19 results for Hunt, Lesley M., Book

  • Kiwifruit casual mapping in 2008 : comparisons to 2005 and to other sectors

    Fairweather, John R.; Hunt, Lesley M.; Rosin, C.; Benge, J.; Campbell, H.

    Book
    Lincoln University

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  • Linking farmer wellbeing and environmentally sustainable land use: a comparison between converting organic and conventional dairy farmers

    Mortlock, B.; Hunt, Lesley M.

    Book
    Lincoln University

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  • High country farming in New Zealand: exploration of the pathways to sustainability revealed through responses to external and internal drivers derived from the ARGOS retrospective interviews

    Hunt, Lesley M.; van den Dungen, S.; Rosin, C.

    Book
    Lincoln University

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  • Recalling management changes in the New Zealand kiwifruit sector as response to external and internal drivers: preliminary analysis of ARGOS retrospective interviews

    van den Dungen, S.; Rosin, C.; Hunt, Lesley M.

    Book
    Lincoln University

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  • Recalling management changes in the New Zealand sheep/beef and wool sectors as response to external and internal drivers: preliminary analysis of ARGOS retrospective interviews

    van den Dungen, S.; Rosin, C.; Hunt, Lesley M.

    Book
    Lincoln University

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  • The ARGOS New Zealand Farm Sustainability Survey

    Guenther, Meike; O'Neill, Patrick; Marquet, Michelle; Hunt, Lesley M.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    The core of the ARGOS research design is a longitudinal panel study of New Zealand farms (including orchards in the case of the kiwifruit sector). The research aims to get a better understanding of farmer perspectives on sustainability to increase knowledge of current farming practices and opinions and assist policy development to improve the New Zealand farming sector and the wider economy.

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  • Public understandings of biotechnology in New Zealand : nature, clean green image and spirituality

    Coyle, Fiona J.; Maslin, Crystal L.; Fairweather, John R.; Hunt, Lesley M.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    This programme was granted funding in response to a demand for additional information on public perceptions of the risks of biotechnology. The Foundaton for Research, Science and Technology identified the need for research into the key socio-economic impacts of biotechnology. More specifically, the Foundation recognized how important it was to identify the relevant factors in determining the public perceptions of technological risk. These factors are associated with the full range of biotechnologies including medical, environmental and food applications. The public perception of technological risk is of critical importance in the future development of biotechnology in New Zealand. Consequently, there is a need for tools to assist in the analysis of perceived technological risk.

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  • The agriculture research group on sustainability programme: a longitudinal and transdisciplinary study of agricultural sustainability in New Zealand

    Campbell, H.; Fairweather, John R.; Manhire, J.; Saunders, Caroline M.; Moller, H.; Reid, J.; Benge, J.; Blackwell, G.; Carey, Peter; Emanuelsson, M.; Greer, Glen; Hunt, Lesley M.; Lucock, D.; Rosin, C.; Norton, D.; MacLeod, C.; Knight, B.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    This report provides an overview of the key design features of the Agriculture Research Group on Sustainability (ARGOS) programme. This ongoing long-term research project started in 2003, involving a group of around 20 social scientists, ecologists, economists, and farm management experts in New Zealand. The overarching mission of ARGOS is to understand the enablers and barriers to the sustainability and resilience of agriculture, so as to enhance New Zealand’s economic, social and environmental wellbeing. To achieve this mission, the ARGOS team has designed and implemented a well-replicated and long-term programme of longitudinal research on more than 100 whole working farms, across different agricultural sectors, comparing a wide range of variables between three different farming systems: conventional, integrated management (IM) and organic. The first funded phase of this research programme has taken a systems and transdisciplinary approach, with an emphasis on statistical rigour and standardisation of methods, structured around the basic null hypothesis that there are no differences between the three farming systems. The primary focus of this approach is to examine the efficacy of alternative quality assurance (QA) schemes in delivering sustainable outcomes. This working paper seeks to inform potential collaborators and other interested parties about the way the ARGOS research programme has been structured, and to describe the rationale for this design. To this end, the report first documents the formation of the ARGOS group and the development of the aims and basic features of the design of the first funded phase of the research programme. The process of selection of agricultural sectors and individual farms within those sectors is described, along with the rationale behind this selection process. We then describe the key objectives of the research programme, and the way these were approached by research teams from different disciplines. The importance of transdisciplinarity is then discussed, providing insight into the associated benefits and pitfalls, and the lessons that were learned in the process of designing and implementing a transdisciplinary research programme. Finally, we discuss a number of issues surrounding the key features of our study design, evaluating their respective benefits and costs, and describe the future research directions suggested by the findings of the first phase of the programme.

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  • Public understandings of biotechnology in New Zealand : factors affecting acceptability rankings of five selected biotechnologies

    Hunt, Lesley M.; Fairweather, John R.; Coyle, Fiona J.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    In a study of public perceptions about biotechnology eleven focus groups were conducted throughout New Zealand. In the course of each focus group the participants were asked to rank for acceptability five different exemplars of biotechnology:a treatment of sheep to reduce their methane emission; a throat lozenge which placed beneficial bacteria in the mouth; a potato that was genetically modified by the addition of a synthetic toad gene to resist potato rot; the use of stem cells from embryos to treat Alzheimer's Disease; and the use of a genetically modified bacterium to break down DDT residue in the soil. This report focuses on the factors that participants considered when making their acceptability ranking decisions.

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  • Why do some of the public reject novel scientific technologies? A synthesis of results from the Fate of Biotechnology research programme

    Fairweather, John R.; Campbell, H.; Hunt, Lesley M.; Cook, Andrew J.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    This report synthesises outputs from a five year programme of research on public perceptions of biotechnology. In interpreting the overall results, a pressure-response-assessment-outcome model is introduced to explain reactions to biotechnology. Biotechnology pressures or challenges peoples' attitudes and values. It invokes deep-seated reactions from people in New Zealand and there are a number of dimensions to these reactions. One is the ethical or moral question about whether the biotechnology is right and proper to use. Closely related are the spiritual issues that biotechnology raises, and while these were not strong with pakeha they were important to South Island Maori who linked these to core cultural concepts of whakapapa and mauri. Also invoked are ideas about nature, which for pakeha were linked directly to concerns about the impact on New Zealand's clean green image. Finally, biotechnology challenges the boundaries between plants and animals and between humans and non humans. These ideas derived from reactions to biotechnology play a vital role in the perceptions and assessments of biotechnology, that is, how people make sense of biotechnology. In making these assessments people believe that they lack information and in its absence they mistrust science. People draw a distinction between themselves and scientists, and they consider the scale of the biotechnology, that is, the breadth of impact it might have. They draw on their own experience, and they have concern for animals. Regulations are not seen as addressing their concerns. One of the most important factors in assessing biotechnology is national and personal identity or sense of place. People use all these factors to make sense of biotechnology. Each biotechnology is then assessed to judge its acceptability, to consider risks and to assess who benefits from it. In making sense of biotechnology, people are sceptical of the benefits, and they couch assessments in provisos. Typically, they do not see any personal benefits to them, and they see that it is mainly as a consumer that they can influence biotechnology development. In making their assessments of biotechnology, New Zealanders, on balance, have concerns about GM and give more support to the beliefs that GM is wrong than they do to the beliefs that biotechnology can fix problems or that it can benefit society. Nature is seen potentially as biting back and catching us out for making mistakes. They see risks from using biotechnology, and many cleave to post materialist values (e.g., society where people count more than money) which were not compatible with biotechnology. The outcome of this assessment was, in general, a low acceptance of new biotechnology. They were negative about GM technology and GM food in particular. Surveying over time showed little change in assessment. Some biotechnologies were preferred over others and some groups of people were more accepting of biotechnology than others.

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  • Social objective synthesis report 2: social differentiation and choice of management system among ARGOS Farmers/Orchardists

    Rosin, C.; Hunt, Lesley M.; Fairweather, John R.; Campbell, H.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    The ARGOS (Agriculture Research Group on Sustainability) project was designed to enable the interrogation of the condition of sustainability in the New Zealand agriculture sector. To account for the country’s reliance on a neoliberal (or market driven) policy orientation, the research programme compares groups of producers organised into panels whose members comply with similar audit schemes that regulate entrance into high value export markets. Because these audit schemes often include criteria or standards associated with improved environmental or social practice, comparison of the panels on the basis of economic, environmental and social measures and indicators provides insight to the potential for such schemes to promote a more sustainable agriculture sector in New Zealand. To the extent that such schemes do influence practice, we would expect to differentiate among the panels in reference to such criteria. As part of the overall ARGOS analysis, this report provides a synthesis of the social research conducted within the project and contributes to the examination of the ARGOS null hypothesis, namely that there is no significant difference in the economic, environmental and social dimensions and characteristics of the participating farms and orchards. The report’s main objectives are to assess both the extent to which it is possible to differentiate among the management system panels of ARGOS farms/orchards and how such difference is manifest in the social dimensions of farm life. To the extent that this analysis provides evidence to reject the null hypothesis, it is possible to inform understandings of agricultural sustainability as well as provide insight to the potential pathways to improving this condition.

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  • New Zealand public acceptance of biotechnology

    Cook, Andrew J.; Fairweather, John R.; Satterfield, T.; Hunt, Lesley M.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    The overall aim of the research reported here was to determine and understand public perceptions of biotechnology in New Zealand. The research involves determining and understanding both perceptions of biotechnology generally as well as the perceptions of a number of specific key biotechnology applications. A questionnaire was designed which included items from risk perception research and items developed from focus group research. This research report is one of several produced by AERU focusing on public perceptions of biotechnology.

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  • Understanding approaches to kiwifruit production in New Zealand: report on first qualitative interviews of ARGOS kiwifruit participants

    Hunt, Lesley M.; Rosin, C.; McLeod, C.; Read, Marion; Fairweather, John R.; Campbell, H.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    Kiwifruit growers (or orchardists) comprise a diverse group of individuals with a variety of perspectives on and approaches to sustainable production. This diversity is the product of a broad range of social, cultural, economic, and ecological influences and experiences. It is also possible, however, for commonalities to emerge among the orchardists based on their (possibly) shared experiences with similar social and environmental contexts in New Zealand's kiwifruit industry. One of the goals of the ARGOS programme is to determine if the adoption of a particular management system (in this case the different panels – KiwiGreen Hayward, KiwiGreen Hort 16A, or Organic Hayward) is influenced to any degree by the social characteristics of orchardists. Towards this end, a suite of social methods or approaches (including semi-structured interviews, quantitative surveys, participant observation, and interactive activities) have been proposed as means to study the social lives of participants and to draw out any relations between these and management practices – especially those that impact on sustainability. This report documents the first in a series of qualitative interviews with participants in the kiwifruit sector of the ARGOS programme.

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  • Understanding approaches to sheep / beef production in New Zealand: report on first qualitative interviews of ARGOS sheep / beef participants

    Hunt, Lesley M.; Rosin, C.; Read, Marion; Fairweather, John R.; Campbell, H.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    Sheep/beef farmers comprise a diverse group of individuals with a variety of perspectives on and approaches to sustainable production. This diversity is the product of a broad range of social, cultural, economic, and ecological influences and experiences. It is also possible, however, for commonalities to emerge among the farmers based on their (possibly) shared experiences with similar social and environmental contexts in New Zealand's pastoral agriculture industry. One of the goals of the ARGOS programme is to determine if the adoption of a particular management system (in this case the different panels – Organic, Integrated or Conventional) is influenced to any degree by the social characteristics of farmers. Towards this end, a suite of social methods or approaches (including semistructured interviews, quantitative surveys, participant observation, and interactive activities) have been proposed as means to study the social lives of participants and to draw out any relations between these and management practices – especially those that impact on sustainability. This report documents the first in a series of qualitative interviews with participants in the sheep/beef sector of the ARGOS programme.

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  • Sketch maps: features and issues important for the management of ARGOS orchards and farms

    Read, Marion; Hunt, Lesley M.; Fairweather, John R.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    The primary objective of this research was to analyse sketch maps completed by ARGOS kiwifruit orchardists and sheep/beef farmers to find out what was important to their management of their properties, and compare production systems and sectors. The analysis was exploratory with no firm ideas about what the maps might show. The purpose of the sketch maps in the interview was to provide an avenue for orchardists and farmers to tell us by drawing a sketch map of their property, about what they saw as important to their management of that property, as an introduction and a supplement to the remainder of the interview.

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  • Causal mapping of ARGOS high country farms and comparisons to sheep/beef and dairy farms

    Fairweather, John R.; Hunt, Lesley M.; Lucock, D.; Rosin, C.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    The Agriculture Research Group On Sustainability (ARGOS) is investigating the social, environmental and economic consequences of different management systems in different farming sectors in New Zealand (for more information visit www.argos.org.nz). The sectors being studied include kiwifruit, sheep/beef and dairy, and the systems being studied include conventional, integrated and organic management. Twelve farms under each system are being studied. As part of the ARGOS social objective, causal mapping was used to document how the participating dairy farmers described and explained the factors involved in their farming systems, broadly defined to include economic, social and environmental factors. Participants identified which factors in the 41 provided were important to the management and performance of their farms and linked these together in the form of a map.

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  • Social objective synthesis report: differentiation among participants farmers/orchardists in the ARGOS research programme

    Rosin, C.; Hunt, Lesley M.; Fairweather, John R.; Campbell, H.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    The main objectives of this report are to assess the extent to which it is possible to differentiate among the management system panels of ARGOS farms/orchards and to assess how such difference is manifest in the social dimensions of farm life. The report is framed by a brief outline of the social dynamics of agricultural sustainability and the emerging significance of market audit systems as a key structuring feature of contemporary attempts to achieve more sustainable production systems. The findings are presented separately for the kiwifruit and sheep/beef sector. The report concludes with recommendations for transdisciplinary engagement among the ARGOS objectives. Overall the current set of ARGOS social data for the kiwifruit sector suggests that, while there is great similarity among the panels, the Organic panel demonstrates the greatest number of distinctive characteristics. The assessment of difference among kiwifruit panels reflects survey results (six variables with statistically significant differences between the Organic and the other panels), qualitative data (more obviously distinctive characteristics attributed to the Organic panel) and causal map analysis (Organic orchardists listed a greater number of factors). The other surveyed data and the sketch maps do not show many panel differences. These kiwifruit results provided evidence of a number of key themes for which there was evidence of panel differences, including: breadth of view, good farming, environmental positioning, feedbacks, orchard management approaches, scope of control, and on- and off-farm relationships. While we have found that it is the Organic panel which is most distinctive, we also note that on some variables the Gold orchardists were closer to the Organic panel than the Kiwigreen panel (more double arrows and total connections in causal maps; a greater readiness to assume risk in the interviews). The sheep/beef results show that, once the many similarities among sheep/beef farmers are taken into account, the Organic panel again demonstrated several distinctive characteristics compared to the Conventional and Integrated panels. This assessment similarly reflects survey results (14 variables with statistically significant differences between the Organic and the other panels), qualitative data (distinctive response of Organic panel to several topics of enquiry) and causal map analysis (Organic farmers had a greater number of important factors). In addition, both the sketch map and the causal map data indicated that location explained some of the variation among farmers. The sheep/beef results provided evidence of a number of key themes for which there was evidence of panel differences, including: breadth of view, good farming, environmental positioning, feedbacks, on- and off-farm relationships, production system management and responses to innovation and risk. While we have found that it is the Organic panel which is most distinctive, we also note that on some variables the Integrated farmers were more similar to the Organic than the Conventional ones. Finally, the report interprets the findings in terms of their potential to differentiate the panels on the basis of social dimensions. While the literature shows at least 15 potential bases for social differentiation between panels, our results support 12 of these. Of these there is six (community; grower networks; craft orientation; sense of place; grower stress and wellbeing; identity) for which there evidence for subtle to moderate differentiation while the remaining six (commercial and economic orientation; learning and expertise; symbolic ‘look’ of the farmscape; indicators of on-farm processes; positioning towards nature/environment; farm management approaches) provide a stronger base for differentiation among panels. In its conclusion, the report identifies key indicated themes that have potential for transdisciplinary discussion, including: audit and market access, resilience, and intensification.

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  • New Zealand Farmer Attitude and Opinion Survey 2008 : Management systems and farming sustainability

    Fairweather, John R.; Hunt, Lesley M.; Rosin, C.; Moller, H.; Norton, S.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    The survey results presented in this report are part of ongoing research on New Zealand farmers and how they respond to changes and issues related to the sustainability of primary production. The survey assessed how farmers perceived three management systems (conventional, modified conventional or integrated management, and organic). Questions covered the precise identification of the management system the farmers used, their intentions to use different management systems, what they perceived as the outcomes from the use of each management system and the perceived barriers to using an alternative system. An additional objective was to assess how farmers were thinking about a range of issues important to the sustainability of agriculture, including farm plans, emissions trading, and water and irrigation. A questionnaire was posted to a random sample of full-time and part-time farmers. The response rate was only 16%, possibly due to the timing of the survey and the difficulty of the questions. Most of the questions used a seven point rating scale and the mean score and score distributions were examined. The data were analysed descriptively, supplemented with some statistical tests and detailed analyses.

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  • Resilience in retrospective: analysis of response to shocks and stress in the New Zealand kiwifruit and sheep and beef sectors

    Rosin, Chris; Dwiartama, Angga; Hunt, Lesley M.; van den Dungen, Sanne

    Book
    Lincoln University

    Sustainability forms a key concept within the Agriculture Research Group on Sustainability (ARGOS) project. Since the project was initiated in 2004, however, sustainability has been exposed to increasing scrutiny as an operational concept in the assessment and promotion of improved social and environmental outcomes in agriculture production. This report, thus, involves the further elaboration of two alternative approaches to sustainable practice: resilience theory, a concept given initial application in the work of the ARGOS environmental objective (Maegli et al 2007); and the capitals approach to assessing sustainable practice, which has been addressed by the economic objective (Saunders et al 2010). Here the focus is on the narratives of change told by the farmers and orchardists participating in the project. For the purposes of this report, resilience theory is used to provide means to frame processes of change. In particular, the analysis examines the capacity of the farmers and orchardists to develop successful strategies in response shocks and stress relating to economic, environmental or social events. The expectation is that such events have the potential to disrupt existing patterns and relationships (or the system) of production leading either to the consolidation of management practice along similar lines or the complete reorganization of the system with subsequent impacts on the economic, environmental and social outcomes. In addition, the relationship between the capitals approach to sustainability and resilience perspectives provides a vehicle for examining the role that the economic, environmental and social context plays in enabling or constraining the capacity to respond to shock.

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