New Zealand agricultural policy undertaken in 1985. This analysis is placed within a discussion of the larger issue of the specificity of the farm sector and whether this specificity requires special support from the state in most of the developed countries. This study describes the crisis of the New Zealand economy at the beginning of the deregulation process and explains why the farm sector was at the centre of the reform. The removal of state support to agriculture and the transition measures set in place are documented. The research also analyses the effects of the reform on farms both at the structural level and in terms of farm incomes. The sheep and the dairy sectors are analysed in detail. The analysis concludes that the farm sector has maintained its level of economic activity despite important reductions in state support. Finally, this study discusses some lessons that can be obtained from the New Zealand experience, notably in relation with the specificity of the farm sector.

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  • The decision making of organic and conventional agricultural producers

    Fairweather, John R.; Campbell, H.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    The main objective of this research was to describe and understand the decision making of organic and conventional farmers so that we could understand why, or why not, they grew organic products. Organic production was self defined by the farmers themselves not by us as experts. We did not examine whether actual organic standards were being followed. A majority of organic farmers had their organic status certified by Bio-Gro NZ (the organisation formerly known as the New Zealand Biological Producers and Consumers Association) providing certification in conformity with the basic standards of the International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM). Therefore organic farming is defined as any land use which uses organic techniques. It includes agricultural and horticultural land uses and thereby includes both farmers and growers. However, for ease of reading, this report uses the words agriculture and farmer and they should be taken to include horticulture and growers. This report provides a review of literature on farmers’ decision making with respect to organic farming. It then introduces and explains the method adopted in this study, namely, the ethnographic decision tree approach. The results are presented in terms of what they tell us about understanding both organic and conventional farmers’ thinking about organic production. Finally, the conclusion discusses the results, compares them with the existing literature, makes some general observations and considers the policy implications.

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  • Public understandings of biotechnology in New Zealand : nature, clean green image and spirituality

    Coyle, Fiona J.; Maslin, Crystal L.; Fairweather, John R.; Hunt, Lesley M.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    This programme was granted funding in response to a demand for additional information on public perceptions of the risks of biotechnology. The Foundaton for Research, Science and Technology identified the need for research into the key socio-economic impacts of biotechnology. More specifically, the Foundation recognized how important it was to identify the relevant factors in determining the public perceptions of technological risk. These factors are associated with the full range of biotechnologies including medical, environmental and food applications. The public perception of technological risk is of critical importance in the future development of biotechnology in New Zealand. Consequently, there is a need for tools to assist in the analysis of perceived technological risk.

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  • Change in New Zealand farmer and grower attitudes towards gene technology : results from a follow up survey

    Cook, Andrew J.; Fairweather, John R.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    This study examined changes in the intentions, attitudes and beliefs of farmers regarding their use of gene technology. Of 656 respondents to a postal survey in 2000, the views of 115 were assessed again in 2002. These follow up respondents indicated their intention to use gene technology, attitudes toward using gene technology and beliefs about market acceptance, commercial viability and environmental risk from using the technology.

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  • New Zealanders and biotechnology : attitudes, perceptions and affective reactions

    Cook, Andrew J.; Fairweather, John R.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    Public perceptions of biotechnology in contemporary society are important. The current research programme has allowed us to resurvey the public to assess current responses to biotechnology and to examine possible changes in public attitude over time. This report details what the public think about biotechnology. The research aims were to: investigate change over time in public acceptance of various examples of biotechnology; investigate attitudes towards biotechnology generally and specifically towards, the treatment of diabetes using cells from a pig, the GM potato and use of GM bacteria to ameliorate the detrimental effects of DDT; identify and determine the role and relative importance of affective responses or feelings towards biotechnology in attitudes towards biotechnology; and investigate the relationship between worldviews and attitudes towards biotechnology.

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  • New Zealand farmer and grower intentions to use genetic engineering technology and organic production methods

    Cook, Andrew J.; Fairweather, John R.; Campbell, H. R.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    This research investigated the decisions of farmers and growers in relation to the issue of the introduction of gene technology to agricultural production in New Zealand. The main research objective was to determine and understand the reasons for New Zealand farmer and grower intentions to (i) use gene technology (ii) purchase GM food and (iii) use organic methods.

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  • Success factors in new land-based industries

    Mayell, P. J.; Fairweather, John R.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    Part of the changing structure of New Zealand agriculture and horticulture includes a move from traditional land uses to new land uses. Not all new land uses, however, become established industries. The research objective of this study was to focus on a wide range of new land-based industries and address the question of why some new industries succeed and why others do not. The research also introduces a relatively new method, the Qualitative Comparative Analysis method, which identifies critical factors in industry success in a way that combines the richness of case studies with the rigour of comparative analysis. Results will be of interest to primary producers seeking to learn from recent experience of new industries, and to policy-makers interested in promoting new land-based industries.

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  • South Island Maori perceptions of biotechnology

    Roberts, M.; Fairweather, John R.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    Biotechnology is the use of living organisms to make products and solve problems. In New Zealand, it has made national headlines through public controversies over genetically modified corn, cloned sheep and the transplantation of animal cells into human bodies. Whilst scientists and government bodies make decisions regarding the applicability and ethical standards of such research, the public are sometimes not given full attention in this decision making process. In a study of South Island Maori perceptions of biotechnology 22 interviews and/or focus groups were conducted around the South Island involving a total of 91 people. Participants were asked to discuss different biotechnologies and their applications. The report focuses on what the participants said about the different biotechnologies with a view to providing a record of these views. In addition, key themes were identified and collated.

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  • A review of social science research at Lincoln University

    Fairweather, John R.; Carter, I.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    There are two social science departments and three centres directly involved in social science research at Lincoln University, and three professional departments informed by social science research. About one quarter of staff and an estimated total of 57 masters and Ph.D. graduate students at Lincoln University have some involvement with social science research. Two departments and most centres typically undertake primary social science research drawing on social science disciplines to study a range of social phenomena. The professional departments, one centre and some natural science departments undertake secondary social science research . Overall, the research can be characterised as quantitative, linked to natural phenomena and applied in nature. Some potential problems with this applied orientation are noted and the character and problems of commercial research are described. For the 1992 year the estimated total level of funding received by social science researchers was $538,150, half of which was obtained by the two social science departments. A number of factors make funding from FoRST an unlikely source of research funds. Publications data show that social science departments have fewer refereed publications per staff member but also have fewer staff with Ph.D.s and high student/staff ratios. Researchers stated a number of problems in doing research, including lack of time and money. Lack of collegial support and the need to develop research skills with guidance from mentors or supervisors were also significant. There are four main problems with social science research, namely the need for: improved skills, more time for research, more funds for research and improved breadth and rigour of research.

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  • Understanding why farmers change their farming practices : the role of orienting principles in technology transfer

    Morris, C.; Loveridge, A.; Fairweather, John R.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    This report presents results from a qualitative study of sheep, beef and dairy farmers in the Temuka, Geraldine area of the South Island, New Zealand. Farmers' accounts of their farming practices, and how they decide to adopt, or not adopt, innovations are analysed to highlight the key orienting principles that guide their decision making. Farmers in each type of production have different orientations to innovation, in large part reflecting the nature of the industry in which they are located. Sheep and beef farmers emphasise profitability and the need to control risk and to farm safely. Dairy farmers emphasise increasing production, increasing efficiency and control by monitoring production. The results are important for alerting researchers and educationalists to the farmers' point of view in the development of effective extension.

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  • Social organisation of large herd dairy farms in New Zealand

    Fairweather, John R.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    This research reports the results of interviewing 29 large herd dairy farmers (over 500 cows) in the North and South Islands of New Zealand and describes their social organisation of production. On average the farmers were 39 years old, their farms involved 6.0 full-time workers and milked 895 cows. In some cases the farms comprised a number of separate units so that there was an average of 3.7 full-time employees per case or 2.5 full-time employees per farm unit. Most employees (55 per cent) intended to own their own farm and were likely to succeed but 16 per cent planned a career as manager or milker. There were five distinctive types of large herds farms. Group 1 farmers were in a variety of pre-farm ownership situations and aspired to farm ownership with a smaller herd with few employees. Group 2 farmers had increased in size to get out of the milking shed and typically did not do the milking. Group 3 farmers were committed to the farm and involved in milking. Group 4 farmers had a home farm plus others and did little milking. Finally, Group 5 farmers had one very large farm and typically did not do any milking. As scale increases it is harder for each farm owner to have hands-on management of milking cows. The five groups described in this research show a sequence of increased scale (number of full-time workers, cows milked, and effective area) associated with increasing numbers of people not working full time. The challenge of managing increasing scale is to maintain contact with milking and production. There are four main ways of doing this. Group 3 farmers do it themselves (perhaps not with every milking but at least once per day) , Group 2 farmers use contract milkers, Group 4 farmers use sharemilkers or managers and Group 5 farmers use a tightly managed hierarchy with supervisors and herd managers. Group 3 and Group 4 farmers achieve best production per hectare. It is likely that they have achieved this because responsibility for production rests with those involved in milking. Work organisation on large herds dairy farms is characterised by routine work and extraordinary work coordinated by either close supervision or by delegation. Work typically is organised verbally, and farmers prefer to recruit competent employees who show initiative and respond to education. Staff relations are particularly important on large herds farms and some farmers have developed empathetic and sophisticated staff management practices. Regular time off from milking is the norm and on a few farms there are innovative work and milking schedules. Large herds farmers emphasise planning, organisation and attention to detail as some of the important key success factors in large herds farming. Compared to family farms, large herds dairy farms have more employees and they play an important role in success of the farm. Large herds farmers are forced to be efficient in their use of time and they believe they are well able to resist financial setbacks. Finally, the character of large herds dairy farming tends to preclude family involvement making it distinctive from family farming. The report concludes by arguing that the advent of large herds farming appears not to be precluding access to farm ownership and that the character of large herds farming supports meritocratic access to land. Further research is needed before the views and conditions of workers are fully known but the results here suggest that their conditions are satisfactory.

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  • Agrarian restructuring in New Zealand

    Fairweather, John R.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    In this research report the farm and structural changes in New Zealand between 1984 and 1990 are described by way of analysis of official statistics. A brief review of theory on family farms under capitalism precedes data on changes in the financial position of farms. Incomes for many farms fell sharply by 1986, then rose to remain at lower than the 1976 to 1985 ten year average. While financial pressure has eased recently, it is still unevenly distributed as a minority of farms hold a majority of debt. In recent years the proportion of income from off-farm sources has increased. An analysis of structural changes shows that sheep numbers have decreased noticeably while dairy stock and deer numbers have increased. There has been continued declines in the rate of increase in farm numbers, and for 1990 there was, for the first time, a decline in farm numbers. Also, there is a return to the 'disappearing middle' across the range of farm sizes. Significant or commercial farms total about one half of all farms in New Zealand. Farm employment data show a decline then an increase in the total between 1984 and 1990, and all of the increases occurred in the full-time female category. Some company ownership of land occurs but there is no sign of significant gains in corporate farming. The report concludes with a description of farm level responses and then makes some concluding points about the persistence of family farms in New Zealand agriculture.

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  • Public understandings of biotechnology in New Zealand : factors affecting acceptability rankings of five selected biotechnologies

    Hunt, Lesley M.; Fairweather, John R.; Coyle, Fiona J.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    In a study of public perceptions about biotechnology eleven focus groups were conducted throughout New Zealand. In the course of each focus group the participants were asked to rank for acceptability five different exemplars of biotechnology:a treatment of sheep to reduce their methane emission; a throat lozenge which placed beneficial bacteria in the mouth; a potato that was genetically modified by the addition of a synthetic toad gene to resist potato rot; the use of stem cells from embryos to treat Alzheimer's Disease; and the use of a genetically modified bacterium to break down DDT residue in the soil. This report focuses on the factors that participants considered when making their acceptability ranking decisions.

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