40 results for Fielding, David, Working or discussion paper, Otago University Research Archive

  • Copyright Payments in Eighteenth-Century Britain, 1701–1800

    Fielding, David; Rogers, Shef (2015-06)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    View record details
  • Understanding the Etiology of Electoral Violence: The Case of Zimbabwe

    Fielding, David (2015-06)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    Recent theoretical and empirical work indicates that incumbent governments are likely to attempt to influence election outcomes by violent means (rather than by bribery and fraud) when their level of popular support is relatively low. However, evidence also suggests that in some countries electoral violence can be quite easy to thwart through peaceful means. This may seem surprising when the incumbent has control over an extensive and well-equipped state security apparatus. The analysis of Zimbabwean data in this paper suggests an explanation: the incumbent prefers to avoid the direct involvement of the state security apparatus when intimidating voters (perhaps because such involvement would undermine the incumbent’s legitimacy abroad), and relies instead on informal groups with very limited organizational capacity. One consequence in Zimbabwe is that the intimidation is heavily focused in places where the incumbent is relatively popular, ceteris paribus.

    View record details
  • Credit Booms, Financial Fragility and Banking Crises

    Fielding, David; Rewilak, Johan (2015-08)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    Recent evidence indicates that surges in capital inflows and credit booms can increase the probability of a subsequent banking crisis. Using a new country-level panel database on financial fragility, we take this analysis further by exploring the interaction of surges, booms and fragility. We find that booms and fragility are both important, but booms increase the probability of a crisis only in financial systems with a relatively high level of fragility. Booms appear not to be dangerous in countries with a robust banking system.

    View record details
  • When does it matter how you ask? Cross-subject heterogeneity in framing effects in a charitable donation experiment

    Fielding, David; Knowles, Stephen; Robertson, Kirsten (2017-01)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    In this paper we present results from an experiment that draws on insights from economics on different possible incentives for generosity and insights from social psychology on different possible personality types. Firstly, we test whether the effect of an appeal to a pure altruism motive versus an appeal to a self-interest motive varies across subjects. We find that there is substantial variation, and this variation is strongly correlated with a subject’s level of materialism. Secondly, we test whether spoken appeals and written appeals have different effects. We find no evidence for such a difference. These results have important implications for the fundraising strategies of charities and for experimental design.

    View record details
  • Health Shocks and Child Time Allocation Decisions by Households: Evidence from Ethiopia

    Dinku, Yonatan; Fielding, David; Genc, Murat (2017-04)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    Little is currently known about the effects of shocks to parental health on the allocation of children’s time between alternative activities. Using longitudinal data from the Ethiopian Young Lives surveys of 2006 and 2009, we analyze the effect of health shocks on the amount of children’s time spent in work, leisure and education. We find that paternal illness increases the time spent in income-generating work but maternal illness increases the time spent in domestic work. Moreover, maternal illness has a relatively large effect on daughters while paternal illness has a relatively large effect on sons. Overall, parental illness leads to large and significant increases in the amount of child labour as defined by UNICEF.

    View record details
  • The impact of climate change on crop production in Ghana: A Structural Ricardian analysis

    Etwire, Prince M.; Fielding, David; Kahui, Victoria (2017-04)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    We apply a Structural Ricardian Model (SRM) to farm-level data from Ghana in order to estimate the impact of climate change on crop production. The SRM explicitly incorporates changes in farmers’ crop selection in response to variation in climate, a feature lacking in many existing models of climate change response in Africa. Two other novel features of our model are an estimate of the response of agricultural profits to differences in land tenure, and a comprehensive investigation of the appropriate functional form with which to model farmers’ responses. This final feature turns out to be important, since estimates of the effect of climate change turn out to be sensitive to the choice of functional form.

    View record details
  • Can You Spare Some Change For Charity? Experimental Evidence On Verbal Cues And Loose Change Effects In A Dictator Game

    Fielding, David; Knowles, Stephen (2013-11)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    There is some evidence from field studies and natural experiments that levels of charitable donation depend on the method in which donations are solicited. There is also some experimental evidence that spending on private consumption depends on how much loose change people have. We use a simple laboratory experiment to measure the effect on donor choices of (i) whether the choices are presented verbally or non-verbally, and (ii) whether the participants have a large amount of loose change. We find strong evidence for both effects. These effects may explain some of the variation in the average level of generosity found in different Dictator Game results, and why laboratory experiments elicit levels of generosity that are often much higher than in non-laboratory settings.

    View record details
  • Ethnic Fractionalization, Governance and Loan Defaults in Africa

    Adrianova, Svetlana; Baltagi, Badi H.; Demetriades, Panicos; Fielding, David (2014-10)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    We present a theoretical model of moral hazard and adverse selection in an imperfectly competitive loans market that is suitable for application to Africa. The model allows for variation in both the level of contract enforcement (depending on the quality of governance) and the degree of market segmentation (depending on the level of ethnic fractionalization). The model predicts a specific form of non-linearity in the effects of these variables on the loan default rate. Empirical analysis using African panel data for 111 individual banks in 29 countries over 2000-2008 provides strong evidence for these predictions. Our results have important implications for the conditions under which policy reform will enhance financial development.

    View record details
  • Comment on Relative Price Variability and Inflation in Reinganum’s Consumer Search Model

    Fielding, David; Hajzler, Chris (2013-03)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    There is now a large empirical literature on the effect of the aggregate inflation rate on (i) the dispersion of prices across goods or locations (relative price variability, or RPV) and (ii) the dispersion of inflation rates across goods or locations (relative inflation variability, or RIV). In the early part of this literature, empirical modelling is explicitly based on theoretical macroeconomic models incorporating signal extraction problems. However, more recent empirical research is less directly connected to theory, and several authors report results that are inconsistent with signal extraction models. In particular, while RIV is increasing in the absolute value of inflation shocks, RPV is a negative monotonic function of inflation shocks. In this paper, we show that such a result is predicted by consumer search models in the style of Reinganum (1979). A proper understanding of the dynamics of price dispersion in 21st century economies will require a renewed interest in the theoretical foundations of empirical models.

    View record details
  • Inflation Volatility and Economic Development: Evidence from Nigeria

    Fielding, David (2008)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    We use monthly time-series data on the prices of 96 individual products in the 37 states of Nigeria to analyze the factors that drive inflation volatility. Among the significant determinants of volatility are average inflation rates, transport and communication infrastructure, consumer access to credit markets and urbanization. However, there is substantial heterogeneity across products in the relative importance of these factors.

    View record details
  • Are Survey measures of Trust Correlated with Experimental Trust? Empirical Evidence from Cameroon

    Etang, Alvin; Fielding, David; Knowles, Stephen (2010-11-01)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    We analyze the correlation between survey-based measures of trust and behavior in the Trust Game in two villages in Cameroon. Some participants play the Trust Game with people from their own village, and others with people from a neighboring village. The survey that the participants complete includes questions about trust and social distance that reflect the experimental treatment. Some measures of survey-based trust are correlated with experimental trust, but the level of correlation is not uniform.

    View record details
  • Aid and Dutch Disease in the South Pacific

    Fielding, David (2007-02)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    The impact of aid inflows on relative prices and output is ambiguous. Aid inflows that increase domestic expenditure are likely to cause real exchange rate appreciation, ceteris paribus. However, if this expenditure raises the capital stock in the traded goods sector, then output in this sector might not contract, at least in the steady state. Moreover, if investment in the nontraded goods sector is relatively high and/or productive, then there is not necessarily any real exchange rate appreciation in the steady state. We use time-series data to examine the impact of aid inflows on output and real exchange rates in ten South Pacific island states, and find aid inflows to produce a variety of outcomes in economies of different kinds.

    View record details
  • What causes changes in opinion about the Israeli-Palestinian peace process?

    Fielding, David; Penny, Madeline (2006-03)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    In this paper we present a statistical analysis of the factors that drive monthly variations in the aggregate level of support among Israeli Jews for the Oslo Peace Process. Attitudes depend on both the state of the Israeli economy and the intensity of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict since the onset of the Intifada. Moreover, different dimensions of the conflict have very different effects on Jewish public opinion. In particular, there is substantial heterogeneity in the response of attitudes to conflict events on either side of the Green Line.

    View record details
  • Measuring aid effectively in tests of aid effectiveness

    Fielding, David; Knowles, Stephen (2007-03)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    In the extensive empirical literature on aid effectiveness, aid is always measured as a share of GDP. However, measuring aid in real dollars per capita is also consistent with standard growth theory. We show that the choice of denominator makes an enormous difference to the sign and significance of coefficients on aid variables in crosscountry panel growth regressions. Our aim is to redirect attention towards the theoretical foundations of the growth literature.

    View record details
  • What Explains Changes in the Level of Abuse Against Civilians during the Peruvian Civil War?

    Fielding, David; Shortland, Anja (2010-05-01)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    Using a new monthly time-series data set, we explore the factors associated with variations in the number of civilians killed or wounded by participants in the civil war in Peru during the 1980s and 1990s. We find that an increase in the level of abuse by one side is strongly associated with subsequent increases in the level of abuse by the other. Certain types of foreign intervention have a large and statistically significant impact on the level of abuse; some types of intervention raise the level of violence, but others reduce it.

    View record details
  • Health Aid and Governance in Developing Countries

    Fielding, David (2008-11-01)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    Despite anecdotal evidence that the quality of governance in recipient countries affects the allocation of international health aid, there is no quantitative evidence on the magnitude of this effect, or on which dimensions of governance influence donor decisions. We measure health aid flows over 2001-2005 for 87 aid recipients, matching aid data with measures of different dimensions of governance and a range of country-specific economic and health characteristics. Both corruption and political rights, but not civil rights, have a significant impact on aid. The sensitivity of aid to corruption might be explained by a perception that poor institutions make health aid inefficient. However, even when we allow for variations in the level of corruption, political rights still have a significant impact on aid allocation. This suggests that health aid is sometimes used as an incentive to reward political reforms, even though (as we find) such aid is not fungibile.

    View record details
  • Cows and conquistadors: a comment on the colonial origins of comparative development

    Fielding, David; Torres, Sebastian (2005-05)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    Robust estimation of the impact of political institutions on economic development requires the identification of valid instruments for institutional quality. Acemoglu et al. [2001] introduced the use of colonial settler mortality rates as such an instrument. Our paper develops a more eclectic theory of colonial development, and compares the performance of the settler mortality model to alternatives incorporating instruments reflecting the production structure of colonial economies. Ceteris paribus, colonies with a natural comparative advantage in pastoral agriculture were more likely to experience European settlement that led to non-extractive institutions. Some – but not all – of Acemoglu et al.’s conclusions are robust to the use of a wider set of instruments.

    View record details
  • Monopoly Power in the Eighteenth Century British Book Trade

    Fielding, David; Rogers, Shef (2014-12)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    In conventional wisdom, the reform of British copyright law during the eighteenth century brought an end to the monopoly on the sale of books held by the Stationers’ Company, and the resulting competition was one of the driving forces behind the expansion of British book production during the Enlightenment. In this paper, we analyze a new dataset on eighteenth century book prices and author payments, showing that the legal reform brought about only a temporary increase in competition. The data suggest that by the end of the century, informal collusion between publishers had replaced the legal monopoly powers in place at the beginning of the century. The monopoly power of retailers is not so easily undermined.

    View record details
  • Access to Financing and Firm Growth: Evidence from Ethiopia

    Regasa, Dereje; Fielding, David; Roberts, Helen (2017-04)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    Using Ethiopian firm-level data, we model the effect of different types of financing on firm growth. The form of financing is potentially endogenous to firm growth, and one contribution of this paper is to introduce a new instrumental variable which captures local variation in financial depth. Unlike previous studies of firms in low-income countries, we find evidence for a negative relationship between the use of external finance and firm growth, which suggests that there are substantial cross-country differences in the finance-growth nexus. We discuss possible explanations for this phenomenon and its implications for development policy.

    View record details
  • Does Aid Work for the Poor?

    McGillivray, Mark; Fielding, David; Torres, Sebastian; Knowles, Stephen (2011-12-01)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    This paper econometrically examines the impact of aid on the well-being of population sub-groups within 48 developing countries. This is a radical departure from previous empirical research of aid effectiveness at the country level, which has looked mainly at the relationship between aid and national aggregates, per capita GDP growth in particular. A specific concern of the paper is the impact of aid on the wealth, education and health of the poorest. Results indicate that while aid improves the well-being of the poorest groups, it is the richer groups that benefit the most.

    View record details