39 results for Fielding, David, Working or discussion paper

  • Copyright Payments in Eighteenth-Century Britain, 1701–1800

    Fielding, David; Rogers, Shef (2015-06)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

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  • Understanding the Etiology of Electoral Violence: The Case of Zimbabwe

    Fielding, David (2015-06)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    Recent theoretical and empirical work indicates that incumbent governments are likely to attempt to influence election outcomes by violent means (rather than by bribery and fraud) when their level of popular support is relatively low. However, evidence also suggests that in some countries electoral violence can be quite easy to thwart through peaceful means. This may seem surprising when the incumbent has control over an extensive and well-equipped state security apparatus. The analysis of Zimbabwean data in this paper suggests an explanation: the incumbent prefers to avoid the direct involvement of the state security apparatus when intimidating voters (perhaps because such involvement would undermine the incumbent’s legitimacy abroad), and relies instead on informal groups with very limited organizational capacity. One consequence in Zimbabwe is that the intimidation is heavily focused in places where the incumbent is relatively popular, ceteris paribus.

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  • When does it matter how you ask? Cross-subject heterogeneity in framing effects in a charitable donation experiment

    Fielding, David; Knowles, Stephen; Robertson, Kirsten (2017-01)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    In this paper we present results from an experiment that draws on insights from economics on different possible incentives for generosity and insights from social psychology on different possible personality types. Firstly, we test whether the effect of an appeal to a pure altruism motive versus an appeal to a self-interest motive varies across subjects. We find that there is substantial variation, and this variation is strongly correlated with a subject’s level of materialism. Secondly, we test whether spoken appeals and written appeals have different effects. We find no evidence for such a difference. These results have important implications for the fundraising strategies of charities and for experimental design.

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  • Health Shocks and Child Time Allocation Decisions by Households: Evidence from Ethiopia

    Dinku, Yonatan; Fielding, David; Genc, Murat (2017-04)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    Little is currently known about the effects of shocks to parental health on the allocation of children’s time between alternative activities. Using longitudinal data from the Ethiopian Young Lives surveys of 2006 and 2009, we analyze the effect of health shocks on the amount of children’s time spent in work, leisure and education. We find that paternal illness increases the time spent in income-generating work but maternal illness increases the time spent in domestic work. Moreover, maternal illness has a relatively large effect on daughters while paternal illness has a relatively large effect on sons. Overall, parental illness leads to large and significant increases in the amount of child labour as defined by UNICEF.

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  • The impact of climate change on crop production in Ghana: A Structural Ricardian analysis

    Etwire, Prince M.; Fielding, David; Kahui, Victoria (2017-04)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    We apply a Structural Ricardian Model (SRM) to farm-level data from Ghana in order to estimate the impact of climate change on crop production. The SRM explicitly incorporates changes in farmers’ crop selection in response to variation in climate, a feature lacking in many existing models of climate change response in Africa. Two other novel features of our model are an estimate of the response of agricultural profits to differences in land tenure, and a comprehensive investigation of the appropriate functional form with which to model farmers’ responses. This final feature turns out to be important, since estimates of the effect of climate change turn out to be sensitive to the choice of functional form.

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  • Access to Financing and Firm Growth: Evidence from Ethiopia

    Regasa, Dereje; Fielding, David; Roberts, Helen (2017-04)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    Using Ethiopian firm-level data, we model the effect of different types of financing on firm growth. The form of financing is potentially endogenous to firm growth, and one contribution of this paper is to introduce a new instrumental variable which captures local variation in financial depth. Unlike previous studies of firms in low-income countries, we find evidence for a negative relationship between the use of external finance and firm growth, which suggests that there are substantial cross-country differences in the finance-growth nexus. We discuss possible explanations for this phenomenon and its implications for development policy.

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  • Can You Spare Some Change For Charity? Experimental Evidence On Verbal Cues And Loose Change Effects In A Dictator Game

    Fielding, David; Knowles, Stephen (2013-11)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    There is some evidence from field studies and natural experiments that levels of charitable donation depend on the method in which donations are solicited. There is also some experimental evidence that spending on private consumption depends on how much loose change people have. We use a simple laboratory experiment to measure the effect on donor choices of (i) whether the choices are presented verbally or non-verbally, and (ii) whether the participants have a large amount of loose change. We find strong evidence for both effects. These effects may explain some of the variation in the average level of generosity found in different Dictator Game results, and why laboratory experiments elicit levels of generosity that are often much higher than in non-laboratory settings.

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  • Health Aid and Governance in Developing Countries

    Fielding, David (2008-11-01)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    Despite anecdotal evidence that the quality of governance in recipient countries affects the allocation of international health aid, there is no quantitative evidence on the magnitude of this effect, or on which dimensions of governance influence donor decisions. We measure health aid flows over 2001-2005 for 87 aid recipients, matching aid data with measures of different dimensions of governance and a range of country-specific economic and health characteristics. Both corruption and political rights, but not civil rights, have a significant impact on aid. The sensitivity of aid to corruption might be explained by a perception that poor institutions make health aid inefficient. However, even when we allow for variations in the level of corruption, political rights still have a significant impact on aid allocation. This suggests that health aid is sometimes used as an incentive to reward political reforms, even though (as we find) such aid is not fungibile.

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  • The Dynamics of Aid and Political Rights

    Fielding, David (2011-04)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    Several existing papers explore the extent to which the cross-country variation in measures of democracy and political rights can be explained by the cross-country variation in foreign aid inflows. Using panel data, we explore the extent to which the variation over time in such measures can be explained by changes in aid inflows, thus providing direct evidence on the impact of innovations in donor policy, and distinguishing between the short-run and long-run effects of changes in aid. Our results are very different from those based on cross-country variation in aid inflows. We find evidence of large differences between the effect of aggregate aid and the effect of aid for political reform, and between the effects in countries at different stages of political development. There is no evidence that aid intended for political reform has achieved its objective, and in some countries it may be counter-productive. However, aggregate aid can have a beneficial effect on political rights.

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  • Determinants of Relative Price Variability during a Recession: Evidence from Canada at the Time of the Great Depression

    Fielding, David; Hajzler, Chris; MacGee, Jim (2011-08-01)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    Most studies find that relative price variability (RPV) is a U-shaped or V-shaped function of anticipated inflation, and a V-shaped function of unanticipated inflation. One exception is Reinsdorf (1994), who finds that RPV in the United States during the 1980s recession was monotonically decreasing in unanticipated inflation. We suggest a reason for this difference, and test our conjecture using data from inter-war Canada. Our results indicate that in recessionary conditions a positive inflation shock does reduce RPV. However, this reduction is unlikely to correspond to higher consumer utility; this has implications for the conduct of monetary policy during a recession.

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  • Aid and Dutch Disease in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Fielding, David; Gibson, Fred (2011-08-01)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    International aid has an ambiguous effect on the macro-economy of the recipient country. To the extent that aid raises consumer expenditure, there will be some real exchange rate appreciation and a shift of resources away from traded goods production and into non-traded goods production. However, aid for investment in the traded goods sector can mitigate this effect. Also, a relatively high level of productivity in the non-traded goods sector combined with a high level of investment will tend to depreciate the real exchange rate. We examine aid inflows in 26 Sub-Saharan African countries, and find a variety of macro-economic responses. Some of the variation in the responses can be explained by variation in observable country characteristics; this has implications for donor policy.

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  • New Zealand: The Last Bastion of Textbook Open-economy Macroeconomics

    Fielding, David (2011-06-01)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    Recent empirical research into the macroeconomic effects of fiscal policy shocks has generated a ‘puzzle’. Both Keynesian and Real Business Cycle models predict that a fiscal expansion will lead to a real exchange rate appreciation. However, in almost all the countries that have been studied, positive shocks to government spending cause the real exchange rate to depreciate. Recent theoretical work suggests that this unexpected result might reflect incomplete international financial market integration. The country where the incomplete markets assumption is least plausible is New Zealand, because of its integration into the Australian financial system. We show that in New Zealand there is no puzzle, and the standard textbook result still holds. Our counterfactual results are consistent with the argument that the puzzle is to be explained by an absence of complete international financial market integration in most parts of the world.

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  • Does Aid Work for the Poor?

    McGillivray, Mark; Fielding, David; Torres, Sebastian; Knowles, Stephen (2011-12-01)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    This paper econometrically examines the impact of aid on the well-being of population sub-groups within 48 developing countries. This is a radical departure from previous empirical research of aid effectiveness at the country level, which has looked mainly at the relationship between aid and national aggregates, per capita GDP growth in particular. A specific concern of the paper is the impact of aid on the wealth, education and health of the poorest. Results indicate that while aid improves the well-being of the poorest groups, it is the richer groups that benefit the most.

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  • Comment on Relative Price Variability and Inflation in Reinganum’s Consumer Search Model

    Fielding, David; Hajzler, Chris (2013-03)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    There is now a large empirical literature on the effect of the aggregate inflation rate on (i) the dispersion of prices across goods or locations (relative price variability, or RPV) and (ii) the dispersion of inflation rates across goods or locations (relative inflation variability, or RIV). In the early part of this literature, empirical modelling is explicitly based on theoretical macroeconomic models incorporating signal extraction problems. However, more recent empirical research is less directly connected to theory, and several authors report results that are inconsistent with signal extraction models. In particular, while RIV is increasing in the absolute value of inflation shocks, RPV is a negative monotonic function of inflation shocks. In this paper, we show that such a result is predicted by consumer search models in the style of Reinganum (1979). A proper understanding of the dynamics of price dispersion in 21st century economies will require a renewed interest in the theoretical foundations of empirical models.

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  • How Much Does Women’s Empowerment Influence their Wellbeing? Evidence from Africa

    Fielding, David (2013-04)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    One of the eight Millennium Development Goals is to ‘promote gender equality and empower women.’ However, only 1% of official foreign aid is currently spent on gender equality and human rights. Using individual-level survey data from 39 villages in northern Senegal, we model the effects that freedom within the home have on married women’s subjective wellbeing. We find the direct effects on wellbeing to be of a similar magnitude to the direct effects of consumption, education and morbidity. These results suggest the need for a review of aid allocation priorities.

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  • Mapping Medieval and Modern Chauvinism in England

    Fielding, David (2014-10)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    There is evidence for the long-run persistence of geographical variation in tolerance towards other ethnicities. However, existing studies of tolerance use data from countries with long-standing patterns of ethnic diversity, so it is unclear whether the inter-generational transmission is in attitudes towards specific ethnic groups or in an underlying cultural trait of which such attitudes are just one expression. This paper presents evidence for the latter, identifying geographical variation in the intensity of anti-immigrant sentiment in England that has persisted over eight centuries, spans the arrival and departure of different immigrant groups, and is correlated with authoritarianism.

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  • Ethnic Fractionalization, Governance and Loan Defaults in Africa

    Adrianova, Svetlana; Baltagi, Badi H.; Demetriades, Panicos; Fielding, David (2014-10)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    We present a theoretical model of moral hazard and adverse selection in an imperfectly competitive loans market that is suitable for application to Africa. The model allows for variation in both the level of contract enforcement (depending on the quality of governance) and the degree of market segmentation (depending on the level of ethnic fractionalization). The model predicts a specific form of non-linearity in the effects of these variables on the loan default rate. Empirical analysis using African panel data for 111 individual banks in 29 countries over 2000-2008 provides strong evidence for these predictions. Our results have important implications for the conditions under which policy reform will enhance financial development.

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  • Monopoly Power in the Eighteenth Century British Book Trade

    Fielding, David; Rogers, Shef (2014-12)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    In conventional wisdom, the reform of British copyright law during the eighteenth century brought an end to the monopoly on the sale of books held by the Stationers’ Company, and the resulting competition was one of the driving forces behind the expansion of British book production during the Enlightenment. In this paper, we analyze a new dataset on eighteenth century book prices and author payments, showing that the legal reform brought about only a temporary increase in competition. The data suggest that by the end of the century, informal collusion between publishers had replaced the legal monopoly powers in place at the beginning of the century. The monopoly power of retailers is not so easily undermined.

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  • What causes changes in opinion about the Israeli-Palestinian peace process?

    Fielding, David; Penny, Madeline (2006-03)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    In this paper we present a statistical analysis of the factors that drive monthly variations in the aggregate level of support among Israeli Jews for the Oslo Peace Process. Attitudes depend on both the state of the Israeli economy and the intensity of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict since the onset of the Intifada. Moreover, different dimensions of the conflict have very different effects on Jewish public opinion. In particular, there is substantial heterogeneity in the response of attitudes to conflict events on either side of the Green Line.

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  • Inertia and Herding in Humanitarian Aid Decisions

    Fielding, David (2010-08-01)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    Using panel data for the period 1995-2008, we model the aid allocation decisions of the three largest official donors of humanitarian aid: the United States government, the United Kingdom government and the European Commission. We find evidence that donor decisions depend on both the recipient’s need and the donor’s economic interest, but with marked asymmetries in the relative importance of different factors across the three donors. Moreover, some donors exhibit much more inertia than others in responding to new areas of need, and some are much more influenced by the decisions of other donors. Despite being a relatively small donor, the United Kingdom is particularly influential.

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